[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat cytosolic sialidase is expressed at elevated levels in skeletal muscle and is believed to play a role in the myogenic differentiation of muscle cells. Here, we observed varying levels of enhancement of sialidase activity in the presence a range of divalent cations. In particular, a significant enhancement of activity was observed in the presence of Ca2+. Conversely, inhibition of the sialidase activity was found when the enzyme was incubated in the presence of Cu2+, EDTA, and a range of carbohydrate-based inhibitors. Finally, an investigation of the enzymatic hydrolysis of a synthetic substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-neuraminide, by 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that the reaction catalysed by rat skeletal muscle cytosolic sialidase proceeds with overall retention of anomeric configuration. This result further supports the notion that all sialidases appear to be retaining enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomerase activation is regulated by the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and is a key step in the development of human cancers. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling induces growth arrest in many tumors through multiple regulatory mechanisms. The p27 tumor suppressor protein inhibits the formation of tumors through the induction of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. We demonstrate here that p27Kip1 inhibits hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity through post-transcriptional up-regulation by IFN-γ/IRF-1 signaling. The ectopic expression of p27 suppressed hTERT expression and telomerase activity in human cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and HT3. Furthermore, hTERT promoter activity of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in p27 (p27−/− MEFs) was significantly higher than that of wild-type MEFs. Overexpression of p27 suppressed hTERT promoter activity and telomerase activity of p27−/− MEFs. In addition p27 down-regulated E7 protein expression and in transiently transfected HeLa cells, E7 increased hTERT promoter activity. In conclusion, we propose that inhibition of the hTERT expression and telomerase activity may be a novel tumor suppressor function of p27. Yes Yes