[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10)/CXCL10, which is a ligand for CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. However, the roles of monokine induced by interferon gamma (Mig)/CXCL9 and interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/CXCL11, which are also CXCR3 ligands, remain unclear. Mig/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of these chemokines in alveolar macrophages was examined using ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. In BALF, Mig/CXCL9 and IP-10/CXCL10 were significantly elevated in stage II sarcoidosis as compared with the levels in healthy volunteers. In serum, Mig/CXCL9 and I-TAC/CXCL11 were increased in stage II of the disease. The levels of all CXCR3 ligands in BALF were correlated with the numbers of both total and CD4(+) lymphocytes. Alveolar macrophages were stained positive for all CXCR3 ligands and produced increased amounts of these chemokines. Positive staining of the three chemokines was also observed in the epithelioid and giant cells in the sarcoid lungs. These findings suggest that Mig/CXCL9 and I-TAC/CXCL11 as well as IP-10/CXCL10 play important roles in the accumulation of Th1 lymphocytes in sarcoid lungs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) and thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) are ligands for CC chemokine receptor 4. Recently, TARC has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia (IEP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MDC in IEP and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). MDC and TARC in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with ILDs and healthy volunteers (HV). We also examined the expression of MDC mRNA in alveolar macrophages (AM) by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Both MDC and TARC were detected only in BALF obtained from IEP patients. The concentration of MDC was higher than that of TARC in all cases. The level of MDC in IEP correlated with that of TARC. AM from IEP patients expressed a significantly higher amount of MDC than that from HV at the levels of protein and mRNA. MDC in BALF from IEP dramatically decreased when patients achieved remission. These findings suggest that MDC, in addition to TARC, might be involved in the pathogenesis of IEP, and AM play a role in the elevation of MDC in IEP.
The Journal of Medical Investigation 03/2005; 52(1-2):85-92.