S Vairamuthu

Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India

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Publications (37)12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Light and electron microscopic studies on caecal tonsil were done in layer chicken of various age groups ranging from day-old to forty weeks. The caecal tonsil revealed two types of lymphoid aggregations (germinal centre). The first type had an incomplete capsule and the second type was found encapsulated with connective tissue. The capsule of the germinal centre consisted of many layers of flattened reticular cells separated with an intercellular substance. The germinal centre consisted of lymphoblasts, lymphocytes of various sizes, reticular cells, plasma cells, mast cells and macrophages. In forty week-old birds, the lymphocytic population was observed to be comparatively reduced and more number of fibroblasts and collagen fibres were noticed. The caecal tonsil also had M cells with short and irregular microvillus.
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    ABSTRACT: Trypanosomiasis (Surra) is an important protozoan disease caused by Trypanosoma sp. It is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. It is insect borne and their epidemiology is determined by the ecology of insect vector. The course of Trypanosomiasisinfection in a Asiatic wild dogs was followed from incidence to convalescence, the hematological and biochemical findings were studied. Infected animal showed some alteration in serum biochemistry including hypoglycemia with progressive decrease in red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration, leading to anemia which persisted. Leucopenia and neutropenia were also observed during the course of the infection. The affected wild dog developed hyperproteinemia and a decrease in the albumin:globulin ratio was observed. Aspartate aminotransferase and alamine aminotransferase levels increased significantly. The present study was to evaluate the hematological and biochemical alterations in a Wild dog infected with Trypanosoma sp.
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    ABSTRACT: Asiatic Elephants are the largest terrestrial mammals in India. They require large amount of space and water and hence, most of the elephants are confined to large forest cover. Mostly the elephant habitats are coming under four regions, Northern, North – eastern, Central and Southern India, in general. The wild elephant populations of Southern India have been well studied and judged, than those in other parts of the country. The highest populations are seen in Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and more recently in Andhra Pradesh. It is a known fact that captive elephants may have increased probabilities for acquiring various pathogens due to varied management related measures, in addition to the existing variations in the feeding practices and habitat-related condition. There is paucity in the data on the hematological profile of the asian elephant, hence this study will be useful in estimating the hematological quotients that are essential indicators to therapeutic applications. Further packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and blood cell counts will serve as prognostic indicators that will guide clinicians to potentiate the therapeutic procedure.
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    ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma is an extra erythrocytic hemoprotozoan parasite, transmitted by biting flies and infected meat, causing fever, corneal opacity, anaemia. A male captive wild dog of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur aged 3 years had a complaint of anorexia, lethargy, edema of forehead, staggering gait and reduced activity levels in its enclosure. Wet film revealed the presence of numerous motile Trypanosoma sp. Haematological parameters showed anaemia and mild neutrophila. Serum biochemistry was found to be altered. The treatment done was administration of Triquin to the ailing animal. The wild dog was housed in the in-patient ward for continuous monitoring. No Trypanosomes could be detected in the wet film and stained smears taken subsequently. After a week, the wild dog was shifted to its enclosure and is doing well.
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    ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to estimate the occurrence of canine fungal dermatitis caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens. A total of 264 skin scrapings and hair plucks from dogs with the history of recurrent skin problems were collected for the period of twelve months. Samples were collected from different dog breeds including non descriptive animals and of various age groups. Samples were screened for the identification of various etilologic agents associated with the skin infestation like for mites, bacteria, fungi., Out of them 52 (19.69%) samples were positive for fungal etiology. Among these, Curvularia spp an opportunistic fungi was isolated either alone or as a combined infection with other opportunistic fungi in 16 cases (30.77%) of recurrent dermatitis.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to study the vitreous humor between-eye differences and baseline values of potassium, sodium, calcium and glucose immediately after death in dogs. Eight canine carcasses brought for necropsy formed the material for collection of vitreous humor in the present study. The information regarding time of death was gathered from dog owners, clinicians and clinical records. Eyes were enucleated as soon as possible after receiving carcass for postmortem. Sampling of vitreous humor was done using 16 gauge needle and 20 mL syringe. The needle was inserted at the lateral angle of eyeball so that the tip of needle was placed at the center of the eyeball. About 50 µL vitreous humor was gently aspirated from each eye and transferred to eppendorf tubes. Sampling of vitreous humor was done within 1-4 hours after death. The aspirated vitreous humour samples were centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 15 min at 50C temperature and the supernatant was used for analysis. The average vitreous humour concentrations of potassium, sodium, calcium and glucose estimated within 1-4 hours after death were 8.18±0.31 mEq/L, 152.55±4.46 mEq/L, 9.52 ±0.20 mg/dL and 21.70±4.50 mg/dL respectively. The results of this study indicated that there were no significant between-eye differences for all of the vitreous biochemical constituents that were studied in present study (estimated within 1-4 hours after death).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the case report on Mycoplasma infection in cat and its timely diagnosis by blood smear examination and haematology. It also discusses the treatment and response of the cat for the disease. Haemobartonellosis in cats is caused by Mycoplasma haemofelis, formerly known as Haemobartonella felis. An eight months old Persian cat was received in the Small Animal Clinics, Out Patient Ward, Medicine department, Madras Veterinary College with the history to suspect for feline Mycoplasmosis. Peripheral blood smear and whole blood sample was collected and subjected to blood smear examination and whole blood for routine haematological study. It revealed codocytosis, anisocytosis and hypochromasia. Few ghost cells also were seen. Nearly 80–85% of the RBCs revealed darkly stained small organism at the rim or periphery of the cells.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to find out the correlation between increasing postmortem interval (PMI) and levels of various vitreous biochemical parameters. The vitreous humour samples were collected immediately after death from eight canine carcasses brought for necropsy. Eyes were enucleated as soon as possible after receiving carcass for postmortem. Randomly one eye, either left or right was maintained at ambient room temperature while another at refrigeration temperature (4-50C). Sampling of vitreous humour was done at 1-4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours after death. In the present study, vitreous sodium concentration did not show any significant difference between the PMI in the eyes maintained at both temperatures. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the vitreous concentration of glucose was observed at 12 and 24 h as compared to the initial concentration at 1-4 h in the eyes maintained at normal ambient temperature while in the case of eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature no significant difference was observed between all PMI. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the vitreous calcium concentration was observed at 48 and 60 h as compared to the initial concentration (1-4 h) at both temperatures while in the case of eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed at 48, 60 and 72 h as compared to the initial concentration at 1-4 h. The vitreous calcium concentration showed significant (P<0.05) negative correlation (up to 72 h) with PMI at both temperatures while vitreous sodium and glucose concentration showed no significant correlation with PMI at both temperatures. The present study revealed that there was a linear decrease in the vitreous calcium level after death which can be used to estimate the time of death in dogs adjunct with other routinely used methods while sodium and glucose fluctuated inconsistently with no apparent relation to the time or temperature.
    The Indian veterinary journal 07/2014; 91(07):33-37. · 0.06 Impact Factor
  • Veterinary World 06/2014; 7(6):389-394. DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2014.389-394
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    ABSTRACT: A significant (P<0.05) increase in the vitreous potassium concentration was observed in dog (n=8) at postmortem intervals 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours as compared to the initial concentration (1-4 hours) at both temperatures. The potassium level at postmortem interval 36 hours showed significant (P<0.05) increase as compared to concentration at 12 hours in the eyes maintained at both temperatures. A significant positive correlation was found between the postmortem interval (up to 72 hours) and vitreous potassium concentration for eyes maintained at both temperatures. At all post mortem intervals, the eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature showed slow or lowered increase than the eyes maintained at normal ambient temperature. The present study revealed that there was a linear rise in the vitreous potassium level after death which could be used to estimate time of death in dogs.
    The Indian veterinary journal 01/2014; 91(01):48-49. · 0.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 62 Elephants are fascinatingly interlaced with the culture, tradition and mythology in India which is blessed with more than 50 % of the world's Asian elephant population in the wild (Cheeran and Chandrasekaran, 2006). Scientists working with elephants reported that foot problems constitute single most important ailment of captive elephants (Fowler, 2006) and more than 50% of captive elephants suffer from some form of foot ailment in their life time (Arora, 2003). There is no systematic study on the foot ailments of captive elephants in India and hence a pilot study was conducted on captive Asian elephants maintained by state forest department of Tamilnadu at Mudumalai tiger reserve, Anamalai tiger reserve and Arignar Anna Zoological park, Chennai for a period of two years from 2008 to 2010 to identify the bacterial etiology of various foot lesions and their antibiotic susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHOD Out of 49 elephants examined, 11 elephants (22.4%) belonging to Arignar anna zoological park, Chennai (3), Mudumalai tiger reserve (4) and Anaimalai tiger reserve (4) showed various foot lesions such as foot rot, podo-dermatitis, foot pad and sole abscess, cuticular abscess, split nail and nail damage. Thirty six (36) samples collected from various foot lesions using sterile swabs in Amies transport medium with charcoal (Himedia, India) were transported to the laboratory and processed within 24 hours. The samples were plated on Brain Heart infusion agar, Edwards medium, MacConkey agar, Cetrimide agar, Blood agar and Brilliant Green agar and incubated for 24 to 48 hrs. For isolation of Salmonella sp the samples were inoculated in Selenite broth for 48 hours at 37°C followed by streaking on Brilliant green agar. For isolation of
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    ABSTRACT: With the changing global scenario there is effect not only on the human survival but also on the prevalence of existing pathogens and appearance of new infectious agents among animal population. This paper emphasises the need for prevalence studies. A retrospective study for 6 years on prevalence of hemoprotozoans in dogs in Chennai showed Babesia gibsoni the predominant parasite of dogs. Details are discussed in this paper.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 12/2012; 38(2). DOI:10.1007/s12639-012-0219-8
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    ABSTRACT: Flow cytometric analysis of CD4 and CD8 T cells of spleen was done in layer chicken of various age groups ranging from day-old to forty weeks. The mean CD4 and CD8 population was found to be the highest at day one and lowest at twenty weeks of age. However, an increase in both the T cell population was detected at forty weeks. Among the two cell types studied, CD8 cells were always higher than the CD4 cells with significant difference (P<0.05) at day one. A distinct difference was observed in the ratio of CD4 and CD8 cells in the spleen at different age.
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 4190 blood smears were collected between January and December 2007 from dogs exhibiting clinical signs of haemoprotozoan infections. On blood smear examination 485 blood smears were found to be positive for various haemoprotozoa and rickettsia. Among the positive cases , the majority of haemoprotozoans identified were Babesia gibsoni 84.9%, followed by Ehrlichia canis 6 %, Hepatazoan canis 4.8%, Babesia canis 3.9% and Trypanasoma evansi 0.4%. The high prevalence of haemoprotozoan infection was observed during monsoon season. However B.gibsoni was at a higher prevalence during summer and winter. The highest infection was in adults 63.1% but evenly distributed amongst all breeds of dogs. No significant difference was recorded amongst sex .
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course events of cellular damage during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats and to find out a correlation between the structural alterations with respect to the biochemical changes. Cardiac biomarkers and lysosomal enzymes viz. cathepsin D, acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were evaluated at different time points, in response to ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative stress in an isolated rat heart model perfused in Langendorff mode. Microscopically, changes in myocardial architecture, myofibrillar degradation, and collagen (COL) integrity were studied using hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and toluidine blue staining techniques. A three-fold increase in the level of myoglobin was observed after 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion as compared to 15 min ischemia, 120 min reperfusion. Similarly, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide anion coupled with a decrease in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels were observed. A concomitant increase in the activity of cathepsin D (24.07+/-0.95) and a higher expression of MMPs after 120 min of reperfusion following 30 min ischemia were shown to correlate with the myocardial damage as shown by histopathology, suggesting that free radical induced activation of cathepsin D and MMPs could mediate early damage during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 05/2008; 312(1-2):81-91. DOI:10.1007/s11010-008-9723-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thiram a fungicide used for treating corn and storing food grains were incorporated at 15, 30 and 60 ppm into the toxin free diet of broiler chicken for four weeks from the day of hatch. The clinical signs of tibial dyschondroplasia like reduced weight gain, lameness, abnormal bending of the tibial bones, enlarged hock joints and sternal recumbency were observed. The birds were sacrificed at the end of second and fourth week. Blood samples were collected for estimation of hematological parameters and sera separated for biochemical analysis. The packed cell volume and hemoglobin values were unaltered. Serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase were unaltered. Hypercholesterolemia was observed in all the thiram fed birds and hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia in the 60 ppm thiram fed birds.
    International Journal of Poultry Science 04/2007; DOI:10.3923/ijps.2007.242.244