S Vairamuthu

Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India

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Publications (26)11.87 Total impact

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    Zoosprint. 09/2014; 29(9):19.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to study the vitreous humor between-eye differences and baseline values of potassium, sodium, calcium and glucose immediately after death in dogs. Eight canine carcasses brought for necropsy formed the material for collection of vitreous humor in the present study. The information regarding time of death was gathered from dog owners, clinicians and clinical records. Eyes were enucleated as soon as possible after receiving carcass for postmortem. Sampling of vitreous humor was done using 16 gauge needle and 20 mL syringe. The needle was inserted at the lateral angle of eyeball so that the tip of needle was placed at the center of the eyeball. About 50 µL vitreous humor was gently aspirated from each eye and transferred to eppendorf tubes. Sampling of vitreous humor was done within 1-4 hours after death. The aspirated vitreous humour samples were centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 15 min at 50C temperature and the supernatant was used for analysis. The average vitreous humour concentrations of potassium, sodium, calcium and glucose estimated within 1-4 hours after death were 8.18±0.31 mEq/L, 152.55±4.46 mEq/L, 9.52 ±0.20 mg/dL and 21.70±4.50 mg/dL respectively. The results of this study indicated that there were no significant between-eye differences for all of the vitreous biochemical constituents that were studied in present study (estimated within 1-4 hours after death).
    INDIAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES RESEARCH. 09/2014; 43(5):372-375.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to find out the correlation between increasing postmortem interval (PMI) and levels of various vitreous biochemical parameters. The vitreous humour samples were collected immediately after death from eight canine carcasses brought for necropsy. Eyes were enucleated as soon as possible after receiving carcass for postmortem. Randomly one eye, either left or right was maintained at ambient room temperature while another at refrigeration temperature (4-50C). Sampling of vitreous humour was done at 1-4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours after death. In the present study, vitreous sodium concentration did not show any significant difference between the PMI in the eyes maintained at both temperatures. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the vitreous concentration of glucose was observed at 12 and 24 h as compared to the initial concentration at 1-4 h in the eyes maintained at normal ambient temperature while in the case of eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature no significant difference was observed between all PMI. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the vitreous calcium concentration was observed at 48 and 60 h as compared to the initial concentration (1-4 h) at both temperatures while in the case of eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed at 48, 60 and 72 h as compared to the initial concentration at 1-4 h. The vitreous calcium concentration showed significant (P<0.05) negative correlation (up to 72 h) with PMI at both temperatures while vitreous sodium and glucose concentration showed no significant correlation with PMI at both temperatures. The present study revealed that there was a linear decrease in the vitreous calcium level after death which can be used to estimate the time of death in dogs adjunct with other routinely used methods while sodium and glucose fluctuated inconsistently with no apparent relation to the time or temperature.
    The Indian veterinary journal 07/2014; 91(07):33-37. · 0.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A significant (P<0.05) increase in the vitreous potassium concentration was observed in dog (n=8) at postmortem intervals 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours as compared to the initial concentration (1-4 hours) at both temperatures. The potassium level at postmortem interval 36 hours showed significant (P<0.05) increase as compared to concentration at 12 hours in the eyes maintained at both temperatures. A significant positive correlation was found between the postmortem interval (up to 72 hours) and vitreous potassium concentration for eyes maintained at both temperatures. At all post mortem intervals, the eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature showed slow or lowered increase than the eyes maintained at normal ambient temperature. The present study revealed that there was a linear rise in the vitreous potassium level after death which could be used to estimate time of death in dogs.
    The Indian veterinary journal 01/2014; 91(01):48-49. · 0.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the changing global scenario there is effect not only on the human survival but also on the prevalence of existing pathogens and appearance of new infectious agents among animal population. This paper emphasises the need for prevalence studies. A retrospective study for 6 years on prevalence of hemoprotozoans in dogs in Chennai showed Babesia gibsoni the predominant parasite of dogs. Details are discussed in this paper.
    Journal of parasitic diseases 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 4190 blood smears were collected between January and December 2007 from dogs exhibiting clinical signs of haemoprotozoan infections. On blood smear examination 485 blood smears were found to be positive for various haemoprotozoa and rickettsia. Among the positive cases , the majority of haemoprotozoans identified were Babesia gibsoni 84.9%, followed by Ehrlichia canis 6 %, Hepatazoan canis 4.8%, Babesia canis 3.9% and Trypanasoma evansi 0.4%. The high prevalence of haemoprotozoan infection was observed during monsoon season. However B.gibsoni was at a higher prevalence during summer and winter. The highest infection was in adults 63.1% but evenly distributed amongst all breeds of dogs. No significant difference was recorded amongst sex .
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course events of cellular damage during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats and to find out a correlation between the structural alterations with respect to the biochemical changes. Cardiac biomarkers and lysosomal enzymes viz. cathepsin D, acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were evaluated at different time points, in response to ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative stress in an isolated rat heart model perfused in Langendorff mode. Microscopically, changes in myocardial architecture, myofibrillar degradation, and collagen (COL) integrity were studied using hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and toluidine blue staining techniques. A three-fold increase in the level of myoglobin was observed after 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion as compared to 15 min ischemia, 120 min reperfusion. Similarly, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide anion coupled with a decrease in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels were observed. A concomitant increase in the activity of cathepsin D (24.07+/-0.95) and a higher expression of MMPs after 120 min of reperfusion following 30 min ischemia were shown to correlate with the myocardial damage as shown by histopathology, suggesting that free radical induced activation of cathepsin D and MMPs could mediate early damage during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 05/2008; 312(1-2):81-91. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thiram a fungicide used for treating corn and storing food grains were incorporated at 15, 30 and 60 ppm into the toxin free diet of broiler chicken for four weeks from the day of hatch. The clinical signs of tibial dyschondroplasia like reduced weight gain, lameness, abnormal bending of the tibial bones, enlarged hock joints and sternal recumbency were observed. The birds were sacrificed at the end of second and fourth week. Blood samples were collected for estimation of hematological parameters and sera separated for biochemical analysis. The packed cell volume and hemoglobin values were unaltered. Serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase were unaltered. Hypercholesterolemia was observed in all the thiram fed birds and hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia in the 60 ppm thiram fed birds.
    International Journal of Poultry Science. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Thiram a fungicide used for treating corn and storing food grains were incorporated at 15, 30 and 60 ppm into the toxin free diet of broiler chicken for four weeks from the day of hatch. Body weights (g) were recorded at weekly intervals. Average weekly feed consumption (g) and conversion were arrived at. The results showed that feeding thiram caused dose and time related severe depression in the body weight gain. Significant reduction in weight gain was observed from the first week in 60 ppm level and from second week in 30 ppm level. By fourth week all the thiram fed birds showed significant reduction in the weight gain.
    International Journal of Poultry Science. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-eight, newly hatched, unsexed broiler chicks were fed diets containing 45 ppm chlorpyriphos, an organophosphorus compound and 0.5 ppm T-2, a mycotoxin, singly and in combination for 28 days from day of hatch to study of pathological effects. Gross, pale, enlarged liver, distended gall bladder and streaks of haemorrhages in the thigh muscles were observed in the chlorpyriphos group, while the chlorpyriphos+T-2 group showed pale and enlarged liver. Histopathological changes observed in the toxin-fed birds during 14th and 28th days of the trial were as follows: liver revealed periportal fibrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct hyperplasia in all the toxin-fed birds. Kidney showed tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis in chlorpyriphos and chlorpyriphos+T-2-fed birds. Hearts of all toxin treated birds showed vacuolar degeneration of myocytes. The chlorpyriphos+T-2-fed birds showed necrosis of oral mucosa with infiltration of heterophils predominantly, along with mononuclear cells. Crop mucosa showed epithelial hyperplasia and keratinisation in all treatment groups. Proventriculus showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells, glandular necrosis and infiltration of mononuclear cells in chlorpyriphos and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups. The T-2 group showed epithelial necrosis, crypt elongation, diphtheritic membrane formation and mononuclear cell infiltration in lamina propria. Gizzard showed glandular interstitial fibrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells in chlorpyriphos, while T-2 groups and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups showed interstitial glandular fibrosis and hyperplastic reaction. Intestine showed fusion of villi, necrosis, goblet cell hyperplasia and infiltration of mononuclear cells in lamina propria in all toxin-fed birds. Mononuclear cell infiltration, reduced zymogen granules and vacuolar degeneration in chlorpyriphos and chlorpyriphos+T-2 fed birds; mononuclear cell infiltration in T-2 fed birds was observed in pancreas. The chlorpyriphos group alone showed mononuclear cell infiltration in the meninges of brain. The study indicated the pathological effects of these toxins, either alone or in combination, in various organs of broiler chicken at low dose levels.
    Veterinary Archives (veterinarski.arhiv@vef.hr); Vol.77 No.1. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Thiram a fungicide used for treating corn and for storing food grains were incorporated at 15, 30 and 60 ppm into the toxin free diet of broiler chicken for four weeks from the day of hatch. The clinical signs were reduced weight gain, lameness, abnormal bending of the tibial bones, enlarged hock joints and sternal recumbency. Grossly tibial dyschondroplasia was seen as a white opaque unmineralized cartilage plug in the tibiotarsus. Histopathologically, tibiotarsus revealed thinning of the growth plate, irregular arrangement of the proliferating layer, abnormal thickening of the transitional layer and thickened hypertrophic layer in the thiram fed groups. Changes were also seen in the liver, bile duct, kidney, heart, crop, gizzard, intestine, lymphoid organs including bursa, spleen and caecal tonsils and brain. There was no mortality at any levels of thiram tested. Results of the present study thus revealed that thiram at a level of even 15 ppm affected the health and performance of broiler chicken.
    International Journal of Poultry Science. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: An investigation was undertaken to study the body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in broiler chicken fed with thiram a fungicide used for treating corn and storing food grains. Forty eight birds were randomly distributed into four groups of twelve each and thiram was incorporated at 15, 30 and 60 ppm into the toxin free diet for four weeks from the day of hatch. Blood samples were collected, sera separated and HI titres were measured in the control and treated sera. Birds were sacrificed at the end of second and fourth week for detailed examination of lymphoid organs. There was a significant reduction in the antibody titre in the thiram fed birds. Lymphocyte proliferation assay conducted from the lymphocytes prepared from the spleen showed significant reduction in the stimulation index. Histopathology of the lymphoid organs including bursa, spleen thymus and caecal tonsils showed lymphoid depletion to lymphocytolysis.
    International Journal of Poultry Science. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-eight, newly hatched, unsexed broiler chicks were fed diets containing 45 mg/kg chlorpyriphos, an organophosphorus compound and 0.5 mg/kg T-2, a mycotoxin singly and in combination for 28 days from day of hatch to study the pathology of lymphoid organs. A system for scoring microscopic lesions was developed in bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsil and spleen. Lesion scores for bursa ranged from 0 for normal, 2 for chlorpyriphos toxicosis and 4 for T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 fed birds on 14th and 28th day of study. Less severe lesions occurred in caecal tonsils with score 1 in all the toxin fed birds. The lesion score for spleen ranged from 0 for normal to 3 for severely affected spleen in combined toxin fed birds on 14th and 28th day of trial. In T-2 fed group, thymus showed mild medullary lymphocytolysis on 14th day of trial. Harderian gland of all the toxin fed birds showed depletion of plasma cells and necrosis of the gland on 14th and 28th day of age. This lesion scoring system was useful in determining the severity of these two toxins singly and in combination on lymphoid organs in different age group of broilers. The present study revealed the individual and combined toxic effects of these toxins on the lymphoid organs and affecting the health status in broiler chicken.
    International Journal of Poultry Science 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The present work was undertaken to study the haematobiochemical changes in chlorpyriphos and T-2 toxin fed broiler chicken. Known amounts of chlorpyriphos and T-2 toxin containing powdered wheat substrates were incorporated into the toxin free broiler starter mash, singly and in combination to yield 45 ppm chlorpyriphos and 0.5 ppm T-2 toxin. Forty eight day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into four groups of 12 each i.e., control, chlorpyriphos, T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups and fed with toxin mixed diets from 0 to 4 weeks of age and studied various haematobiochemical parameters on 14th and 28th day of age. PCV and Hb levels decreased significantly (P< 0.01) in toxin fed birds indicating anaemia. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly (P< 0.01) in T-2 fed group. Serum glucose and cholesterol values decreased significantly (P< 0.01) in chlorpyriphos group. AST, ALT and ALP values increased significantly (P< 0.01) in T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups. Chlorpyriphos fed birds showed increased ALT. Chlorpyriphos and chlorpyriphos+T-2 fed groups showed significant (P< 0.01) increase in serum amylase values. Decreased serum lipase values were observed in T-2 and chlorpyriphos+T-2 groups. No significant differences were observed in values of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid and GGT between the control and toxin treated groups. Chlorpyriphos and T-2 toxins affected functions of various organs in broiler chicken, the effect being less than additive.
    International Journal of Poultry Science 02/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-six, twenty-eight-day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into three groups of 12 birds each. Two groups were fed diets containing 10 ppm cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and 1ppm T-2 toxin, respectively, to determine the mechanism of cell death in spleen and thymus at 6, 12, 24, and 36 h of post-treatment. The other group served as control. T-2 toxin treated group showed significant (P < 0.01) induction of apoptosis in thymus with peak induction at 24 h post-treatment where as, no significant differences were observed between the control and CPA groups. The CPA toxin treated group showed significant (P < 0.01) induction of apoptosis in spleen with peak induction at 24 h post-treatment. No significant differences were observed between the control and T-2 toxin group even though the latter showed a slight increase in the quantity of apoptotic cells at 36 h post-treatment in spleen. The semi-thin sections stained with toluidine blue from the spleen of CPA treated group exhibited crescent margination of chromatin against the nuclear envelope and shrinkage of lymphoid cells without any surrounding inflammation, the characteristics of apoptosis. The apoptotic thymocytes from T-2 fed birds appeared shrunken with condensed nucleus and showed crescent margination of chromatin against the nuclear envelope without any surrounding inflammation when compared with well-defined nuclei with dispersed chromatin in normal thymocytes. Ultrastructurally, splenocytes of the CPA treated group and thymocytes of the T-2 toxin treated birds showed apoptotic bodies characterized by crescent margination of the chromatin against the nuclear envelope. The study indicates that one route of the CPA and T-2 toxin induced cell death in lymphoid organs of broiler chicken is by apoptosis.
    Mycopathologia 05/2005; 159(3):393-400. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty, newly hatched, unsexed broiler chicks were fed diets containing 10 ppm cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and 1 ppm T-2 toxin (T2) either individually or in combination for 28 days to study the immunopathological effects. Lymphoid organs revealed lymphocytolysis and lymphoid depletion in all toxin fed birds. Thymic and splenic CD+4 and CD+8 lymphocytes decreased significantly (p<0.01) in toxin fed birds when compared to the control. Thymic CD+8 lymphocytes of T2 and CPA-T2 showed significant (p<0.01) decrease from that of CPA and control groups. Splenic CD+4 and CD+8 lymphocytes showed significant (p<0.01) decrease in CPA and CPA-T2 fed groups when compared to the control. The T2 group did not differ significantly from that of control. The stimulation index (SI) of splenocytes to concavalin A revealed significant (p<0.01) decrease in all toxin fed birds. Significant (p<0.01) decrease were observed for the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres to Newcastle disease virus vaccine F strain (NDV) of birds fed CPA, T2 and in combination. Significant (p<0.01) interaction was found for lymphocyte subsets, SI and HI titres to NDV. The study indicated the immunosuppressive effect of these toxins either alone or in combination in broiler chicks.
    Mycopathologia 03/2005; 159(2):273-9. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study attempted to probe the role of complement activation in promoting acute myocardial infarction (AMI) induced by coronary artery ligation (CAL) in rats. The surgical technique used in this study significantly reduced early mortality (95% survival rate) and also reduced the variation in infarct size (33+/-1.87%) at 32 h after surgery. Time course studies on the initiation of AMI at various time points were carried out using physiological, biochemical, histopathological and electron microscopical techniques. Serum markers and activities of lysosomal hydrolases were found to be significantly elevated at the 8th hour post ligation. Histological studies showed polymorphonuclear cells emigration and total coagulation necrosis. Transmission electron micrograph exhibited mild distortion of muscle fibres and mitochondrial rupture with disrupted cristae. Immunoblotting studies confirmed the presence of alpha2-macroglobulin which supported the inflammatory response at 8th h of post ligation. The initiation of the complement (C) activation was observed by the increase in the level of the soluble form of the membrane attack complex (sC5b-9) in serum and left ventricle. Immunoexpression studies confirmed the initiation of the terminal C activation as shown by the expression of C5, C6, C7, C8, C9 and sC5b-9 complex at the 8th h of AMI. This study conclusively demonstrated that initiation of the C activation was observed to be significant at the 8th h of AMI induced by CAL in rats.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 02/2005; 268(1-2):149-58. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo models of myocardial infarction induced by coronary artery ligation (CAL) in rats usually suffer from high early mortality and a low rate of induction. This study investigated the time course initiation of chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) in albino rats and the possibility of reducing early mortality rate due to myocardial infarction by modification of the surgical technique. CAL was carried out by passing the suture through the epicardial layer around the midway of the left anterior descending coronary artery including a small area of the myocardium to avoid mechanical damage to the heart geometry. In addition, the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rat heart with congestive heart failure was critically assessed. Time course initiation experiments were designed by sacrificing the animals at different time intervals and by carrying out physiological, biochemical, histopathological, electron microscopical and immunohistochemical studies. Specific markers of myocardial injury, viz. cardiac troponin-T (cTnT), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and fibrinogen were measured at different time points. Serum marker enzymes and activities of lysosomal hydrolases were found to be elevated on the eighth day post-ligation. Histopathological studies demonstrated focal areas showing fibrovascular tissue containing fibroblasts, collagenous ground substance and numerous small capillaries replacing cardiac muscle fibers. Transmission electron micrographs exhibited mitochondrial changes of well-developed irreversible cardiac injury, viz. swelling, disorganization of cristae, appearance of mitochondrial amorphous matrix densities, significant distortion of muscle fibers and distinct disruption of the intercalated discs. Immunoblotting studies confirmed the presence of alpha 2-macroglobulin which supported the inflammatory response. The severity of the CMI was inferred by the measurement of the level of ET-1 in plasma and left ventricle which was significantly higher in the CMI rats than in the sham-operated rats. Immunohistochemical studies at different time intervals showed that there was a significant immunoexpression of ET-1 on the eighth day post-ligation. This study conclusively showed that ligation of left anterior descending artery minimized mortality and ET-1 was expressed during CMI.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2005; 267(1-2):47-58. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    The Veterinary record 09/2004; 155(9):273-4. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 77 skin swabs from canine pyoderma were subjected for culture and antibiogram. The Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated (60 %) along with other bacteria and fungi. It showed sensitivity to amikacin-72%, ciprofloxacin-60%, gentamicin-56%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-54% and complete resistance to ampicillin. The medical records analysis evidenced that the isolates (5%) showed resistant to all antimicrobial drugs were from cases with recurrent pyoderma.