[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to study the light and electron microscopic studies of thymic Hassall’s corpuscles was done in various age groups of Nandanam Chicken ranging from day-old to forty weeks. Hassall’s corpuscles are special, unique structures present in thymic medulla and also in the cortex of all the age groups of Nandanam chicken (from hatch to forty weeks) in the present study. Size of the Hassall’s corpuscles in the medulla is larger than the ones present in the cortical region of thymus. The Hassall’s corpuscles are made up of structureless eosinophilic mass surrounded by concentrically arranged reticuloepithelial cells. Under electron microscope, the Hassall’s corpuscles were composed of reticuloepithelial cells interconnected by many desmosomes. The epithelial cells had abundance of cytoplasmic fibrils and desmosomes with few mitochondria and ribosomes. The nucleus was oval or round which was slightly indented. The centre of the Hassall’s corpuscles was appeared either solid or cystic. The cystic corpuscles had cell debris within the cyst lumen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A light and electron microscopic study on the structure of thymic reticuloepihelial cells (RECs) was done in Nandanam chicken of various age groups ranging from day-old to forty weeks. The RECs were stellate shaped with large nucleus in an eosinophilic cytoplasm. Found to be more in number in medulla than the cortex. RECs in the cortex were smaller with long cytoplasmic processes and those in the medulla were larger with short processes. Under electron microscope, three types of RECs were observed in all the age groups studied. The first type were paler cells and the second type cells were darker cells. The first type were commonly observed in the cortex whereas the second type were also observed in the medulla. A third type of REC was observed in the cortico-medullary junction and in the medulla. These cells had a pale nucleus.
International Journal of Advanced Research 09/2015; 3(9):841-846. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Light and electron microscopic studies on caecal tonsil were done in layer chicken
of various age groups ranging from day-old to forty weeks. The caecal tonsil
revealed two types of lymphoid aggregations (germinal centre). The first type had
an incomplete capsule and the second type was found encapsulated with connective
tissue. The capsule of the germinal centre consisted of many layers of flattened
reticular cells separated with an intercellular substance. The germinal centre
consisted of lymphoblasts, lymphocytes of various sizes, reticular cells, plasma
cells, mast cells and macrophages. In forty week-old birds, the lymphocytic
population was observed to be comparatively reduced and more number of
fibroblasts and collagen fibres were noticed. The caecal tonsil also had M cells with
short and irregular microvillus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trypanosomiasis (Surra) is an important protozoan disease caused by Trypanosoma sp. It is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. It is insect borne and their epidemiology is determined by the ecology of insect vector. The course of Trypanosomiasisinfection in a Asiatic wild dogs was followed from incidence to convalescence, the hematological and biochemical findings were studied. Infected animal showed some alteration in serum biochemistry including hypoglycemia with progressive decrease in red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration, leading to anemia which persisted. Leucopenia and neutropenia were also observed during the course of the infection. The affected wild dog developed hyperproteinemia and a decrease in the albumin:globulin ratio was observed. Aspartate aminotransferase and alamine aminotransferase levels increased significantly. The present study was to evaluate the hematological and biochemical alterations in a Wild dog infected with Trypanosoma sp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asiatic Elephants are the largest terrestrial mammals in India. They require large amount of space and
water and hence, most of the elephants are confined to large forest cover. Mostly the elephant habitats
are coming under four regions, Northern, North – eastern, Central and Southern India, in general. The
wild elephant populations of Southern India have been well studied and judged, than those in other
parts of the country. The highest populations are seen in Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu,
Kerala, Karnataka and more recently in Andhra Pradesh. It is a known fact that captive elephants may
have increased probabilities for acquiring various pathogens due to varied management related
measures, in addition to the existing variations in the feeding practices and habitat-related condition.
There is paucity in the data on the hematological profile of the asian elephant, hence this study will be
useful in estimating the hematological quotients that are essential indicators to therapeutic
applications. Further packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and blood cell counts will serve
as prognostic indicators that will guide clinicians to potentiate the therapeutic procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma is an extra erythrocytic hemoprotozoan parasite, transmitted by biting flies and infected meat, causing fever, corneal opacity, anaemia. A male captive wild dog of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur aged 3 years had a complaint of anorexia, lethargy, edema of forehead, staggering gait and reduced activity levels in its enclosure. Wet film revealed the presence of numerous motile Trypanosoma sp. Haematological parameters showed anaemia and mild neutrophila. Serum biochemistry was found to be altered. The treatment done was administration of Triquin to the ailing animal. The wild dog was housed in the in-patient ward for continuous monitoring. No Trypanosomes could be detected in the wet film and stained smears taken subsequently. After a week, the wild dog was shifted to its enclosure and is doing well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to estimate the occurrence of canine fungal dermatitis caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens. A total of 264 skin scrapings and hair plucks from dogs with the history of recurrent skin problems were collected for the period of twelve months. Samples were collected from different dog breeds including non descriptive animals and of various age groups. Samples were screened for the identification of various etilologic agents associated with the skin infestation like for mites, bacteria, fungi., Out of them 52 (19.69%) samples were positive for fungal etiology. Among these, Curvularia spp an opportunistic fungi was isolated either alone or as a combined infection with other opportunistic fungi in 16 cases (30.77%) of recurrent dermatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to study the vitreous humor between-eye differences and baseline values of potassium, sodium, calcium and glucose immediately after death in dogs. Eight canine carcasses brought for necropsy formed the material for collection of vitreous humor in the present study. The information regarding time of death was gathered from dog owners, clinicians and clinical records. Eyes were enucleated as soon as possible after receiving carcass for postmortem. Sampling of vitreous humor was done using 16 gauge needle and 20 mL syringe. The needle was inserted at the lateral angle of eyeball so that the tip of needle was placed at the center of the eyeball. About 50 µL vitreous humor was gently aspirated from each eye and transferred to eppendorf tubes. Sampling of vitreous humor was done within 1-4 hours after death. The aspirated vitreous humour samples were centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 15 min at 50C temperature and the supernatant was used for analysis. The average vitreous humour concentrations of potassium, sodium, calcium and glucose estimated within 1-4 hours after death were 8.18±0.31 mEq/L, 152.55±4.46 mEq/L, 9.52 ±0.20 mg/dL and 21.70±4.50 mg/dL respectively. The results of this study indicated that there were no significant between-eye differences for all of the vitreous biochemical constituents that were studied in present study (estimated within 1-4 hours after death).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the case report on Mycoplasma infection in cat and its timely diagnosis by blood smear examination and haematology. It also discusses the treatment and response of the cat for the disease. Haemobartonellosis in cats is caused by Mycoplasma haemofelis, formerly known as Haemobartonella felis. An eight months old Persian cat was received in the Small Animal Clinics, Out Patient Ward, Medicine department, Madras Veterinary College with the history to suspect for feline Mycoplasmosis. Peripheral blood smear and whole blood sample was collected and subjected to blood smear examination and whole blood for routine haematological study. It revealed codocytosis, anisocytosis and hypochromasia. Few ghost cells also were seen. Nearly 80–85% of the RBCs revealed darkly stained small organism at the rim or periphery of the cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to find out the correlation between increasing postmortem interval (PMI) and levels of various vitreous biochemical parameters. The vitreous humour samples were collected immediately after death from eight canine carcasses brought for necropsy. Eyes were enucleated as soon as possible after receiving carcass for postmortem. Randomly one eye, either left or right was maintained at ambient room temperature while another at refrigeration temperature (4-50C). Sampling of vitreous humour was done at 1-4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours after death. In the present study, vitreous sodium concentration did not show any significant difference between the PMI in the eyes maintained at both temperatures. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the vitreous concentration of glucose was observed at 12 and 24 h as compared to the initial concentration at 1-4 h in the eyes maintained at normal ambient temperature while in the case of eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature no significant difference was observed between all PMI. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the vitreous calcium concentration was observed at 48 and
60 h as compared to the initial concentration (1-4 h) at both temperatures while in the case of eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed at 48, 60 and 72 h as compared to the initial concentration at 1-4 h. The vitreous calcium concentration showed significant (P<0.05) negative correlation (up to 72 h) with PMI at both temperatures while vitreous sodium and glucose concentration showed no significant correlation with PMI at both temperatures. The present study revealed that there was a linear decrease in the vitreous calcium level after death which can be used to estimate the time of death in dogs adjunct with other routinely used methods while sodium and glucose fluctuated inconsistently with no apparent relation to the time or temperature.
The Indian veterinary journal 07/2014; 91(07):33-37. · 0.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119), Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104) and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA) (n=12). The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay mierodilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64%) followed by S. aureus (44.25%) and MRSA (5.11%). In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23 s rRNA (E. coli), 16s-23 s rRNA (S. aureus) and MRSA (mecA and blaZ) could be amplified from 119,104and 12isolateswithapercentagepositivityof 50.64(119/235), 89.64(104/116)and 10.34(12/116)respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bovine mastitis pathogens was high. Most MRSA pathogens were multidrug resistant. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were resistant to few antimicrobials.
Veterinary World 06/2014; 7(6):389-394. DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2014.389-394
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A significant (P<0.05) increase in the vitreous potassium concentration was observed in dog (n=8) at postmortem intervals 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours as compared to the initial concentration (1-4 hours) at both temperatures. The potassium level at postmortem interval 36 hours showed significant (P<0.05) increase as compared to concentration at 12 hours in the eyes maintained at both temperatures. A significant positive correlation was found between the postmortem interval (up to 72 hours) and vitreous potassium concentration for eyes maintained at both temperatures. At all post mortem intervals, the eyes maintained at refrigeration temperature showed slow or lowered increase than the eyes maintained at normal ambient temperature. The present study revealed that there was a linear rise in the vitreous potassium level after death which could be used to estimate time of death in dogs.
The Indian veterinary journal 01/2014; 91(01):48-49. · 0.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 62 Elephants are fascinatingly interlaced with the culture, tradition and mythology in India which is blessed with more than 50 % of the world's Asian elephant population in the wild (Cheeran and Chandrasekaran, 2006). Scientists working with elephants reported that foot problems constitute single most important ailment of captive elephants (Fowler, 2006) and more than 50% of captive elephants suffer from some form of foot ailment in their life time (Arora, 2003). There is no systematic study on the foot ailments of captive elephants in India and hence a pilot study was conducted on captive Asian elephants maintained by state forest department of Tamilnadu at Mudumalai tiger reserve, Anamalai tiger reserve and Arignar Anna Zoological park, Chennai for a period of two years from 2008 to 2010 to identify the bacterial etiology of various foot lesions and their antibiotic susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHOD Out of 49 elephants examined, 11 elephants (22.4%) belonging to Arignar anna zoological park, Chennai (3), Mudumalai tiger reserve (4) and Anaimalai tiger reserve (4) showed various foot lesions such as foot rot, podo-dermatitis, foot pad and sole abscess, cuticular abscess, split nail and nail damage. Thirty six (36) samples collected from various foot lesions using sterile swabs in Amies transport medium with charcoal (Himedia, India) were transported to the laboratory and processed within 24 hours. The samples were plated on Brain Heart infusion agar, Edwards medium, MacConkey agar, Cetrimide agar, Blood agar and Brilliant Green agar and incubated for 24 to 48 hrs. For isolation of Salmonella sp the samples were inoculated in Selenite broth for 48 hours at 37°C followed by streaking on Brilliant green agar. For isolation of
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the changing global scenario there is effect not only on the human survival but also on the prevalence of existing pathogens and appearance of new infectious agents among animal population. This paper emphasises the need for prevalence studies. A retrospective study for 6 years on prevalence of hemoprotozoans in dogs in Chennai showed Babesia gibsoni the predominant parasite of dogs. Details are discussed in this paper.
Journal of parasitic diseases 12/2012; 38(2). DOI:10.1007/s12639-012-0219-8
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flow cytometric analysis of CD4 and CD8 T cells of spleen was done in layer chicken of various age groups ranging from day-old to forty weeks. The mean CD4 and CD8 population was found to be the highest at day one and lowest at twenty weeks of age. However, an increase in both the T cell population was detected at forty weeks. Among the two cell types studied, CD8 cells were always higher than the CD4 cells with significant difference (P<0.05) at day one. A distinct difference was observed in the ratio of CD4 and CD8 cells in the spleen at different age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 4190 blood smears were collected between January and December 2007 from dogs exhibiting clinical signs of haemoprotozoan infections. On blood smear examination 485 blood smears were found to be positive for various haemoprotozoa and rickettsia. Among the positive cases , the majority of haemoprotozoans identified were Babesia gibsoni 84.9%, followed by Ehrlichia canis 6 %, Hepatazoan canis 4.8%, Babesia canis 3.9% and Trypanasoma evansi 0.4%. The high prevalence of haemoprotozoan infection was observed during monsoon season. However B.gibsoni was at a higher prevalence during summer and winter. The highest infection was in adults 63.1% but evenly distributed amongst all breeds of dogs. No significant difference was recorded amongst sex .