T. Stahn

Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (23)65.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Context. The object HD 43587Aa is a G0V star observed during the 145-day LRa03 run of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits space mission (CoRoT), for which complementary High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) spectra with S/N>300 were also obtained. Its visual magnitude is 5.71, and its effective temperature is close to 5950 K. It has a known companion in a highly eccentric orbit and is also coupled with two more distant companions. Aims. We undertake a preliminary investigation of the internal structure of HD 43587Aa. Methods. We carried out a seismic analysis of the star, using maximum likelihood estimators and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Results. We established the first table of the eigenmode frequencies, widths, and heights for HD 43587Aa. The star appears to have a mass and a radius slightly larger than the Sun, and is slightly older (5.6 Gyr). Two scenarios are suggested for the geometry of the star: either its inclination angle is very low, or the rotation velocity of the star is very low. Conclusions. A more detailed study of the rotation and of the magnetic and chromospheric activity for this star is needed, and will be the subject of a further study. New high resolution spectrometric observations should be performed for at least several months in duration.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context : We still do not know which mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this issue. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependance of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extract the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then perform a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes CESAM2k and ASTEC. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we perform inversions of the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the mean rotation rate in the core and in the convective envelope of these stars. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, contrary to the RGB stars whose core has been shown to spin down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. These results will bring observational constraints to the scenarios of angular momentum transport in stars.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Rotation is thought to drive cyclic magnetic activity in the Sun and Sun-like stars. Stellar dynamos, however, are poorly understood owing to the scarcity of observations of rotation and magnetic fields in stars. Here, inferences are drawn on the internal rotation of a distant Sun-like star by studying its global modes of oscillation. We report asteroseismic constraints imposed on the rotation rate and the inclination of the spin axis of the Sun-like star HD 52265, a principal target observed by the CoRoT satellite that is known to host a planetary companion. These seismic inferences are remarkably consistent with an independent spectroscopic observation (rotational line broadening) and with the observed rotation period of star spots. Furthermore, asteroseismology constrains the mass of exoplanet HD 52265b. Under the standard assumption that the stellar spin axis and the axis of the planetary orbit coincide, the minimum spectroscopic mass of the planet can be converted into a true mass of $${1.85}_{-0.42}^{+0.52}{M}_{\hbox{ Jupiter }}$$, which implies that it is a planet, not a brown dwarf.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotation is expected to have an important influence on the structure and the evolution of stars. However, the mechanisms of angular momentum transport in stars remain theoretically uncertain and very complex to take into account in stellar models. To achieve a better understanding of these processes, we desperately need observational constraints on the internal rotation of stars, which until very recently were restricted to the Sun. In this paper, we report the detection of mixed modes - i.e. modes that behave both as g modes in the core and as p modes in the envelope - in the spectrum of the early red giant KIC7341231, which was observed during one year with the Kepler spacecraft. By performing an analysis of the oscillation spectrum of the star, we show that its non-radial modes are clearly split by stellar rotation and we are able to determine precisely the rotational splittings of 18 modes. We then find a stellar model that reproduces very well the observed atmospheric and seismic properties of the star. We use this model to perform inversions of the internal rotation profile of the star, which enables us to show that the core of the star is rotating at least five times faster than the envelope. This will shed new light on the processes of transport of angular momentum in stars. In particular, this result can be used to place constraints on the angular momentum coupling between the core and the envelope of early red giants, which could help us discriminate between the theories that have been proposed over the last decades.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2012; 756(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a detailed and precise study of the characteristics of the Exoplanet Host Star and CoRoT main target HD 52265, as derived from asteroseismic studies. The results are compared with previous estimates, with a comprehensive summary and discussion. The basic method is similar to that previously used by the Toulouse group for solar-type stars. Models are computed with various initial chemical compositions and the computed p-mode frequencies are compared with the observed ones. All models include atomic diffusion and the importance of radiative accelerations is discussed. Several tests are used, including the usual frequency combinations and the fits of the \'echelle diagrams. The possible surface effects are introduced and discussed. Automatic codes are also used to find the best model for this star (SEEK, AMP) and their results are compared with that obtained with the detailed method. We find precise results for the mass, radius and age of this star, as well as its effective temperature and luminosity. We also give an estimate of the initial helium abundance. These results are important for the characterization of the star-planet system.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolved solar-type stars 16 Cyg A and B have long been studied as solar analogs, yielding a glimpse into the future of our own Sun. The orbital period of the binary system is too long to provide meaningful dynamical constraints on the stellar properties, but asteroseismology can help because the stars are among the brightest in the Kepler field. We present an analysis of three months of nearly uninterrupted photometry of 16 Cyg A and B from the Kepler space telescope. We extract a total of 46 and 41 oscillation frequencies for the two components, respectively, including a clear detection of octupole (l = 3) modes in both stars. We derive the properties of each star independently using the Asteroseismic Modeling Portal, fitting the individual oscillation frequencies and other observational constraints simultaneously. We evaluate the systematic uncertainties from an ensemble of results generated by a variety of stellar evolution codes and fitting methods. The optimal models derived by fitting each component individually yield a common age (t = 6.8 ± 0.4 Gyr) and initial composition (Z i = 0.024 ± 0.002, Y i = 0.25 ± 0.01) within the uncertainties, as expected for the components of a binary system, bolstering our confidence in the reliability of asteroseismic techniques. The longer data sets that will ultimately become available will allow future studies of differential rotation, convection zone depths, and long-term changes due to stellar activity cycles.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2012; 748(1):L10. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The star HD 52265 is a G0V metal-rich exoplanet-host star observed in the seismology field of the CoRoT space telescope from November 2008 to March 2009. The satellite collected 117 days of high-precision photometric data on this star, showing that it presents solar-like oscillations. HD 52265 was also observed in spectroscopy with the Narval spectrograph at the same epoch. We characterise HD 52265 using both spectroscopic and seismic data. The fundamental stellar parameters of HD 52265 were derived with the semi-automatic software VWA, and the projected rotational velocity was estimated by fitting synthetic profiles to isolated lines in the observed spectrum. The parameters of the observed p modes were determined with a maximum-likelihood estimation. We performed a global fit of the oscillation spectrum, over about ten radial orders, for degrees l=0 to 2. We also derived the properties of the granulation, and analysed a signature of the rotation induced by the photospheric magnetic activity. Precise determinations of fundamental parameters have been obtained: Teff = 6100 +- 60 K, log g = 4.35 +- 0.09, [M/H] = 0.19 +- 0.05, as well as vsini = 3.6 +0.3 -1.0 km/s. We have measured a mean rotation period P_rot = 12.3 +- 0.15 days, and find a signature of differential rotation. The frequencies of 31 modes are reported in the range 1500-2550 micro-Hz. The large separation exhibits a clear modulation around the mean value = 98.3 +- 0.1 micro-Hz. Mode widths vary with frequency along an S-shape with a clear local maximum around 1800 micro-Hz. We deduce lifetimes ranging between 0.5 and 3 days for these modes. Finally, we find a maximal bolometric amplitude of about 3.96 +- 0.24 ppm for radial modes.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2011; 1014151414(13). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, a companion with planetary mass was found around the pulsating subdwarf B star V391 Pegasi with the timing method, indicating that a previously undiscovered population of substellar companions to apparently single subdwarf B stars might exist. Following this serendipitous discovery, the EXOTIME (http://www.na.astro.it/~silvotti/exotime/) monitoring program has been set up to follow the pulsations of a number of selected rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars on time-scales of several years with two immediate observational goals: 1) determine Pdot of the pulsational periods P 2) search for signatures of substellar companions in O-C residuals due to periodic light travel time variations, which would be tracking the central star's companion-induced wobble around the center of mass. These sets of data should therefore at the same time: on the one hand be useful to provide extra constraints for classical asteroseismological exercises from the Pdot (comparison with "local" evolutionary models), and on the other hand allow to investigate the preceding evolution of a target in terms of possible "binary" evolution by extending the otherwise unsuccessful search for companions to potentially very low masses. While timing pulsations may be an observationally expensive method to search for companions, it samples a different range of orbital parameters, inaccessible through orbital photometric effects or the radial velocity method: the latter favours massive close-in companions, whereas the timing method becomes increasingly more sensitive towards wider separations. In this paper we report on the status of the on-going observations and coherence analysis for two of the currently five targets, revealing very well-behaved pulsational characteristics in HS 0444+0458, while showing HS 0702+6043 to be more complex than previously thought. Comment: Contribution to: The Fourth Meeting on Hot Subdwarf Stars and Related Objects, 20 - 24 July 2009, Shanghai, China, published 03/2010 by Ap&SS (Open access publication). 12 pages, 14 figures, 5 tables
    Astrophysics and Space Science 05/2010; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various methods of helioseismology are used to study the subsurface properties of the sunspot in NOAA Active Region 9787. This sunspot was chosen because it is axisymmetric, shows little evolution during 20-28 January 2002, and was observed continuously by the MDI/SOHO instrument. (...) Wave travel times and mode frequencies are affected by the sunspot. In most cases, wave packets that propagate through the sunspot have reduced travel times. At short travel distances, however, the sign of the travel-time shifts appears to depend sensitively on how the data are processed and, in particular, on filtering in frequency-wavenumber space. We carry out two linear inversions for wave speed: one using travel-times and phase-speed filters and the other one using mode frequencies from ring analysis. These two inversions give subsurface wave-speed profiles with opposite signs and different amplitudes. (...) From this study of AR9787, we conclude that we are currently unable to provide a unified description of the subsurface structure and dynamics of the sunspot. Comment: 28 pages, 18 figures
    Space Science Reviews 02/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Space Science Reviews 01/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various methods of helioseismology are used to study the subsurface properties of the sunspot in NOAA Active Region9787. This sunspot was chosen because it is axisymmetric, shows little evolution during 20–28 January 2002, and was observed continuously by the MDI/SOHO instrument. AR9787 is visible on helioseismic maps of the farside of the Sun from 15 January, i.e. days before it crossed the East limb. Oscillations have reduced amplitudes in the sunspot at all frequencies, whereas a region of enhanced acoustic power above 5.5 mHz (above the quiet-Sun acoustic cutoff) is seen outside the sunspot and the plage region. This enhanced acoustic power has been suggested to be caused by the conversion of acoustic waves into magneto-acoustic waves that are refracted back into the interior and re-emerge as acoustic waves in the quiet Sun. Observations show that the sunspot absorbs a significant fraction of the incoming p and f modes around 3 mHz. A numerical simulation of MHD wave propagation through a simple model of AR9787 confirmed that wave absorption is likely to be due to the partial conversion of incoming waves into magneto-acoustic waves that propagate down the sunspot. Wave travel times and mode frequencies are affected by the sunspot. In most cases, wave packets that propagate through the sunspot have reduced travel times. At short travel distances, however, the sign of the travel-time shifts appears to depend sensitively on how the data are processed and, in particular, on filtering in frequency-wavenumber space. We carry out two linear inversions for wave speed: one using travel-times and phase-speed filters and the other one using mode frequencies from ring analysis. These two inversions give subsurface wave-speed profiles with opposite signs and different amplitudes. The travel-time measurements also imply different subsurface flow patterns in the surface layer depending on the filtering procedure that is used. Current sensitivity kernels are unable to reconcile these measurements, perhaps because they rely on imperfect models of the power spectrum of solar oscillations. We present a linear inversion for flows of ridge-filtered travel times. This inversion shows a horizontal outflow in the upper 4Mm that is consistent with the moat flow deduced from the surface motion of moving magnetic features. From this study of AR9787, we conclude that we are currently unable to provide a unified description of the subsurface structure and dynamics of the sunspot.
    04/2009: pages 249-273;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. A noticeable fraction of subdwarf B stars shows either short-period ($p$-mode) or long-period ($g$-mode) luminosity variations, with two objects so far known to exhibit hybrid behaviour, i.e. showing both types of modes at the same time. The pulsating subdwarf B star V 391 Pegasi (or HS 2201+2610), which is close to the two known hybrid pulsators in the log $g$–$T_{\rm eff}$ plane, has recently been discovered to host a planetary companion.Aims. In order to learn more about the planetary companion and its possible influence on the evolution of its host star (subdwarf B star formation is still not well understood), an accurate characterisation of the host star is required. As part of an ongoing effort to significantly improve the asteroseismic characterisation of the host star, we investigate the low-frequency behaviour of HS 2201+2610.Methods. We obtained rapid high signal-to-noise photometric CCD ($B$-filter) and PMT (clear-filter) data at 2 m-class telescopes and carried out a careful frequency analysis of the light curves.Results. In addition to the previously known short-period luminosity variations in the range 342 s–367 s, we find a long-period variation with a period of 54 mn and an amplitude of 0.15 per cent. This can most plausibly be identified with a $g$-mode pulsation, so that HS 2201+2610 is a new addition to the short list of hybrid sdB pulsators.Conclusions. Along with the previously known pulsating subdwarf B stars HS 0702+6043 and Balloon 090100001 showing hybrid behaviour, the new hybrid HS 2201+2610 is the third member of this class. This important property of HS 2201+2610 can lead to a better characterisation of this planet-hosting star, helping the characterisation of its planetary companion as well. Current pulsation models cannot yet reproduce hybrid sdBV stars particularly well and improved pulsation models for this object have to include the hybrid behaviour.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2009; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a large coordinated attempt to further our understanding of the $p$-mode pulsating sdB star PG1605+072, the Multi-Site Spectroscopic Telescope (MSST) collaboration has obtained simultaneous time-resolved spectroscopic and photometric observations. The photometry was extended by additional WET data which increased the time base. This contribution outlines the analysis of the MSST photometric light curve, including the four-colour BUSCA data from which chromatic amplitudes have been derived, as well as supplementary FUV spectra and light curves from two different epochs. These results have the potential to complement the interpretation of the published spectroscopic information.
    01/2009;
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    T. Stahn, L. Gizon
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    ABSTRACT: In asteroseismology, gaps in the time series complicate the data analysis and hamper the precise measurement of stellar oscillation parameters, e.g. the frequencies, amplitudes, phases, and mode lifetimes. In the Fourier domain the convolution of the stellar signal with the Fourier transform of the temporal window function introduce data correlations between the different frequencies. We developed a method to derive Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) of mode parameters where these data correlations are explicitly taken into account. Using simulated realisations of noisy time series with gaps, the MLE of the mode parameters of solar-like oscillations obtained with our new fitting method are more precise and less biased than the MLE determined based on the unfounded assumption of uncorrelated frequency bins.
    Communications in Asteroseismology 11/2008; 157:369.
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    Thorsten Stahn, Laurent Gizon
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative helio- and asteroseismology require very precise measurements of the frequencies, amplitudes, and lifetimes of the global modes of stellar oscillation. It is common knowledge that the precision of these measurements depends on the total length (T), quality, and completeness of the observations. Except in a few simple cases, the effect of gaps in the data on measurement precision is poorly understood, in particular in Fourier space where the convolution of the observable with the observation window introduces correlations between different frequencies. Here we describe and implement a rather general method to retrieve maximum likelihood estimates of the oscillation parameters, taking into account the proper statistics of the observations. Our fitting method applies in complex Fourier space and exploits the phase information. We consider both solar-like stochastic oscillations and long-lived harmonic oscillations, plus random noise. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of cases for which our improved fitting method is less biased and has a greater precision than when the frequency correlations are ignored. This is especially true of low signal-to-noise solar-like oscillations. For example, we discuss a case where the precision on the mode frequency estimate is increased by a factor of five, for a duty cycle of 15%. In the case of long-lived sinusoidal oscillations, a proper treatment of the frequency correlations does not provide any significant improvement; nevertheless we confirm that the mode frequency can be measured from gapped data at a much better precision than the 1/T Rayleigh resolution. Comment: Accepted for publication in Solar Physics Topical Issue "Helioseismology, Asteroseismology, and MHD Connections"
    Solar Physics 03/2008; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the detection of low-amplitude, long-period g-modes in two individual sdBV stars which are known to be p-mode pulsators. Only few of these hybrid objects, showing both p- and g-modes, are known today. We resolve the g-mode domain in HS 0702+6043 and add HS 2201+2610 to the list of hybrid pulsators. To discover the low-amplitude g-modes, a filtering algorithm based on wavelet transformations was applied to denoise observational data.
    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the detection of low-amplitude, long-period g-modes in two individual sdBV stars which are known to be p-mode pulsators. Only few of these hybrid objects, showing both p- and g-modes, are known today. We resolve the g-mode domain in HS0702+6043 and add HS2201+2610 to the list of hybrid pulsators. To discover the low-amplitude g-modes, a filtering algorithm based on wavelet transformations was applied to denoise observational data.
    11/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Research in solar and stellar seismology at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) is supported by the Junior Research Group "Helio- and Asteroseismology" of the Max Planck Society since September 2005. A presentation of the current topics of research is given, with particular emphasis on local helioseismology.
    01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The archival spectrum of SDSSJ212531.92-010745.9 shows not only the typical signature of a PG1159 star, but also indicates the presence of a companion. Our aim was the proof of the binary nature ofthis object and the determination of its orbital period.We performed time-series photometry of SDSSJ212531.92-010745.9. We observed the object during 10 nights, spread over one month, with the Tuebingen 80cm and the Goettingen 50cm telescopes. We fitted the observed light curve with a sine and simulated the light curve of this system with the nightfall program. Furthermore, we compared the spectrum of SDSSJ212531.92-010745.9 with NLTE models, the results of which also constrain the light curve solution. An orbital period of 6.95616(33)h with an amplitude of 0.354(3)mag is derived from our observations. A pulsation period could not be detected. For the PG1159 star we found, as preliminary results from comparison with our NLTE models, Teff about 90000K, log g about 7.60, and the abundance ratio C/He = 0.05 by number fraction. For the companion we obtained with a mean radius of 0.4 +/- 0.1 Rsol, a mass of 0.4 +/- 0.1 Msol, and a temperature of 8200K on the irradiated side, good agreement between the observed light curve and the nightfall simulation, but we do not regard those values as final. Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures to be published in A&A, accepted
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2006; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of a long-period g-mode oscillation in the previously known short-period p-mode sdB pulsator HS0702+6043 makes this star an extraordinary object, unique as a member of the family of sdB pulsators, and one of the very few known pulsating stars overall exhibiting excited modes along both the acoustic and gravity branches of the nonradial pulsation spectrum. Because p-modes and g-modes probe different regions of a pulsating star, HS0702+6043 holds a tremendous potential for asteroseismological investigations. We present preliminary results from the first extended campaign on this object.
    11/2005;

Publication Stats

94 Citations
65.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      • Institute for Astrophysics
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2012
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany