Jan Klooster

Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (55)225.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts (MLC) is a genetic disease characterized by infantile-onset white matter edema and delayed-onset neurological deterioration. Loss of MLC1 function causes MLC. MLC1 is involved in ion-water homeostasis, but its exact role is unknown. We generated Mlc1-null mice for further studies. Methods: We investigated which brain cell types express MLC1, compared developmental expression in mice and men, and studied the consequences of loss of MLC1 in Mlc1-null mice. Results: Like humans, mice expressed MLC1 only in astrocytes, especially those facing fluid-brain barriers. In mice, MLC1 expression increased until 3 weeks and then stabilized. In humans, MLC1 expression was highest in the first year, decreased and stabilized from approximately 5 years. Mlc1-null mice had early-onset megalencephaly and increased brain water content. From 3 weeks abnormal astrocytes were present with swollen processes abutting fluid-brain barriers. From 3 months, widespread white matter vacuolization with intramyelinic edema developed. Mlc1-null astrocytes showed slowed regulatory volume decrease and reduced volume-regulated anion currents, which increased upon MLC1 re-expression. Mlc1-null astrocytes showed reduced expression of adhesion molecule GlialCAM and chloride channel ClC-2, but no substantial changes in other known MLC1-interacting proteins. Interpretation: Mlc1-null mice replicate early stages of the human disease with early-onset intramyelinic edema. The cellular functional defects, described for human MLC, were confirmed. The earliest change was astrocytic swelling, substantiating that in MLC the primary defect is in volume regulation by astrocytes. MLC1 expression affects expression of GlialCAM and ClC-2. Abnormal interplay between these proteins is part of the pathomechanisms of MLC. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of neurology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The accessory outer segment, a cytoplasmic structure running alongside the photoreceptor outer segment, has been described in teleost fishes, excluding the model organism zebrafish. So far, the function of the accessory outer segment is unknown. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the zebrafish cone accessory outer segment by electron microscopy. Starting at the connecting cilium, the accessory outer segment runs parallel alongside the cone outer segment (COS). A thin plasma bridge connects the outer segment with the accessory outer segment, whose surface is enlarged by foldings and invaginations. Beside the morphological descriptions, we demonstrate that the Usher protein myosin VIIa (Myo7a) is a specific marker for the zebrafish cone accessory outer segment. Zebrafish cone photoreceptors possess a large and well-differentiated accessory outer segment, in which the unconventional motor protein Myo7a is highly enriched. The direct cytoplasmic contact with the COS as well as the surface enlargement of the accessory outer segment suggests an important role of this structure in transport and exchange of metabolites between the COS and the surrounding retinal pigment epithelium. In future studies of the outer retina, more attention should be paid to this often neglected structure. Anat Rec, 297:1777–1784, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 09/2014; 297(9). · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal computations strongly depend on inhibitory interactions. One such example occurs at the first retinal synapse, where horizontal cells inhibit photoreceptors. This interaction generates the center/surround organization of bipolar cell receptive fields and is crucial for contrast enhancement. Despite its essential role in vision, the underlying synaptic mechanism has puzzled the neuroscience community for decades. Two competing hypotheses are currently considered: an ephaptic and a proton-mediated mechanism. Here we show that horizontal cells feed back to photoreceptors via an unexpected synthesis of the two. The first one is a very fast ephaptic mechanism that has no synaptic delay, making it one of the fastest inhibitory synapses known. The second one is a relatively slow (τ≈200 ms), highly intriguing mechanism. It depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. The ecto-ATPase NTPDase1 hydrolyses extracellular ATP to AMP, phosphate groups, and protons. The phosphate groups and protons form a pH buffer with a pKa of 7.2, which keeps the pH in the synaptic cleft relatively acidic. This inhibits the cone Ca2+ channels and consequently reduces the glutamate release by the cones. When horizontal cells hyperpolarize, the pannexin 1 channels decrease their conductance, the ATP release decreases, and the formation of the pH buffer reduces. The resulting alkalization in the synaptic cleft consequently increases cone glutamate release. Surprisingly, the hydrolysis of ATP instead of ATP itself mediates the synaptic modulation. Our results not only solve longstanding issues regarding horizontal cell to photoreceptor feedback, they also demonstrate a new form of synaptic modulation. Because pannexin 1 channels and ecto-ATPases are strongly expressed in the nervous system and pannexin 1 function is implicated in synaptic plasticity, we anticipate that this novel form of synaptic modulation may be a widespread phenomenon.
    PLoS Biology 05/2014; 12(5):e1001864. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the CRB1 gene lead to retinal dystrophies ranging from Leber congenital amaurosis to early-onset retinitis pigmentosa, due to developmental defects or loss of adhesion between photoreceptors and Müller glia cells, respectively. Whereas over 150 mutations have been found, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established. Mouse Crb1 knockout retinas show a mild phenotype limited to the inferior quadrant, whereas Crb2 knockout retinas display a severe degeneration throughout the retina mimicking the phenotype observed in retinitis pigmentosa patients associated with CRB1 mutations. Crb1Crb2 double mutant retinas have severe developmental defects similar to the phenotype observed in Leber congenital amaurosis patients associated with CRB1 mutations. Therefore, CRB2 is a candidate modifying gene of human CRB1-related retinal dystrophy. In this study, we studied the cellular localisation of CRB1 and CRB2 in human retina and tested the influence of the Crb2 gene allele on Crb1-retinal dystrophies in mice. We found that in contrast to mice, in the human retina CRB1 protein was expressed at the subapical region in photoreceptors and Müller glia cells, and CRB2 only in Müller glia cells. Genetic ablation of one allele of Crb2 in heterozygote Crb1(+/-) retinas induced a mild retinal phenotype, but in homozygote Crb1 knockout mice lead to an early and severe phenotype limited to the entire inferior retina. Our data provide mechanistic insight for CRB1 related Leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa.
    Human Molecular Genetics 02/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, the Crumbs homologue-1 (CRB1) gene is mutated in autosomal recessive Leber congenital amaurosis and early onset retinitis pigmentosa. In mammals, the Crumbs family is composed of: CRB1, CRB2, CRB3A and CRB3B. Recently, we showed that removal of mouse Crb2 from retinal progenitor cells, and consequent removal from Müller glial and photoreceptor cells, results in severe and progressive retinal degeneration with concomitant loss of retinal function that mimics retinitis pigmentosa due to mutations in the CRB1 gene. Here, we studied the effects of cell-type specific loss of CRB2 from the developing mouse retina using targeted conditional deletion of Crb2 in photoreceptors or Müller cells. We analysed the consequences of targeted loss of CRB2 in the adult mouse retina using adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase and short hairpin RNA against Crb2. In vivo retinal imaging by means of optical coherence tomography on retinas lacking CRB2 in photoreceptors showed progressive thinning of the photoreceptor layer and cellular mislocalization. Electroretinogram recordings under scotopic conditions showed severe attenuation of the a-wave, confirming the degeneration of photoreceptors. Retinas lacking CRB2 in developing photoreceptors showed early onset of abnormal lamination whereas retinas lacking CRB2 in developing Müller cells showed late onset retinal disorganization. Our data suggest that in the developing retina, CRB2 has redundant functions in Müller glial cells, while CRB2 has essential functions in photoreceptors. Our data suggest that short-term loss of CRB2 in adult mouse photoreceptors, but not in Müller glial cells, causes sporadic loss of adhesion between photoreceptors and Müller cells.
    Human Molecular Genetics 02/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is characterized by loss of night vision due to a defect in the retinal ON-bipolar cells (BCs). Mutations in GPR179, encoding the G-protein coupled receptor 179, have been found in CSNB1 patients. In the mouse, GPR179 is localized to the tips of ON-BCs dendrites. In this study we determined the ultrastructural localization of GPR179 in human retina and determined the functional consequences of mutations in GPR179 in patients and mice. Methods: The localization of GRP179 was analyzed in postmortem human retinas with immunohistochemistry. The functional consequences of the loss of GPR179 were analyzed with standard and 15 Hz flicker ERG protocols. Results: In the human retina, GPR179 is localized on the tips of ON-BCs dendrites, which invaginate photoreceptors and terminate juxtaposed to the synaptic ribbon. The 15 Hz flicker ERG abnormalities found in patients with mutations in GPR179 more closely resemble those from patients with mutations in either TRPM1 or NYX than in GRM6. 15 Hz flicker ERG abnormalities of Gpr179nob5 and Grm6nob3 mice were comparable. Conclusions: GRP179 is expressed on dendrites of ON-bipolar cells indicating that GRP179 is involved in the ON-BCs signaling cascade. The similarities of 15 Hz flicker ERGs noted in GPR179 patients and NYX or TRPM1 patients, suggest that the loss of GPR179 leads to the loss or closure of TRPM1 channels. The difference between the 15 Hz flicker ERGs of mice and humans indicate the presence of important species differences in the retinal activity that this signal represents.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes and microglia become reactive in many neurological disorders resulting in phenotypic and functional alterations. Both cell types might also display functional changes during normal aging. To identify gene signatures and changes in basal cellular functions of astrocytes and microglia in relation to aging, we isolated viable astrocytes and microglia from young adult and aged mouse cortices and determined their gene expression profile. Aged astrocytes, compared with young astrocytes, showed an increased inflammatory phenotype and increased 'zinc ion binding.' Young astrocytes showed higher expression of genes involved in 'neuronal differentiation' and hemoglobin synthesis. Astrocyte expression of genes involved in neuronal signaling remains high throughout age. Aged microglia had higher expression of genes involved in 'vesicle release,' 'zinc ion binding,' and genes within the tumor necrosis factor-ligand family and young microglia had increased transcript levels of C-C motif chemokines. These data provide a transcriptome database of cell-type enriched genes of astrocytes and microglia from adult mice and give insight into the differential gene signature of astrocytes and microglia in relation to normal aging.
    Neurobiology of aging 08/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MPP3 and CRB1 both interact directly with PALS1/MPP5 and through this scaffold protein may form a large protein complex. To investigate the role of MPP3 in the retina we have analyzed conditional mutant Mpp3 knockout mice. Ultrastructural localization studies revealed that MPP3 is predominantly localized in apical villi of Müller glia cells. Retinas lacking MPP3 developed late onset retinal degeneration, with sporadic foci of rosette formation in the central part of the retina. Retinal degeneration in Mpp3 cKO mice was accelerated by exposure to moderate levels of white light. Electroretinography recordings in aging mice under both scotopic and photopic conditions ranged from normal to mildly subnormal, while the magnitude correlated with the strength and extent of morphological alterations. Loss of MPP3 resulted in significant loss of PALS1 at the subapical region adjacent to adherens junctions, and loss of MPP3 in Pals1 conditional knockdown retinas significantly accelerated the onset of retinal degeneration. These data suggest that MPP3 is required for maintaining proper levels of PALS1 at the subapical region, and indicate that the MPP3 gene is a candidate modulator of the Crumbs complex. GLIA 2013.
    Glia 07/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mutant mouse models suggest that the chloride channel ClC-2 has functions in ion and water homoeostasis, but this has not been confirmed in human beings. We aimed to define novel disorders characterised by distinct patterns of MRI abnormalities in patients with leukoencephalopathies of unknown origin, and to identify the genes mutated in these disorders. We were specifically interested in leukoencephalopathies characterised by white matter oedema, suggesting a defect in ion and water homoeostasis. METHODS: In this observational analytical study, we recruited patients with leukoencephalopathies characterised by MRI signal abnormalities in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules, midbrain cerebral peduncles, and middle cerebellar peduncles from our databases of patients with leukoencephalopathies of unknown origin. We used exome sequencing to identify the gene involved. We screened the candidate gene in additional patients by Sanger sequencing and mRNA analysis, and investigated the functional effects of the mutations. We assessed the localisation of ClC-2 with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy in post-mortem human brains of individuals without neurological disorders. FINDINGS: Seven patients met our inclusion criteria, three with adult-onset disease and four with childhood-onset disease. We identified homozygous or compound-heterozygous mutations in CLCN2 in three adult and three paediatric patients. We found evidence that the CLCN2 mutations result in loss of function of ClC-2. The remaining paediatric patient had an X-linked family history and a mutation in GJB1, encoding connexin 32. Clinical features were variable and included cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, chorioretinopathy with visual field defects, optic neuropathy, cognitive defects, and headaches. MRI showed restricted diffusion suggesting myelin vacuolation that was confined to the specified white matter structures in adult patients, and more diffusely involved the brain white matter in paediatric patients. We detected ClC-2 in all components of the panglial syncytium, enriched in astrocytic endfeet at the perivascular basal lamina, in the glia limitans, and in ependymal cells. INTERPRETATION: Our observations substantiate the concept that ClC-2 is involved in brain ion and water homoeostasis. Autosomal-recessive CLCN2 mutations cause a leukoencephalopathy that belongs to an emerging group of disorders affecting brain ion and water homoeostasis and characterised by intramyelinic oedema. FUNDING: European Leukodystrophies Association, INSERM and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research (ZonMw), E-Rare, Hersenstichting, Optimix Foundation for Scientific Research, Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Project, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and Genetic and Epigenetic Networks in Cognitive Dysfunction (GENCODYS) Project (funded by the European Union Framework Programme 7).
    The Lancet Neurology 05/2013; · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, a single pannexin1 gene (Panx1) is widely expressed in the CNS including the inner and outer retinae, forming large-pore voltage-gated membrane channels, which are involved in calcium and ATP signaling. Previously, we discovered that zebrafish lack Panx1 expression in the inner retina, with drPanx1a exclusively expressed in horizontal cells of the outer retina. Here, we characterize a second drPanx1 protein, drPanx1b, generated by whole-genome duplications during teleost evolution. Homology searches strongly support the presence of pannexin sequences in cartilaginous fish and provide evidence that pannexins evolved when urochordata and chordata evolution split. Further, we confirm Panx1 ohnologs being solely present in teleosts. A hallmark of differential expression of drPanx1a and drPanx1b in various zebrafish brain areas is the non-overlapping protein localization of drPanx1a in the outer and drPanx1b in the inner fish retina. A functional comparison of the evolutionary distant fish and mouse Panx1s revealed both, preserved and unique properties. Preserved functions are the capability to form channels opening at resting potential, which are sensitive to known gap junction and hemichannel blockers, intracellular calcium, extracellular ATP and pH changes. However, drPanx1b is unique due to its highly complex glycosylation pattern and distinct electrophysiological gating kinetics. The existence of two Panx1 proteins in zebrafish displaying distinct tissue distribution, protein modification and electrophysiological properties, suggests that both proteins fulfill different functions in vivo.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77722. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The membrane-associated palmitoylated protein 5 (MPP5 or PALS1) is thought to organize intracellular PALS1-CRB-MUPP1 protein scaffolds in the retina that are involved in maintenance of photoreceptor-Müller glia cell adhesion. In humans, the Crumbs homolog 1 (CRB1) gene is mutated in progressive types of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis. However, there is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation for CRB1 mutations, which suggests that other components of the CRB complex may influence the severity of retinal disease. Therefore, to understand the physiological role of the Crumbs complex proteins, especially PALS1, we generated and analyzed conditional knockdown mice for Pals1. Small irregularly shaped spots were detected throughout the PALS1 deficient retina by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The electroretinography a- and b-wave was severely attenuated in the aged mutant retinas, suggesting progressive degeneration of photoreceptors. The histological analysis showed abnormal retinal pigment epithelium structure, ectopic photoreceptor nuclei in the subretinal space, an irregular outer limiting membrane, half rosettes of photoreceptors in the outer plexiform layer, and a thinner photoreceptor synaptic layer suggesting improper photoreceptor cell layering during retinal development. The PALS1 deficient retinas showed reduced levels of Crumbs complex proteins adjacent to adherens junctions, upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein indicative of gliosis, and persisting programmed cell death after retinal maturation. The phenotype suggests important functions of PALS1 in the retinal pigment epithelium in addition to the neural retina.
    Journal of Neuroscience 11/2011; 31(47):17230-41. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential subfamily melastatin (TRPM)1 cation channels of retinal ON-bipolar cells are modulated via a mGluR6 (GMR6) signaling cascade. While light-microscopy shows these channels are located on the tips of ON-bipolar cells dendrites, near rod and cone synaptic ribbons, TRPM1 localization at the electron-microscope level is currently not described. The authors report here the ultrastructural localization of TRPM1 in the human retina. TRPM1 was localized in postmortem human retinas by immunohistochemistry at both the light and electron microscope levels. Additionally, TRPM1 expression was studied using in situ hybridization, laser dissection microscopy, and PCR techniques. TRPM1-immunoreactivity was located on the dendrites and soma of ON-bipolar cells at the light microscope level. At the electron microscope level TRPM1-immunoreactivity was located on the tips of ON-bipolar cell dendrites that were invaginating cone pedicles and rod spherules. In addition, TRPM1-immunoreactivity was occasionally found on the rod spherules ribbons, suggesting that at least a proportion of rods may also express TRPM1. In situ hybridization showed TRPM1 encoding RNA in inner nuclear layer somata and in some photoreceptors. The presence of TRPM1-RNA in photoreceptors was confirmed by PCR in pure photoreceptor material obtained with a laser dissection microscope. In the human retina TRPM1 is expressed on ON-bipolar cell dendrites that invaginate photoreceptor terminals. TRPM1 is also expressed on the synaptic ribbons of a subclass of rods, suggesting a dual function for TRPM1 in the ON-pathway.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 09/2011; 52(11):8356-62. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells generate the inhibitory surround of bipolar cells, an essential step in contrast enhancement. For the last decades, the mechanism involved in this inhibitory synaptic pathway has been a major controversy in retinal research. One hypothesis suggests that connexin hemichannels mediate this negative feedback signal; another suggests that feedback is mediated by protons. Mutant zebrafish were generated that lack connexin 55.5 hemichannels in horizontal cells. Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were made from isolated horizontal cells and cones in flat mount retinas. Light-induced feedback from horizontal cells to cones was reduced in mutants. A reduction of feedback was also found when horizontal cells were pharmacologically hyperpolarized but was absent when they were pharmacologically depolarized. Hemichannel currents in isolated horizontal cells showed a similar behavior. The hyperpolarization-induced hemichannel current was strongly reduced in the mutants while the depolarization-induced hemichannel current was not. Intracellular recordings were made from horizontal cells. Consistent with impaired feedback in the mutant, spectral opponent responses in horizontal cells were diminished in these animals. A behavioral assay revealed a lower contrast-sensitivity, illustrating the role of the horizontal cell to cone feedback pathway in contrast enhancement. Model simulations showed that the observed modifications of feedback can be accounted for by an ephaptic mechanism. A model for feedback, in which the number of connexin hemichannels is reduced to about 40%, fully predicts the specific asymmetric modification of feedback. To our knowledge, this is the first successful genetic interference in the feedback pathway from horizontal cells to cones. It provides direct evidence for an unconventional role of connexin hemichannels in the inhibitory synapse between horizontal cells and cones. This is an important step in resolving a long-standing debate about the unusual form of (ephaptic) synaptic transmission between horizontal cells and cones in the vertebrate retina.
    PLoS Biology 07/2011; 9(7):e1001107. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-Glutamate, the photoreceptor neurotransmitter, depolarizes horizontal cells and OFF-bipolar cells by ionotropic receptors and hyperpolarizes ON-bipolar cells by metabotropic receptors. Despite extensive light microscopy on the distribution of glutamate receptors in zebrafish retina, there are little ultrastructural data. Given the importance of zebrafish in studies on the genetic manipulation of retinal development and function, precise data on the synaptic neurochemical organization of the zebrafish retina is needed. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the ultrastructural localization of glutamate receptor subunits GluR2, GluR4, NMDA2B (NR2B) and mGluR1alpha in zebrafish outer plexiform layer (OPL). These antibodies were chosen because of an apparent conservation of localization of GluR2, GluR4 and mGluR1alpha in the vertebrate OPL, while there is some support for NMDA receptors in the OPL. GluR2-immunoreactivity (IR) was in all horizontal cell dendrites that invaginated cone pedicles and rod spherules. Three arrangements of dendrites contained GluR-IR in rod spherules: classical-type with GluR2-IR on lateral horizontal cell dendrites, a butterfly-shaped horizontal cell dendrite, and a goblet-shaped dendrite, likely of bipolar cell origin. GluR4-IR was restricted to dendrites of OFF-bipolar cells that innervated rod and cone terminals. NR2B-IR was restricted to a subtype of cone ON-bipolar cell. mGluR1alpha-IR was restricted to ON mixed rod/cone (Mb) bipolar cells whose dendrites innervated rod and cone synaptic terminals. The presence of mGluR1alpha on Mb bipolar cell dendrites is consistent with a role in retrograde endocannabinoid suppression. The subunit composition of glutamate receptors should affect the kinetics and pharmacology of these cells to glutamate receptor activation.
    Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 08/2009; 37(4):254-65. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the retina, chemical and electrical synapses couple neurons into functional networks. New candidates encoding for electrical synapse proteins have recently emerged. In the present study, we determined the localization of the candidate protein pannexin1 (zfPanx1) in the zebrafish retina and studied the functional properties of zfPanx1 exogenously expressed in Neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells. zfPanx1 was identified on the surface of horizontal cell dendrites invaginating deeply into the cone pedicle near the glutamate release sites of the cones, providing in vivo evidence for hemichannel formation at that location. This strategic position of zfPanx1 in the photoreceptor synapse could potentially allow modulation of cone output. Using whole cell voltage clamp and excised patch recordings of transfected N2a cells, we demonstrated that zfPanx1 forms voltage-activated hemichannels with a large unitary conductance in vitro. These channels can open at physiological membrane potentials. Functional channels were not formed following mutation of a single amino acid within a conserved protein motif recently shown to be N-glycosylated in rodent Panx1. Together, these findings indicate that zfPanx1 displays properties similar to its mammalian homologues and can potentially play an important role in functions of the outer retina.
    Neuroscience 06/2009; 162(4):1039-54. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies designed to identify the mechanism by which retinal horizontal cells communicate with cones have implicated two processes. According to one account, horizontal cell hyperpolarization induces an increase in pH within the synaptic cleft that activates the calcium current (Ca(2+)-current) in cones, enhancing transmitter release. An alternative account suggests that horizontal cell hyperpolarization increases the Ca(2+)-current to promote transmitter release through a hemichannel-mediated ephaptic mechanism. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we interfered with the pH regulating systems in the retina and studied the effects on the feedback responses of cones and horizontal cells. We found that the pH buffers HEPES and Tris partially inhibit feedback responses in cones and horizontal cells and lead to intracellular acidification of neurons. Application of 25 mM acetate, which does not change the extracellular pH buffer capacity, does lead to both intracellular acidification and inhibition of feedback. Because intracellular acidification is known to inhibit hemichannels, the key experiment used to test the pH hypothesis, i.e. increasing the extracellular pH buffer capacity, does not discriminate between a pH-based feedback system and a hemichannel-mediated feedback system. To test the pH hypothesis in a manner independent of artificial pH-buffer systems, we studied the effect of interfering with the endogenous pH buffer, the bicarbonate/carbonic anhydrase system. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase allowed for large changes in pH in the synaptic cleft of bipolar cell terminals and cone terminals, but the predicted enhancement of the cone feedback responses, according to the pH-hypothesis, was not observed. These experiments thus failed to support a proton mediated feedback mechanism. The alternative hypothesis, the hemichannel-mediated ephaptic feedback mechanism, was therefore studied experimentally, and its feasibility was buttressed by means of a quantitative computer model of the cone/horizontal cell synapse. We conclude that the data presented in this paper offers further support for physiologically relevant ephaptic interactions in the retina.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(6):e6090. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 01/2009; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Willem Kamphuis, Jan Klooster
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    ABSTRACT: Immunodetection techniques are dependent on enzyme-protein conjugates for the visualization of antigen-antibody complexes. One of the most widely used is the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. However, treatment of certain tissues with ABC reagents alone may result in high background, which is indicative for the presence of endogenous biotin or biotinylated proteins. In goldfish and salamander retinal sections, we observed a distinct staining pattern, presumably through binding of avidin to endogenous biotin in Müller cells. These findings summon for caution in the application of detection systems based on biotinylated antibodies or biotinylated DNA probes.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2008; 418:129-38. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes of the interneuronal coupling mediated by electrical synapse proteins in response to light adaptation and receptive field shaping are a paramount feature in the photoreceptor/horizontal cell/bipolar cell (PRC/HC/BPC) complex of the outer retina. The regulation of these processes is not fully understood at the molecular level but they may require information transfer to the nucleus by locally generated messengers. Electrical synapse proteins may comprise a feasible molecular determinant in such an information-laden signalling pathway. Connexin55.5 (Cx55.5) is a connexin with horizontal cell-restricted expression in zebrafish accumulating at dendritic sites within the PRC/HC/BPC complex in form of hemichannels where light-dependent plasticity occurs. Here we provide evidence for the generation of a carboxy-terminal domain of Cx55.5. The protein product is translated from the Cx55.5 mRNA by internal translation initiation from an in-frame ATG codon involving a putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element localized in the coding region of Cx55.5. This protein product resembling an 11 kDa domain of Cx55.5 is partially located in the nucleus in vivo and in vitro. Our results demonstrate the generation of a second protein from the coding region of Cx55.5 by an IRES mediated process. The nuclear occurrence of a fraction of this protein provides first evidence that this electrical synapse protein may participate in a putative cytoplasmic to nuclear signal transfer. This suggests that Cx55.5 could be involved in gene regulation making structural plasticity at the PRC/HC/BPC complex feasible.
    BMC Molecular Biology 02/2008; 9:52. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the goldfish outer plexiform layer by light-and electron-microscopical immunohistochemistry. The mGluR1alpha antibody labeled putative ON-type bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes in both rod spherules and cone triads. Immunolabeling for mGluR2/3 was absent in the rod synaptic complex but was found at horizontal cell dendrites directly opposing the cone synaptic ribbon. The mGluR5 antibody labeled Müller cell processes wrapping rod terminals and horizontal cell somata. The mGluR7 antibody labeled mainly horizontal cell dendrites invaginating rods and cones and some putative bipolar cell dendrites in the cone synaptic complex. The finding of abundant expression of various mGluRs in bipolar and horizontal cell dendrites suggests multiple sites of glutamatergic modulation in the outer retina.
    Cell and Tissue Research 01/2008; 330(3):389-403. · 3.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

899 Citations
225.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2000–2014
    • Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Signal Processing Inc.
      Maryland, United States
  • 1998–2009
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Neurobiology and Behavior
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
  • 1994
    • Maastricht University
      • Oogheelkunde
      Maastricht, Provincie Limburg, Netherlands