[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Augmented-vision devices that we are developing to aid people with low vision (impaired vision) employ vision multiplexing- the simultaneous presentation of two different views to one or both eyes. This approach enables compensation for vision deficits without depriving the wearers of their normal views of the scene. Ideally, wearers would make use of the simultaneous views to alert them to potential mobility hazards, without a need to divide attention consciously. Inattentional blindness, the frequent inability to notice otherwise-obvious events in one scene while paying attention to another, overlapping, scene, works against that sort of augmentation, so we are investigating ways to mitigate it. In this study, we filtered the augmented view, creating cartoon-like representations, to make it easier to detect significant features in that view and to minimise interference with the normal view. We reproduced a classic inattentional blindness experiment to evaluate the effect, and found that, surprisingly, edge filtering had no detectable effect - positive or negative - on the noticing of unexpected events in the unattended scene. We then modified the experiment to determine if the inattentional blindness was because of the confusion of overlaid views or simply a matter of attention, and found the latter to be the case.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a video filter that produces cartoon-like images consisting of bipolar white and black transitions at luminance edges of the input video, for use in augmented-vision devices. When tested in an inattentional blindness experiment it had no effect on the detectability of unexpected events, but did affect speed of responses to the attended task Response time improved when the unattended scene was filtered and degraded when the attended scene was filtered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visually impaired people are permitted to use bioptic telescopes for driving in many states in the United States. However, it has been suggested that the telescope is used only to meet the visual acuity criteria for licensure. In this study, a survey was used to establish the extent to which bioptic telescopes are used by and meet the driving needs of people with moderately reduced visual acuity.
A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 58 bioptic drivers was administered by telephone interview. Bioptic telescope usage patterns were quantified with questions designed specifically for the study. Driving patterns were quantified by use of the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Subjects were recruited from four sources across the United States to ensure a range of bioptic training and driving experience.
The majority (74%) rated the bioptic telescope as very helpful, and almost all (90%) would continue to use it for driving, even if it were not required for driving licensure; however, only 62% reported always wearing the bioptic when driving. Subjects had relatively unrestricted driving habits, driving a mean of 222 +/- 211 miles per week, and 85% aged < or =65 years drove to work. With the exception of driving in rain, in bright sunlight, and at night, there was little difficulty with driving in a variety of situations, and levels of driving avoidance due to vision impairment were low (<10%).
The bioptic telescope met the (self-reported) driving needs of the majority of visually impaired drivers in this survey and was found to be a useful aid for tasks requiring resolution of detail.