Ruth Woodward

Advanced BioScience Laboratories Inc., Maryland, United States

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Publications (7)63.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous non-human primate studies have shown replication competent adenovirus (Ad) HIVenv/rev and SIVenv/rev recombinants to be promising vaccine candidates. To broaden induced immunity in rhesus macaques, an Ad type 5 host range (Ad5hr) mutant vector with an inserted SIV gag gene was added to the vaccine regimen. Immunity to the encoded SIV Env, Rev, and Gag gene products was evaluated following two immunizations with the same recombinants. The vaccines were administered intranasally plus orally via stomach tube at weeks 0 and 12. The recombinants replicated well in the upper respiratory tract but poorly in the gut, suggesting enteric-coated capsules might improve oral delivery to the intestine. SIV-specific cellular immunity was induced in all 16 immunized macaques. Fourteen exhibited positive interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT responses, and nine, including two lacking IFN-gamma responses, exhibited SIV-specific T-cell proliferative activity. IFN-gamma secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to SIV Gag, Env, and Rev peptides were induced in 73, 53, and 27% of macaques, respectively, and were boosted two- to four-fold by the second immunization. A persistent response to Gag was evident at least 10 weeks thereafter. p11C tetramer staining confirmed elicitation of SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells in Mamu-A*01 macaques. Proliferative responses were more frequent after the second immunization, and binding antibody titers to SIV gp120 were significantly boosted by the immunization regimen. We conclude that a second administration of recombinants based in the same Ad5hr vector can effectively boost immunity to inserted gene products, obviating development of several recombinants in different Ad serotypes for multiple immunizations.
    Vaccine 10/2003; 21(25-26):4022-35. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of cellular immunity in the intestinal lamina propria of rhesus macaques has been used previously to assess protective immunity against mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges. As this technique requires survival surgery to obtain jejunal tissue, effects of surgical stress on the immune system were investigated. SIV-specific immune responses, including IgG and IgA binding antibodies in sera and mucosal secretions, IgG and IgA secreting cells in peripheral blood, IgG neutralizing antibodies, T-cell proliferative responses, and interferon-gamma secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were evaluated pre- and post-surgery in macaques immunized with adenovirus-SIV recombinant vaccines and SIV envelope protein and in SIV-infected macaques. No differences in these immune parameters were observed in SIV-naïve, immunized macaques or healthy SIV-infected macaques with regard to surgery. A dramatic increase in total IgA antibody level following surgery in the rectal secretions of one SIV-infected macaque that was rapidly progressing to AIDS and failed to recover from surgery was attributed to an abscess that developed at the intestinal site. To date, nearly 30 other macaques have undergone the intestinal survival surgery, some on more than one occasion, without experiencing any clinical difficulty. Overall, our results suggest that in healthy macaques, intestinal resection survival surgery can be conducted safely. Further, the method can be used to reliably sample the intestinal mucosa without major or persistent impact on humoral or cellular immune responses.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 01/2003; 31(6):313-22. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elucidation of the host factors which influence susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and disease progression has important theoretical and practical implications. Rhesus macaque 359, a vaccine control animal, resisted two successive intravaginal challenges with SIV(mac251) and failed to seroconvert. Here, after an additional intrarectal SIVmac32H challenge, macaque 359 remained highly resistant to infection. Viral RNA (10(6) copies/ml) was observed in plasma only at week 2 postchallenge. Virus isolation and proviral DNA were positive only once at week eight postchallenge. The animal remained seronegative and cleared SIV in vivo. Its blood and lymph node cells obtained at 49 weeks after intrarectal challenge did not transmit SIV to a naive macaque. We found that the resistance of macaque 359 to SIV infection was not due to a high level of CD8(+) suppressor activity but to an inherent resistance of its CD4(+) T cells. To elucidate the basis for the unusually strong resistance of macaque 359 to SIV infection in vivo and in vitro, we investigated early events of viral infection and replication in CD4(+) cells of macaque 359, including expression and mutation screening of SIV coreceptors and analysis of viral entry and reverse transcription. Mutation screening revealed no genetic alteration in SIV coreceptors. PCR analysis revealed a significant delay in production of early in vitro reverse transcription intermediates in macaque 359 cells compared to susceptible controls, but cell fusion assays showed that SIV entered the CD4(+) CCR5(+) cells of macaque 359 as readily as cells of macaques susceptible to SIV infection. Our results suggest that the resistance of macaque 359 to SIV infection is due to a postentry block in viral replication and implicate a cellular inhibitory mechanism in its CD4(+) T cells. Identification of this host mechanism will help further elucidate the biochemistry of reverse transcription and may suggest therapeutic strategies. Determining the prevalence of this host resistance mechanism among macaques may lead to better design of SIV pathogenesis and vaccine studies.
    Journal of Virology 07/2002; 76(12):6016-26. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhesus macaques were immunized with a replication-deficient vaccinia virus (MVA) expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 89.6 envelope (env) and SIV gagpol (MVA/SHIV89.6) with or without a protein boost consisting of soluble 89.6 env (gp140). Immunization with MVA/SHIV89.6 alone elicited binding antibodies in all animals and neutralizing antibodies in 5 of 15 animals. Both types of antibodies were enhanced by protein boosting. In addition, CD8 cells exhibiting CM9 tetramer binding were detected in the subset of animals that were Mamu-A*01 positive. Animals were challenged intravenously with either SHIV-89.6 (Study 1) or the more pathogenic derivative SHIV-89.6P (Study 2). In Study 1, all control and vaccinated animals except one became infected. However, the levels of viremia were as follows: controls > rMVA alone > rMVA + protein. The differences were statistically significant between immunized and control groups but not between the two immunized groups. In Study 2, all animals became infected; however, the vaccinated group exhibited a 5-fold reduction in peak viremia and a 10-fold reduction in the postacute phase viremia in comparison to the controls. All of the controls required euthanasia by 10 months after challenge. A relationship between vaccine-induced antibody titers and reduction in virus burden was observed in both studies. Thus, immunization with MVA/SHIV89.6 alone or with a protein boost stimulated both arms of the immune system and resulted in significant control of viremia and delayed progression to disease after challenge with SHIV-89.6P.
    Virology 03/2002; 294(2):270-81. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T-cell-mediated immune effector mechanisms play an important role in the containment of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) replication after infection. Both vaccination- and infection-induced T-cell responses are dependent on the host major histocompatibility complex classes I and II (MHC-I and MHC-II) antigens. Here we report that both inherent, host-dependent immune responses to SIVmac251 infection and vaccination-induced immune responses to viral antigens were able to reduce virus replication and/or CD4+ T-cell loss. Both the presence of the MHC-I Mamu-A*01 genotype and vaccination of rhesus macaques with ALVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env (ALVAC-SIV-gpe) contributed to the restriction of SIVmac251 replication during primary infection, preservation of CD4+ T cells, and delayed disease progression following intrarectal challenge exposure of the animals to SIV(mac251 (561)). ALVAC-SIV-gpe immunization induced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses cumulatively in 67% of the immunized animals. Following viral challenge, a significant secondary virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response was observed in the vaccinated macaques. In the same immunized macaques, a decrease in virus load during primary infection (P = 0.0078) and protection from CD4 loss during both acute and chronic phases of infection (P = 0.0099 and P = 0.03, respectively) were observed. A trend for enhanced survival of the vaccinated macaques was also observed. Neither boosting the ALVAC-SIV-gpe with gp120 immunizations nor administering the vaccine by the combination of mucosal and systemic immunization routes increased significantly the protective effect of the ALVAC-SIV-gpe vaccine. While assessing the role of MHC-I Mamu-A*01 alone in the restriction of viremia following challenge of nonvaccinated animals with other SIV isolates, we observed that the virus load was not significantly lower in Mamu-A*01-positive macaques following intravenous challenge with either SIV(mac251 (561)) or SIV(SME660). However, a significant delay in CD4+ T-cell loss was observed in Mamu-A*01-positive macaques in each group. Of interest, in the case of intravenous or intrarectal challenge with the chimeric SIV/HIV strains SHIV(89.6P) or SHIV(KU2), respectively, MHC-I Mamu-A*01-positive macaques did not significantly restrict primary viremia. The finding of the protective effect of the Mamu-A*01 molecule parallels the protective effect of the B*5701 HLA allele in HIV-1-infected humans and needs to be accounted for in the evaluation of vaccine efficacy against SIV challenge models.
    Journal of Virology 02/2002; 76(1):292-302. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Given the mucosal transmission of HIV-1, we compared whether a mucosal vaccine could induce mucosal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and protect rhesus macaques against mucosal infection with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) more effectively than the same vaccine given subcutaneously. Here we show that mucosal CTLs specific for simian immunodeficiency virus can be induced by intrarectal immunization of macaques with a synthetic-peptide vaccine incorporating the LT(R192G) adjuvant. This response correlated with the level of T-helper response. After intrarectal challenge with pathogenic SHIV-Ku2, viral titers were eliminated more completely (to undetectable levels) both in blood and intestine, a major reservoir for virus replication, in intrarectally immunized animals than in subcutaneously immunized or control macaques. Moreover, CD4+ T cells were better preserved. Thus, induction of CTLs in the intestinal mucosa, a key site of virus replication, with a mucosal AIDS vaccine ameliorates infection by SHIV in non-human primates.
    Nature Medicine 11/2001; 7(12):1320-1326. · 22.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not likely to eradicate human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) infection. Here we explore the effect of therapeutic immunization in the context of ART during primary infection using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV251) macaque model. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the highly attenuated poxvirus-based NYVAC-SIV vaccine expressing structural genes elicited vigorous virus-specific CD4 + and CD8+ T cell responses in macaques that responded effectively to ART. Following discontinuation of a six-month ART regimen, viral rebound occurred in most animals, but was transient in six of eight vaccinated animals. Viral rebound was also transient in four of seven mock-vaccinated control animals. These data establish the importance of antiretroviral treatment during primary infection and demonstrate that virus-specific immune responses in the infected host can be expanded by therapeutic immunization.
    Nature Medicine 09/2000; 6(10):1140-1146. · 22.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

525 Citations
63.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003
    • Advanced BioScience Laboratories Inc.
      Maryland, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Basic Research Laboratory
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2002
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Basic Research Laboratory
      Maryland, United States