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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelium is a key component of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, yet we know little regarding the fine-scale diversity and distribution of mycelium in ECM fungal communities. We collected four 20 × 20 × 2-cm(3) (800-cm(3) ) slices of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil and divided each into 100 2 × 2 × 2-cm(3) (8-cm(3) ) cubes. The presence of mycelium of ECM fungi was determined using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) database terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach. As expected, many more ECM fungi were detected as mycelium than as ectomycorrhizas in a cube or slice. More surprisingly, up to one-quarter of the 43 species previously detected as ectomycorrhizas over an area of 400 m(2) could be detected in a single 8-cm(3) cube, and up to three-quarters in a single 800-cm(3) slice. ECM mycelium frequency decreased markedly with depth and there were distinct 'hotspots' of mycelium in the moss/F1 layer. Our data demonstrate a high diversity of ECM mycelium in a small (8-cm(3) ) volume of substrate, and indicate that the spatial scale at which ECM species are distributed as mycelium may be very different from the spatial scale at which they are distributed as tips.
New Phytologist 12/2013; 201(4). DOI:10.1111/nph.12637 · 7.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes (Boletinus cavipes, Paxillus involutus, Suillus variegatus and Pisolithus tinctorius), two pathogenic root-infecting basidiomycetes (Heterobasidion annosum and Armillaria ostoyae) and the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi were screened for chitinolytic activity in liquid culture. N-Acetylglucosaminidase, exo- and endo-chitinase activity were distinguished using fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates. N-Acetylglucosaminidase was the predominant enzyme activity recorded: exochitinase was the predominant chitinase. The pathogenic basidiomycetes had higher specific activities against all substrates than the ectomycorrhizal fungi. There was considerable variation in activity between the ectomycorrhizal isolates. P. cinnamomi showed N-acetylglucosaminidase activity only. In general, chitinolytic activities were highest when chitin was present in the growth medium and were repressed in the presence of glucose. Diammonium phosphate did not repress chitinolytic activities.
Mycological Research 06/2013; 99(8):935-941. DOI:10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80752-1 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungi are a vital component of ecosystem biodiversity, but spend most of their lives hidden from view. Monitoring ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi has mostly relied on the abundance and distribution of above-ground sporocarps without consideration of their below-ground vegetative mycelium. Molecular methods may provide the means of obtaining this information and allow a more accurate determination of their possible decline and threat of extinction. Stipitate hydnoid sporocarp occurrence was recorded and mapped for 9 yr at two sites in Scotland, UK. Soil samples were collected at locations where sporocarps of Hydnellum aurantiacum, Hydnellum caeruleum, Phellodon niger or Sarcodon glaucopus had occurred 1–4 yr previously. Species-specific DNA was detected at all sporocarp locations and RNA was detected at 75 % of the locations indicating that these species remained below-ground and viable at the majority of locations for at least 4 yr in the absence of sporocarps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities are taxonomically diverse, and independent manipulation of both intra- and interspecific diversity has previously been shown to positively influence the productivity and activity of EM fungi. Here, we combine manipulations of intra- and interspecific richness and test the effects of a genotype-species gradient on the biomass production and respiration of EM fungi in vitro. Genotype identity had the most pronounced effect on fungal productivity, and in some cases variation within species was greater than between species. We found small negative effects of both species and genotype richness on biomass production, CO2 efflux and the final nitrogen (N) content of the fungal communities corresponding to mixed negative selection and complementarity effects. Our study highlights the degree of variability between individual EM fungi at the genotype level, and consequently emphasises the importance of individual genotypes for playing key roles in shaping belowground community functioning.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial ecology has made large advances over the last decade, mostly because of improvements in molecular analysis techniques that have enabled the detection and identification of progressively larger numbers of microbial species. However, determining the ecological patterns and processes taking place in communities of microbes remains a significant challenge. Are communities randomly assembled through dispersal and priority effects, or do species interact with each other leading to positive and negative associations? For mycorrhizal fungi, evidence is accumulating that stochastic and competitive interactions between species may both have a role in shaping community structure. Could the methodological approach, which is often incidence based, impact the outcomes detected? Here, we applied an incidence-based Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) database approach to examine species diversity and ecological interactions within a community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Co-occurrence analysis revealed that the ECM community colonizing root tips was strongly structured by competitive interactions, or ecological processes generating a similar spatial pattern, rather than neutral processes. Analysis of β-diversity indicated that community structure was significantly more similar (spatially autocorrelated) at distances equal to or <3.41 m. The eight most frequently encountered species in the root tip community of ECM fungi displayed significant competitive interactions with at least one other species, showing that the incidence-based approach was capable of detecting this sort of ecological information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contamination of irrigation water represents a major constraint to Bangladesh agriculture, resulting in elevated levels in the terrestrial systems. Lux bacterial biosensor technology has previously been used to measure the toxicity of metals in various environmental matrices. While arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have their most significant effect on phosphorus uptake, but showed alleviated metal toxicity to the host plant. The study examined the effects of arsenic and inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae, on lentil (Lens culinaris L. cv. Titore). Plants were grown with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum for 9 weeks in a sand and terra-green mixture (50:50, V/V) and watered with five levels of arsenic (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 mg As/L arsenate). The results showed that arsenic addition above 1 mg/L significantly reduced percentage of mycorrhizal root infection. On further analysis a close relationship was established with the vegetative and reproductive properties of lentil (L. culinaris) plants compared to the percentage bioluminescence of the soil leachate. However, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation reduced arsenic concentration in roots and shoots. Higher concentrations of arsenic (5, 10 mg As/L arsenate) reduced the mycorrhizal efficiency to increase phosphorus content and nitrogen fixation. Therefore, this study showed that increased concentration of arsenic in irrigation water had direct implications to the lentil (L. culinaris) plants overall performance. Moreover the use of bioassay demonstrated that mycorrhiza and clay particle reduced arsenic bioavailability in soil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In view of the close association between ericaceous shrubs and ectomycorrhizal trees in forest ecosystems, the interaction between ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes and the hair roots of four typical ericoid mycorrhizal hosts was investigated in vitro. Seedlings of Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, V. macrocarpon and Calluna vulgaris were inoculated with each of four ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes from different phylogenetic groups (Laccaria bicolor, Lactarius musteus,
Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis) in a low carbon and nutrient agar-cellophane culture system. Two ericoid mycorrhizal Helotiales ascomycetes (Meliniomyces bicolor in the Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate and a mycobiont out of the Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate) were included for comparison. Interactions between fungi and hair roots ranged from neutral to surface attachment, and the formation of intracellular hyphal coils. Root and shoot responses to inoculation were different between the host/fungus combinations. The ectomycorrhizal fungus L. bicolor formed extensive intracellular colonization, spreading cell-to-cell with multiple hyphal entry points and intracellular hyphal coils with single entry points in C. vulgaris and V. macrocarpon epidermal cells respectively, however, no significant effects on plant growth were detected. Meliniomyces bicolor formed intracellular hyphal coils in the epidermal cells of V. myrtillus and V. macrocarpon but not the other host spp. The M. bicolor isolate stimulate V. myrtillus root length about 2.5 times. Interestingly, although the unknown ascomycete strain out of the Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate formed intracellular hyphal coils in epidermal cells of all host plants, it suppressed the growth of C. vulgaris, V. myrtillus, and V. vitis-idaea but not to V. macrocarpon. Further and more detailed experimentation under more ecological realistic conditions for a longer period of time is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of biodiversity of aboveground organisms have been widely investigated in a range of ecosystems, yet whether similar responses are also seen in belowground microbial communities, such as ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, are little understood. We investigated, in vitro, the effects of a gradient of 1–8 species of EM fungi interacting with substratum carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio on biomass production and CO2 efflux. The model experimental systems enabled us to recover and measure biomass of individuals within communities and calculate net selection and complementarity effects. Both biomass and CO2 efflux increased with species richness particularly under high N concentrations. Moreover, net biodiversity effects were largely positive, driven by both selection and complementarity effects. Our results reveal, in pure culture, the implications of EM species richness on community productivity and C cycling, particularly under high N conditions, and constitute the basis for future experiments under natural conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As)-contaminated irrigation water is responsible for high As levels in soils and crops in many parts of the world,
particularly in the Bengal Delta, Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. While arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi markedly improve
phosphorus (P) uptake, they can also alleviate metal toxicity. In this study, the effects of superphosphate and inoculation
with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae on P and As uptake of lentil were investigated. Plant height, shoot dry weight, shoot/root P concentration, and shoot P content
increased due to mycorrhizal inoculation. However, As concentration in roots/shoots and root As content were reduced, plant
height, shoot dry weight, shoot/root P concentration/content, and root As concentration and content increased due to superphosphate
application. Root P concentration decreased with increasing As concentration. It was apparent that As concentration and content
in shoots/roots increased with increasing As concentration in irrigation water. Superphosphate interaction with G. mosseae reduced the role of mycorrhizal infection in terms of enhancing P nutrition and reducing uptake of potentially toxic As into
plant parts. The role and relationship of mycorrhizal in respect of P nutrition and As remediation efficiency in plant parts
was established. In conclusion, it was worth alluding to that lentil with AM fungal inoculation can reduce As uptake and improve
P nutrition. However, in retrospect superphosphate increased P and As uptake and decreased the role of the mycorrhizal association.
This resulted in stimulating increased P uptake while decreasing As uptake in lentil.
Water Air and Soil Pollution 10/2011; 221(1):169-182. DOI:10.1007/s11270-011-0780-2 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ectomycorrhizal mycelium is a large component of boreal and temperate forest soil microbial biomass and the resulting necromass is likely to be an important source of nutrients for saprotrophic microorganisms. Here we test the effects of species richness of ectomycorrhizal mycelial biomass on short-term CO2 efflux by amending forest soil with necromass from 8 fungal species added separately and in mixtures of 2, 4 and 8 species. All additions of necromass rapidly increased soil CO2 efflux compared to unamended controls but CO2 efflux increased significantly with species richness. Efflux of CO2 did not correlate with the carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) contents or the C:N ratio of the added necromass. The study demonstrates that species diversity of dead ectomycorrhizal fungal hyphae can have important consequences for soil CO2 efflux, and suggests decomposition of hyphae is regulated by specific constituents of the nutrient pools in the necromass rather than the total quantities added.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A field survey was carried out to investigate the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Gnetum spp. in Cameroon. The extent and variation of ectomycorrhizal colonisation as well as the degree of host specificity were evaluated. Gnetum spp. were found to be almost always ectomycorrhizal in all sites visited. There were just two ectomycorrhizal morphotypes ('yellow' and 'white') associated with this plant. Such low diversity is unusual for an ectomycorrhizal plant. The yellow morphotype was the most widespread and prevalent and was identified by morphological and molecular methods to have been formed with Scleroderma sinnamariense. Propagules of this fungus were present in soil collected from farm lands, cocoa plantations, Chromolaena and bush fallows, as well as in a relatively undisturbed forest harbouring ectomycorrhizal legumes. The fungus responsible for the white morphotype was identified as also belonging to the genus Scleroderma by ITS sequence similarity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal structures were absent in cleared and stained portions of the roots.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of mycorrhization on the growth and P uptake of Gnetum africanum rooted cuttings at low and high inorganic phosphorus availability.
Gnetum rooted cuttings were grown in a peat/sand 50:50 mix to enable the development of fine roots. Nutrient evaluation was carried out in sand/peat 10:1 mix (NIL), mix amended with 30 mg/kg P (I), mix amended with 300 mg/kg P (II).
Generally ectomycorrhizal plants showed better growth than non-mycorrhizal plants. The number of new EM tips formed decreased with an increase in P level. Ectomycorrhization led to an increase in shoot dry weight, number of leaves and shoot elongation. Ectomycorrhization of Gnetum also resulted to increased access to added P whilst the effect on N uptake was greatest when P was added.
The results showed that Gnetum responds positively to mycorrhization and that the response may not be solely attributed to increased uptake of nutrients including P and N. From this observation it is certain that in the domestication of Gnetum, mycorrhization alone would not be enough but that a combination of mycorrhization and nutrient addition would be necessary for the successful establishment and growth of the plant.
Plant and Soil 04/2011; 353(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s11104-011-1038-x · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media, Ericaceae) is in need of conservation action in Scotland. Although widespread, it is locally distributed in dwarf shrub
heath and more commonly in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodlands. A recent study on the mycorrhizal status of Pyrola suggested that they associate with a restricted range of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Here, we examined the hypothesis that
specialisation by P. media for fungi usually associated with Scots pine is a factor in promoting its occurrence in this habitat. The fungal community
associated with the roots of P. media growing in a Scots pine forest was determined by morphotyping, polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing. Molecular
identification found 49 taxa representing ecto- and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, dark septate endophytes, saprotrophs, and fungi
of unknown trophic status. The majority of the taxa (67.4%) were Basidiomycota, with 24.4% known to be ECM fungi specific
to Pinus sp. or conifers. However, a wide range of other mycorrhizal fungi with varying degrees of host specificity were also found,
including taxa usually associated with deciduous hosts. In conclusion, the broad range of mycorrhizal fungi recovered from
the roots of P. media suggests that specialization is not a major factor in determining its distribution.
KeywordsConservation-Ericaceae-Fungal community-ITS-Mixotrophy-Mycorrhiza-Native woodland-
Biodiversity and Conservation 12/2010; 19(14):3963-3971. DOI:10.1007/s10531-010-9940-8 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • Fungi in the Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate have been recovered from the roots of co-occurring ericaceous shrubs and ectomycorrhizal trees. However, to date, there is no evidence that the same individual genotypes colonize both hosts, and no information on the extent of the mycelial networks that might form. • Using spatially explicit core sampling, we isolated fungi from neighbouring Pinus sylvestris (ectomycorrhizal) and Vaccinium vitis-idaea (ericoid mycorrhizal) roots and applied intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) typing to assess the occurrence and extent of shared genets. • Most isolates were identified as Meliniomyces variabilis, and isolates with identical ISSR profiles were obtained from neighbouring ericoid and ectomycorrhizal roots on a number of occasions. However, genet sizes were small (< 13 cm), and several genets were found in a single soil core. Genetic relatedness was independent of spatial separation at the scales investigated (< 43 m) and M. variabilis populations from sites 20 km apart were genetically indistinguishable. • We conclude that individual genets of M. variabilis can simultaneously colonize Scots pine and Vaccinium roots, but there is no evidence for the formation of large mycelial networks. Our data also suggest significant genotypic overlap between widely separated populations of this ubiquitous root-associated fungus.
New Phytologist 10/2010; 188(1):210-22. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03353.x · 7.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals and not just species are key components of biodiversity, yet the relationship between intraspecific diversity and ecosystem functioning in microbial systems remains largely untested. This limits our ability to understand and predict the effects of altered genetic diversity in regulating key ecosystem processes and functions. Here, we use a model fungal system to test the hypothesis that intraspecific genotypic richness of Paxillus obscurosporus stimulates biomass and CO(2) efflux, but that this is dependent on nitrogen supply. Using controlled experimental microcosms, we show that populations containing several genotypes (maximum 8) of the fungus had greater productivity and produced significantly more CO(2) than those with fewer genotypes. Moreover, intraspecific diversity had a much stronger effect than a four-fold manipulation of the carbon:nitrogen ratio of the growth medium. The effects of intraspecific diversity were underpinned by strong roles of individuals, but overall intraspecific diversity increased the propensity of populations to over-yield, indicating that both complementarity and selection effects can operate within species. Our data demonstrate the importance of intraspecific diversity over a range of nitrogen concentrations, and the need to consider fine scale phylogenetic information of microbial communities in understanding their contribution to ecosystem processes.
PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9):e12604. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012604 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New native pine forests provide potential new habitat for colonisation by stipitate hydnoid fungi but their ability to colonise and persist in these areas is unknown. Soil containing Scots pine seedlings and inoculum of Hydnellum peckii was transferred to Darroch Wids, which is a newly planted native forest on former agricultural land. Both H. peckii and Phellodon tomentosus were transferred to White Bridge, which once would have supported native Scots pine forest. Below-ground persistence of the inoculum was monitored by amplification of ITS sequences from soil DNA and RNA using species-specific primers, and root systems were screened for the presence of ectomycorrhizas of both target species. H. peckii DNA was consistently detected over 2.5 y in soil taken from the Darroch Wids site. The number of detections of H. peckii and P. tomentosus DNA at White Bridge showed a sharp decline over 1 y. RNA of the target species was detected in the majority of samples, however, no ectomycorrhizas were found at White Bridge. This suggests that establishment of new colonies of H. peckii and P. tomentosus is unpredictable.