A. Bolsunovsky

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Moscow, Russia

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Publications (41)47.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Submersed freshwater macrophytes are considered as relevant indicators for use in bulk bottom sediment contact tests. The purpose of this study was to estimate the validity of endpoints of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis for laboratory genotoxicity testing of natural bottom sediments. The inherent level of chromosome abnormalities (on artificial sediments) in roots of E. canadensis under laboratory conditions was lower than the percentage of abnormal cells in bulk sediments from the Yenisei River. The percentage of abnormal cells in roots of E. canadensis was more sensitive to the presence of genotoxic agents in laboratory contact tests than in the natural population of the plant. The spectra of chromosomal abnormalities that occur in roots of E. canadensis under natural conditions in the Yenisei River and in laboratory contact tests on the bulk bottom sediments from the Yenisei River were similar. Hence, chromosome abnormalities in roots of E. canadensis can be used as a relevant and sensitive genotoxicity endpoint in bottom sediment-contact tests.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 09/2015; 122:384-391. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.08.021 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We estimated toxicity, cyto- and genotoxicity of bulk sediments from the Yenisei River in laboratory bioassay based on using several endpoints of aquatic plant Elodea canadensis (Elodea). The samples of bottom sediments (BS) were collected in the Yenisei River upstream and downstream of the sources of chemical and radioactive contamination. The testing revealed different sensitivities of Elodea endpoints to the quality of BS: weight of shoots < length of shoots < mitotic index < length of roots < percent of abnormal cells. The response of the genotoxicity endpoint (percent of cells with chromosome abnormalities in roots of Elodea) was the highest on the sediments with chemical pollution, while the highest inhibition of toxicity endpoints (shoot and root length) occurred on the sediments with the highest level of radioactive pollution. The extreme response of Elodea endpoints to the quality of certain sediment samples may be regarded as related to the possible presence of unrevealed toxicants. Based on the investigation performed, we may conclude that E.canadensis can be used as an indicator species in laboratory contact testing of BS. The responses of shoot and root length growth endpoints of Elodea can be recommended as basic sensitive indicators of toxicity of BS. Analysis of cells carrying abnormal chromosomes in apical root meristem of Elodea can be performed optionally in the same test to assess genotoxicity of sediments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 05/2015; 34(10). DOI:10.1002/etc.3057 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • D V Dementyev · T A Zotina · N S Manukovsky · G S Kalacheva · A Ya Bolsunovsky ·

    Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/2015; 460(1):34-6. DOI:10.1134/S160767291501010X · 0.34 Impact Factor
  • A Ya Bolsunovsky · T A Zotina · M Yu Medvedeva · E A Trofimova ·

    Doklady Biological Sciences 01/2015; 460(1):27-31. DOI:10.1134/S0012496615010044
  • A. Bolsunovsky · D. Dementyev ·
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    ABSTRACT: Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011–2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg−1131I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg−1134Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg−1137Cs. An important finding was the detection of 134Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the 137Cs/134Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2–2.6), suggesting the presence of “older”, pre-Fukushima accident 137Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two–three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident 137Cs.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 12/2014; 138:87–91. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.08.003 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Tatiana A. Zotina · Elena A. Trofimova · Dmitry V. Dementyev · Alexander Y. Bolsunovsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: The bioaccumulation of actinide 241Am from food and water in bodies of freshwater fish (Carassius auratus gibelio, silver crucian carp) has been investigated in laboratory experiments. Homogenized biomass of submerged macrophytes labeled with 241Am was injected into the fish gullet. Internal organs and tissues of crucian carp could be ranked according to activity concentration of dietary 241Am after depuration of the digestive tract as follows: liver > gonads > bones > muscles. Accumulation of waterborne 241Am in internal organs and tissues of crucian carp mainly occurred via the digestive tract. While the concentration of 241Am in liver of crucian carps decreased during depuration time, its concentration in bones increased indicating slower transfer of 241Am to skeleton compared to muscles and liver. The retention of dietary 241Am in the bodies of crucian carp reached 35%�46% of ingested 241Am: 20%�31% was retained in liver, 0.6%�0.8% in skeleton, and 1.4%�2.0% in muscles. The concentration factor of 241Am from water was 0.4 for the whole body, 0.3 for liver, 0.01 for muscles, and 0.01 for skeleton. Trace amounts of 241Am were recorded in viscera and muscles of a wild population of silver crucian carp inhabiting a radioactively contaminated part of the Yenisei River.
    Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 08/2014; DOI:10.1080/02772248.2014.941368 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    Tatiana Zotina · E. A. Trofimova · A. Ya. Bolsunovsky · O. V. Anishenko ·
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    ABSTRACT: The laboratory testing of bottom sediments (BSs) from the Yenisei River containing different concentrations of technogenic radionuclides, heavy metals, and biogenic elements (N and P) based on aquatic such plants as Elodea canadensis (Canadian waterweed) and Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil) has revealed a higher sensitivity of roots to the general quality of BSs than shoots: shoot length (9%) < root length (11%) < root number (15%) in M. spicatum; shoot length (22%) < root length (42%) < root number (44%) in E. canadensis. In contrast to M. spicatum, the growth parameters of roots and shoots in E. canadensis have differed in a significant statistical manner between most BS samples. A reverse correlation has been found between the increase in shoot length and the activity of technogenic radionuclides in BSs, which is mostly significant in E.canadensis (r2 = 0.90–0.95, p = 0.05). Since the growth of shoots and roots in E. canadensis has turned out to be more sensitive to changes in the quality of BSs than that in M. spicatum, E. canadensis can be considered more prospective for biotesting BSs.
    Contemporary Problems of Ecology 07/2014; 7(4):410-421. DOI:10.1134/S1995425514040131 · 0.19 Impact Factor
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    M. Yu. Medvedeva · A. Ya. Bolsunovsky · T. A. Zotina ·
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosome abnormalities in ana-telophase cells of apical root meristem of aquatic plant Elodea. canadensis (elodea), sampled in 2011–2012 in the Yenisei River at a site with background level of contamination and at several sites on the stretch contaminated with artificial radionuclides, and with chemical pollutants from municipal and industrial discharges of the Krasnoyarsk city. Lowest rate (5.2%) of cells with chromosome abnormalities was registered at sampling site with background level of contamination upstream of the Krasnoyarsk, highest rate of cells with abnormalities (39.7%)—in roots of elodea sampled in bottom sediments with highest concentration of 137Cs. Sum of rates of cells with abnormalities and rates of cells with all types of abnormalities positively correlated with total concentration of artificial and natural radionuclides, with concentration of artificial radionuclides and 137Cs in bottom sediments of the Yenisei River (r 2 = 0.91–0.96, p < 0.0005 for sum of rates of cells with abnormalities; r 2 = 0.58–0.92, p < 0.05 for all types of abnormalities).
    Contemporary Problems of Ecology 07/2014; 7(4):422-432. DOI:10.1134/S1995425514040088 · 0.19 Impact Factor
  • A. Bolsunovsky · M. Melgunov ·

    01/2014; 02(03):153-158. DOI:10.4236/gep.2014.23020
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    Dataset: DKBL248
    D V Dementiev · A Ya Bolsunovsky · T A Zotina · E A Trofimova ·

  • T. Zotina · E. Trofimova · A. Bolsunovsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: Activities of radionuclides were measured in five species of fish (grayling, dace, crucian carp, pike, cod) sampled in the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia) in the vicinity of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (ROSATOM) from 2007 to 2010, with a gamma-spectrometer (Canberra, USA). The analyses of samples of organs and tissues of fish species revealed artificial (46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 58,60Co, 59Fe, 65Zn, 85Sr, 99Mo, 103,106Ru, 137Cs, 141,144Ce) and natural (7Be, 40K) radionuclides in fish organs and tissues, including edible ones. The major percent (up to 80%) of 137Cs and 40K activity occurred in muscles of fish species, which also contained considerable percentages of 60Co (up to 70%) and 65Zn (up to 20%). Seasonal changes in the intake of artificial radionuclides by zoobenthos-feeding fish species (grayling and dace) were recorded and they were followed by an activity concentration increase in internal organs. The dramatic increase in radionuclide intake by grayling coincided with the change of diet source. Hence, the feeding behavior of fish can change the fluxes of artificial radionuclides in the Yenisei River. The most effective diet transfer of a radionuclide from gammarus to grayling (muscles and total body) was recorded for 40K (1.3) and much less effective for artificial nuclides.
    Radioprotection 01/2012; 46(6):S75-S78. DOI:10.1051/radiopro/20116649s · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • D. Dementyev · A. Bolsunovsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigates accumulation of radionuclides in 5 species of berry shrubs in forests of the Yenisei River basin (the Krasnoyarskii Krai, Russia). Activity concentrations of 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238U and transuranic elements in aboveground organs of the shrubs have been determined and their transfer factors calculated. Analysis of the calculated TFs shows that shrubs concentrate 90Sr more effectively than other study elements (TF = 0.25-1.9). The highest concentration of 137Cs is recorded in the berries and leaves of Ribes nigrumand Rubus idaeus. For these species, the range of 137Cs TFs (0.006-0.027) overlaps with the range of 238U TFs (0.004-0.018). For the aboveground parts of Ribes nigrum, TFs for transuranic radionuclides (0.01-0.056) are similar to or higher than the TFs for 238U and 137Cs.
    Radioprotection 01/2012; 46(6):S25-S28. DOI:10.1051/radiopro/20116476s · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • T. Zotina · E. Trofimova · D. Dementyev · A. Bolsunovsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: The transfer of transuranium element americium-241 (241Am) from food and water to organs and tissues of freshwater fish (Carassius auratus gibelio, crucian carp) has been investigated in laboratory experiments. The fishes were fed with homogenized biomass of submerged macrophytes labeled with 241Am, through catheter. For the first two days after force-feeding, fishes excreted up to 80% of ingested americium, for four days - 98%. 241Am was registered in internal organs and tissues that had no direct contact with americium (liver, bones, muscles) as early as two days after the feeding and after eight days, when the digestive tract was depurated. Among internal organs, the highest activity concentration was recorded in the liver (up to 427 Bq/kg). Activity concentration in bones (19-31 Bq/kg) was several times higher than in muscles, indicating the affinity of americium to bone tissue. Assimilation of 241Am in organs and tissues of crucian carp from water occurred mainly via the digestive tract too.
    Radioprotection 01/2012; 46(6):S69-S73. DOI:10.1051/radiopro/20116648s · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • A Bolsunovsky · D Dementyev ·
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    ABSTRACT: It was recently reported that radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident was detected in environmental samples collected in the USA and Greece, which are very far away from Japan. In April-May 2011, fallout radionuclides ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I) released in the Fukushima Nuclear Accident were detected in environmental samples at the city of Krasnoyarsk (Russia), situated in the center of Asia. Similar maximum levels of (131)I and (137)Cs/(134)Cs and (131)I/(137)Cs ratios in water samples collected in Russia and Greece suggest the high-velocity movement of the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and the global effects of this accident, similar to those caused by the Chernobyl accident.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2011; 102(11):1062-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.06.007 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Alexander Bolsunovsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.
    Environmental Science & Technology 08/2011; 45(17):7143-50. DOI:10.1021/es2008853 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    T A Zotina · E A Trofimova · D V Dementiev · A Ya Bolsunovsky ·

    Doklady Biological Sciences 08/2011; 439(1):248-52. DOI:10.1134/S001249661104017X
  • T. A. Zotina · E. A. Trofimova · D. V. Dementyev · A. Ya. Bolsunovsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: Freshwater fishes (Carassius auratus gibelio, crucian carp) were fed through catheter with homogenized biomass of submerged macrophytes labeled with transuranium element 241Am. The intensity of excretion of americium and its accumulation in organs and tissues of fishes were investigated. The highest release of americium (up to 70%) was recorded on the second day after feeding. 94–98% of americium were excreted during 3–4 days; however, americium was also recorded in the excrements after 11 days. Americium was registered in organs and tissues of fishes, including those tissues that had no direct contact with americium (bones and muscles). This implies assimilation of americium via digestive tract. The activity concentration of americium in bones (11 Bq/kg, fresh mass) was twice as high as that in muscles, heads and external tissues and organs (skin, scales and fins). The highest activity concentration of americium was registered in viscera (33 Bq/kg, 48% of the total activity in the body). Accumulation of americium in muscles enhances the probability of the further transfer of americium along a food chain.
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    ABSTRACT: The study addresses the effect of humic substances on marine luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum exposed to Am-241 (3,000 Bq L(-1), water solution). Luminescent intensity of the bacteria was applied as a marker of their physiological activity. Humic substances have been found to reduce the effect of Am-241 on luminescence, decrease damage to cells, and change distribution of Am-241 between bacterial cells and intercellular media. It was shown that water-soluble humic substances, being products of natural transformation of organic substances in soil and bottom sediments, can serve as protecting agents for water microorganisms exposed to alpha radionuclides.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 12/2010; 400(2):329-34. DOI:10.1007/s00216-010-4442-9 · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • Alexander Bolsunovsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: Releases from the nuclear facility Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) located at Zheleznogorsk have contributed to the radionuclide contamination of the Yenisei River since operations commenced in 1958. The aim of this study was to assess the activity concentrations of artificial radionuclides and the strength of their binding in Yenisei River sediments. Investigation of Yenisei River sediment samples revealed the presence of artificial radionuclides typical of the MCC radioactive discharge: namely, isotopes of europium, caesium, Co and transuranium elements. The concentrations of artificial radionuclides in the sediment layers remain relatively high as far as 200 km downstream of the MCC. In sediment cores collected upstream of the MCC, γ-spectrometric measurements registered only one artificial radionuclide, Cs, with a maximal activity of 8 Bq·kg. Sequential extraction performed on samples of the upper layers of the sediment core showed different degrees of potential environmental availability for artificial radionuclides: the highest was recorded for Am and Eu (up to 85% of initial activity), followed by Co (up to 32%), and finally, Cs (up to 15%). In a few samples, Am was present in the unextractable form, which may be accounted for by the presence of reactor fuel microparticles.
    Chemistry and Ecology 12/2010; 26(6):401-409. DOI:10.1080/02757540.2010.504668 · 1.05 Impact Factor
  • A. Ya. Bolsunovsky · D. V. Dement’ev ·
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    ABSTRACT: Keywordsaquatic plants-the Yenisei- 32P-mining and chemical plant-accumulation coefficient
    Russian Journal of Ecology 11/2010; 41(6):531-534. DOI:10.1134/S1067413610060111 · 0.39 Impact Factor