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Publications (11)10.73 Total impact

  • A. Bolsunovsky, D. Dementyev
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    ABSTRACT: Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011–2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg−1131I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg−1134Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg−1137Cs. An important finding was the detection of 134Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the 137Cs/134Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2–2.6), suggesting the presence of “older”, pre-Fukushima accident 137Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two–three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident 137Cs.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 01/2014; 138:87–91.
  • A Bolsunovsky, D Dementyev
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    ABSTRACT: It was recently reported that radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident was detected in environmental samples collected in the USA and Greece, which are very far away from Japan. In April-May 2011, fallout radionuclides ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I) released in the Fukushima Nuclear Accident were detected in environmental samples at the city of Krasnoyarsk (Russia), situated in the center of Asia. Similar maximum levels of (131)I and (137)Cs/(134)Cs and (131)I/(137)Cs ratios in water samples collected in Russia and Greece suggest the high-velocity movement of the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and the global effects of this accident, similar to those caused by the Chernobyl accident.
    Journal of environmental radioactivity 11/2011; 102(11):1062-4. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Alexander Bolsunovsky
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    ABSTRACT: Releases from the nuclear facility Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) located at Zheleznogorsk have contributed to the radionuclide contamination of the Yenisei River since operations commenced in 1958. The aim of this study was to assess the activity concentrations of artificial radionuclides and the strength of their binding in Yenisei River sediments. Investigation of Yenisei River sediment samples revealed the presence of artificial radionuclides typical of the MCC radioactive discharge: namely, isotopes of europium, caesium, Co and transuranium elements. The concentrations of artificial radionuclides in the sediment layers remain relatively high as far as 200 km downstream of the MCC. In sediment cores collected upstream of the MCC, γ-spectrometric measurements registered only one artificial radionuclide, Cs, with a maximal activity of 8 Bq·kg. Sequential extraction performed on samples of the upper layers of the sediment core showed different degrees of potential environmental availability for artificial radionuclides: the highest was recorded for Am and Eu (up to 85% of initial activity), followed by Co (up to 32%), and finally, Cs (up to 15%). In a few samples, Am was present in the unextractable form, which may be accounted for by the presence of reactor fuel microparticles.
    Chemistry and Ecology 01/2010; 26(6):401-409. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River, Elodea canadensis, was used to study the microdistribution of the artificial radionuclide (241)Am among different components of the plant. The total amount of (241)Am added to the experimental system was 1850+/-31 Bq/L. The total amount of (241)Am accumulated by the plants was 182 Bq per sample, or 758,333+/-385 Bq/kg dry mass. It has been found that the major portion of (241)Am accumulated by E. canadensis, up to 85%, was bound to solid components of the cells. It is observed that the microdistribution of (241)Am within different components of the submerged plant E. canadensis was not uniform. (241)Am distribution vary depending on the age of the leaf blades, the state of the cells and morphological features of the plant stem.
    Journal of environmental radioactivity 09/2009; 101(1):16-21. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study addresses 242Pu accumulation by Elodea canadensis, one of the abundant species of submerged plants in the Yenisei River. 242Pu in water samples of the "Elodea-Yenisei River water" model system and in the biomass fractions was determined alpha-spectrometrically, following radiochemical recovery of 242Pu using 236Pu--a chemical yield tracer. The experiments on accumulation of 242Pu by Elodea biomass showed that the activity concentration of 242Pu can reach 21 +/- 2 Bq/g dry wt, with the concentration factor for 242Pu 13100 +/- 2100 L/kg dry wt. Results of chemical fractionation proved that during the first few hours of the experiment 242Pu contained in Elodea was mainly concentrated in the exchangeable and the adsorbed fractions of biomass (about 100%). As Elodea biomass accumulated 242Pu, the absolute amount of 242Pu in the exchangeable and the adsorbed fractions remained almost unchanged, although the portion of 242Pu tightly bound to biomass increased. At the end of the experiment, on day 7, 242Pu tightly bound to biomass (fractions of organics and mineral residue) constituted 43-63% (in different experiments) of the total 242Pu in the biomass.
    Chemosphere 02/2009; 75(3):284-8. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    L Bondareva, A Bolsunovsky
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    ABSTRACT: The experiments on accumulation of 99Tc by Elodea biomass showed that 99Tc activity concentration can reach 120 ± 6 Bq/g, with the concentration factor for 99Tc 2700 ± 500 L/kg. In experiments on 99Tc release, over 504 h about 82% of the total 99Tc activity was released into the water from plant biomass; most of 99Tc was released within the first 192 h. Results of chemical fractionation of the biomass show that 99Tc contained in biomass was mainly concentrated in the exchangeable and the adsorbed fractions (83%). Thus, the data obtained using chemical fractionation of biomass confirmed the experimental data on 99Tc release, which suggested that most of the biomass-bound 99Tc was adsorbed on the biomass surface. 99Tc tightly bound to Elodea biomass (fractions of organics and mineral residue) constituted just 17% of the total 99Tc activity. Decreased illumination of Elodea shoots during the experiment did not cause any reduction in 99Tc activity concentration or concentration factor. Results of chemical fractionation of the biomass grown under lower illumination conditions show that the percentage of 99Tc tightly bound to Elodea biomass (fractions of organics and mineral residue) decreased while the 99Tc of the adsorbed fractions decreased. Our results and data reported by other authors suggest that some part of 99Tc activity can be bioavailable to living organisms and that the portion of bioavailable 99Tc can be determined by a number of factors.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/radiopro/20095019. 01/2009;
  • Alexander Bolsunovsky
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate radionuclide composition of the hot particles found in the floodplain of the Yenisei River and to discuss their possible sources. Since 1995, researchers of the Institute of Biophysics have found a considerable number of hot particles that contain up to 29,000 kBq/particle of 137Cs in the Yenisei River floodplain. Investigations of the particles in Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, and Novosibirsk have confirmed their reactor origin and made it possible to roughly estimate their age. Based on comparative analysis of 137Cs/134Cs ratios, all the particles can be divided into two or three major groups, suggesting that over the 50-year period of the MCC operation, there have been two or three emergency situations at the MCC reactors, with nuclear fuel microparticles released into the Yenisei. Microparticles containing up to 36 Bq/particle of 241Am were detected in soil and sediment samples collected at the Yenisei River. In some of these particles the 137Cs/241Am ratio is high but in the others — low. It remains unknown how these particles have been formed. However, these microparticles occur in floodplain soils and sediments very frequently and, thus, can be considered to be the main form in which radionuclides are present in the Yenisei River floodplain. The presence of a large number of hot particles of different origin in the floodplain of the Yenisei River from the MCC production area down to the town of Yeniseisk (and, probably, farther downstream) is a source of potential health hazard to people.
    12/2008: pages 111-121;
  • A. Bolsunovsky, L. Bondareva
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    ABSTRACT: The study addresses 99Tc accumulation and release by Elodea canadensis, one of the abundant species of submerged plants in the Yenisei River 99Tc in water samples of the “Elodea-Yenisei River water” model system and in the biomass fractions was measured using a liquid scintillatio analyzer. Experiments on accumulation of 99Tc by Elodea showed that 99Tc activity concentration can reach 120±6 Bq/g dry wt, with concentration factor for 99Tc 2700±500 l/kg dry wt. In experiments on 99Tc release, over 504 hours about 82% of the total 99Tc activit released into the water from the plant; most of 99Tc was released within the first 192 hours. The data obtained using sequential chemica fractionation of biomass confirmed the experimental data on 99Tc release, which suggested that most of the biomass-bound 99Tc was adsorbed the surface of Elodea. 99Tc tightly bound to biomass (fractions of organics and mineral residue) constituted just 17% of the total 99Tc activity.
    Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 01/2008; 277(3):631-636. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • A. Bolsunovsky, A. Ermakov, A. Sobolev
    Radiochimica Acta - RADIOCHIM ACTA. 01/2007; 95(9):547-552.
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    A. Bolsunovsky, L. Bondareva
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    ABSTRACT: The source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River floodplain, including contamination with actinides, is the Mining-and-Chemical combine (MCC), which has for many years been producing weapons-grade plutonium. Actinides have been detected not only in the soil and sediment of the river but also in the biomass of aquatic plants. The aim of our investigation was to assess the levels of actinides and other radionuclides in sediments and aquatic plants both near the MCC and at a considerable distance from it, down the Yenisei River.Investigations of the Yenisei River sediment samples revealed high activity concentrations of actinides (Pu isotopes and 241Am), which were 100 times higher than their global fallout levels. Sequential extraction of radionuclides from samples of sediments collected near the MCC showed that the amounts of extracted 241Am were the largest (up to 98% of initial activity). It was found that aquatic plants of the Yenisei River collected both near the MCC discharge site and at a distance up to 200 km downstream contained several actinide isotopes. The aquatic moss, Fontinalis antipyretica, was found to contain higher levels of radionuclides than Potamogeton lucens. Leaves of P. lucens contained higher levels of radionuclides, including 239Np, than stems. Sequential extraction of radionuclides from samples of aquatic plants showed that 239Np levels in exchangeable and adsorption fractions of P. lucens biomass were higher than in the respective fractions of F. antipyretica biomass.
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 01/2007;
  • A Bolsunovsky, T Zotina, L Bondareva
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    ABSTRACT: The source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River floodplain, including contamination with transuranic elements, is the Mining-and-Chemical Combine of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy, which has for many years been producing weapons-grade plutonium. Transuranic elements have been detected not only in the soil and sediment of the river but also in the biomass of aquatic plants. This work is an investigation of accumulation and release of 241Am by a submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River (Elodea canadensis) in laboratory experiments. In 2000-2003, laboratory experiments were carried out with biomass of E. canadensis Mich. and filtered river water. The samples were collected from the Yenisei River upstream of the discharge of the Combine's radioactive effluent. The experiments showed that 241Am is accumulated by Elodea biomass: the activity concentration of 241Am can reach 3280+/-240 Bq/g, with the concentration factor for 241Am 16 600+/-2200l/kg. Results of chemical fractionation have proved that in the course of 241Am accumulation by Elodea biomass, 241Am tightly bound to biomass increases from 11% to 27% of the total 241Am in the biomass. Release of 241Am from the decaying Elodea biomass has been evaluated experimentally. By the end of the experiment (lasting up to 127 days), the Elodea plants had lost up to 65% of their initial 241Am activity and the rate of 241Am release into the water environment reached 23 Bq/day.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2005; 81(1):33-46. · 2.12 Impact Factor