[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of C-6 alkyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl-9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)purines were synthesized and their substrate activities with Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (E. coli PNP) were evaluated. (Ph(3)P)(4)Pd-mediated cross-coupling reactions of 6-chloro-9-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-purine (6) with primary alkyl (Me, Et, n-Pr, n-Bu, isoBu) zinc halides followed by treatment with NH(3)/MeOH gave the corresponding 6-alkyl-9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)purine derivatives 7-11, respectively, in good yields. Reactions of 6 with cycloalkyl(propyl, butyl, pentyl)zinc halides and aryl (phenyl, 2-thienyl)zinc halides gave under similar conditions the corresponding 6-cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, phenyl, and thienyl -9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)purine derivatives 12-16, respectively in high yields. E. coli PNP showed a high tolerance to the steric and hydrophobic environment at the 6-position of the synthesized purine ribonucleosides. Significant cytotoxic activity was observed for 8, 12, 15, and 16. Evaluation of 12 and 16 against human tumor xenografts in mice did not demonstrate any selective antitumor activity. In addition, 6-methyl-9-(β-d-arabinofuranosyl)purine (18) was prepared and evaluated.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 11/2011; 47(1):167-74. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photoexcitation of anthraquinones (AQ) in association with DNA results in DNA damage mainly at guanine residues, with products from thymine oxidation also observed. Studies of adenine oxidation will be aided by systems with an increased driving force for charge transfer, achieved by adding electron-withdrawing groups to the AQ ring. Attaching AQ derivatives to adenine via a bridge with two carbon atoms should enable the intended regiocontrol within the DNA duplex structure. Herein we report the synthesis of conjugates between AQ and adenine in which the AQ moieties have been modified with a formyl, a trifluoroacetyl, and two methyl ester groups. These have been synthesized by palladium coupling of tert-butyldiphenylsilyl 5'-protected 8-ethynyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with the corresponding bromoanthraquinone intermediates. Bromo intermediates bearing formyl or trifluoroacetyl were prepared by monolithiation of 2,6-dibromoanthraquinone, a step that required protection of the anthraquinone carbonyls. A bromo intermediate bearing two methyl ester groups was obtained from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene by Friedel-Crafts acylation with 4-bromobenzoyl chloride followed by oxidation to the tricarboxylic acid, cyclization to form the anthraquinone ring, and finally esterification. Hydrogenation of the ethynyl linker gave the ethanyl linker. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the conjugate with the two ester groups and ethynyl linker was the most easily reduced of the derivatives synthesized. These derivatives, with reduction potentials favorable for electron transfer, can be used in studies of adenine oxidation in DNA.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 07/2009; 74(13):4712-9. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The challenge in working with anthraquinone-2'-deoxyadenosine (AQ-dA) conjugates is that they are insoluble in water and only sparingly soluble in most organic solvents. However, water-soluble AQ-dA conjugates with short linkers are required for study of their electrochemical and intramolecular electron transfer properties in this solvent prior to their use in laser kinetics investigations of photoinduced hole (cation) transport in DNA. This article first describes the synthesis of a water-soluble, ethynyl-linked AQ-dA conjugate, 8-[(anthraquinone-2-yl)ethynyl]-2'-deoxyadenosine 3'-benzyl hydrogen phosphate, based on initial formation of a 5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl) (5'-O-DMTr) intermediate. Because intended H2 over Pd/C reduction of the ethynyl linker in 5'-O-DMTr-protected 2'-deoxyadenosines cleaves the DMTr protecting group and precipitates multiple side products, this work also describes the synthesis of an ethylenyl-linked AQ-dA conjugate, 8-[2-(anthraquinone-2-yl)ethyl]-2'-deoxyadenosine 3'-benzyl hydrogen phosphate, starting with a 5'-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl protecting group.