Eduardo Gaddi

Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina

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Publications (18)15.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Different primary immunodeficiencies present increased levels of IgE and cutaneous infections of viral etiology. We report a case of a 2 y, 8 m old boy with combined immunodeficiency, dermatitis and disseminated molluscum contagiosum. The patient presented high titers of IgE, eosinophilia and pronounced TCD8 lymphopenia. Impaired proliferation assays and abnormal antibody response to vaccination were found. Normal results of ZAP-70 protein, NK function, and HLA I levels, to test quantitatives and functional defects of cytotoxic cells, lead us to suspect a mutation in DOCK8 gene. Positive result in molecular study together with clinical and immunology features in the patient confirmed the diagnosis of this new immunodeficiency, being to the authors' knowledge the first case recorded in a paediatric hospital in our country.
    Archivos argentinos de pediatria. 08/2014; 112(4):e147-e151.
  • Medicina 08/2013; 73(4):324-330. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus infection causes a severe depletion of TCD4+ lymphocytes and a sustained immune activation state, hallmarks findings that led to numerical and phenotypic changes in the TCD4+ subsets. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has substantially modified the course of HIV infection. Correct adherence to the treatment results in a decrease in viral load at undetectable levels and a significant increase in the number of peripheral T cell lymphocytes. In the present study association between changes in T cell subsets and treatment adherence was evaluated in 28 HIV (+) infected children, before and after 9 months on average, from starting anti-retroviral therapy. The group of 18 patients with good adherence, above 95%, showed a significant increase in CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+ naive cells percentual levels and a decrease in the CD4+CD45RA-CD62L+ central memory subset, between the two points of the follow-up period. Conversely, 10 children with failure in the adherence did not show significant differences in the percentual levels of both subsets. Improvement in the percentage of adherence among paediatric population, optimizing antiretroviral treatment, allows a quick and significant reduction of viral replication. This feature is associated with the progressive reconstitution of the immune system.
    Medicina 01/2013; 73(4):324-30. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between immune dysfunction and the development of autoimmune pathology in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is not clear. The frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells, as well as the presence of autoantibodies, were evaluated in a paediatric cohort of HIV-infected patients without clinical evidence of autoimmune disease. Lower absolute counts but higher percentages of total CD4(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) T cells were recorded in children with severe immunosuppression than in those without evidence of immunosuppression. The frequencies of classical CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells were not altered, whereas CD4(+) FoxP3(+) CD25(-) T cells were found increased significantly in patients with severe immunosuppression. Like classical regulatory T cells, CD4(+) FoxP3(+) CD25(-) T cells display higher cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) but lower CD127 expression compared with CD4(+) FoxP3(-) CD25(+) T cells. An improvement in CD4(+) T cell counts, along with a decrease in viral load, was associated with a decrease in CD4(+) FoxP3(+) CD25(-) T cells. The majority of the patients with severe immunosuppression were positive for at least one out of seven autoantibodies tested and displayed hypergammaglobulinaemia. Conversely, HIV-infected children without evidence of immunosuppression had lower levels of autoantibodies and total immunoglobulins. A decline in CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T cell numbers or a variation in their phenotype may induce a raise in antigen exposure with polyclonal B cell activation, probably contributing to the generation of autoantibodies in the absence of clinical autoimmune disease.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 05/2012; 168(2):224-33. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Medicina 10/2010; 70(5):421-426. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic finding in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Multiple mechanisms may contribute to the development of chronic thrombocytopenia as immune-mediated platelet destruction, enhanced platelet splenic sequestration and impaired platelet production. Acute thrombocytopenia is frequently associated with coexisting disorders. In this study, the prevalence of thrombocytopenia was evaluated in a cohort of HIV infected children analyzing the clinical features and the association with the immunological and virological status of the disease in a 14 year-follow-up period. Thrombocytopenia prevalence was of 8.5% (29 out 339 children evaluated). Chronic and acute thrombocytopenia was observed in 22 and 7 children respectively. The percentages of CD4+ T cells were variable and not related with the presence of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenic patients showed viral load levels significantly increased; being the thrombocytopenia the initial clinical manifestation of HIV infection in 10 out 29 children. Mild chronic thrombocytopenia bleeding found in 23% of children evaluated was not correlated with the immunologic status of the disease. In contrast, the severity of acute thrombocytopenia depended on the evolution of associated clinical conditions. Constant viral activity and failure in the use of antiretroviral agents might induce the development of thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected children.
    Medicina 01/2010; 70(5):421-6. · 0.42 Impact Factor
  • Medicina 06/2008; 68(3):213-218. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporydium parvum is an intracellular parasite that infects gastrointestinal epithelium and produces diarrhea that is self-limited in immunocompetent persons but potentially life-threatening in immunocompromised, especially those with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). C. parvum enteric infection's incidence in a pediatric HIV/AIDS cohort, during a 6 years period, was studied. Clinical and immunologic characteristics of the dual infection were also recorded. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was started or continued by all the patients during follow-up. Azithromicyn was used as antiparasitic drug. Cryptosporidiosis incidence was 13.7%; 33 out 240 children showed chronic diarrhea lasting 14 days at least, or recurrent, without dehydration and electrolytic disturbance. Peripheral blood T CD4+ percentage levels of the patients were variable and without relationship with C. parvum presence. Viral load levels in 31 out 33 patients were over cut-off at the enteric episode time. Mild or moderate eosinophilia were recorded in 23% of the patients and other intestinal parasites were present in 11 children. When the number of enteric episodes were compared with the clinical and immunological patient's status, not significant differences were recorded. HAART is the best treatment to improve immune function in HIV patients avoiding potentially fatal complications that accompany acute diarrhea during concomitant infection with C. parvum.
    Medicina 02/2008; 68(3):213-8. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central events in the host defence system and immune-mediated damage are tightly regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Sera from 28 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected children divided into groups according to disease severity, six seroreverting (SR) children and 25 healthy controls were studied to detect the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1). Soluble ICAM-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in HIV-infected children in comparison with SR children or healthy controls. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 were higher in patients with severe forms of HIV-infection than in those with a milder form of the disease. Significant differences in titers of s-ICAM-1 were recorded between SR children and HIV-infected children with mild disease or healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between s-ICAM-1 levels and the concentrations of beta 2 microglobulin (β2m) and, to a lesser extend, immunoglobulin A levels (IgA). Soluble ICAM-1 levels didn't change considerably in HIV-infected children in stable clinical conditions, independently of their clinical stage of the disease, during a follow-up period of 9–12 months. Conversely, s-ICAM-1 levels increased simultaneously with the appearance of new well-defined clinical disorders or decreased during the improvement of clinical conditions. A significant negative correlation was recorded between the titers of the s-ICAM-1 and the CD4+ T-cell levels. These results suggest that the s-ICAM-1 might be another useful tool to evaluate disease progression.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 01/2008; 52(6):628-633. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of leukocytes to leave the circulation and migrate into tissues is a critical feature of the immune response. L-selectin (CD62L), the leukocyte selectin, mediates the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and is also involved in lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte attachment to vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation. In this study L-selectin expression on peripheral T cells and neutrophils was evaluated in 25 HIV infected children, who had not received antiretroviral therapy, and 25 healthy controls. The expression level of L-selectin on T cells was also evaluated in 10 out 25 patients after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy. L-selectin expression on CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly lower in HIV infected children than in the control group. The percentage of neutrophils expressing CD62L was significantly reduced in patients with severe immunologic suppression. A positive correlation between the number of CD4+ T cells and the percentage of neutrophils CD62L+ was found. L-selectin expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells did not significantly vary after 6 months of treatment. Altered leukocyte functions such as migration and homing resulting from reduced expression of CD62L may be an important contributor of the progressive dysfunction of the immune system in HIV infected children.
    Medicina 02/2005; 65(2):131-7. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Palabras clave: L-selectina (CD62L), leucocitos, infección pediátrica por HIV Abstract L-selectin expression on T lymphocytes and neutrophils in HIV infected children. The ability of leukocytes to leave the circulation and migrate into tissues is a critical feature of the immune response. L-selectin (CD62L), the leukocyte selectin, mediates the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and is also involved in lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte attachment to vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation. In this study L-selectin expression on peripheral T cells and neutrophils was evaluated in 25 HIV infected children, who had not received antiretroviral therapy, and 25 healthy controls. The expression level of L- selectin on T cells was also evaluated in 10 out 25 patients after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy. L-selectin expression on CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly lower in HIV infected children than in the control group. The percentage of neutrophils expressing CD62L was significantly reduced in patients with severe immunologic suppression. A positive correlation between the number of CD4+ T cells and the percentage of neutrophils CD62L+ was found. L- selectin expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells did not significantly vary after 6 months of treatment. Altered leukocyte functions such as migration and homing resulting from reduced expression of CD62L may be an important contributor of the progressive dysfunction of the immune system in HIV infected children.
    Medicina 01/2005; 65(2). · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-selectin is an adhesion molecule that is responsible for the initial attachment of leukocytes to endothelium. After leukocyte activation L-selectin is endoproteolytically released from the cell surface. In order to analyze the relationship between soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) and parameters of immune activation and disease progression, 51 HIV infected children and 15 healthy controls were studied. Serum L-selectin concentrations were significantly higher in HIV infected children than in the control group. Levels of sL-selectin were higher in HIV infected patients with severe immunologic suppression than in those with moderate or no evidence of suppression. A positive correlation between sL-selectin levels and LTCD8 counts, sL-selectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and immunogobulin A (IgA) levels was detected. On the contrary sL-selectin concentration did not correlate with plasmatic viral load. The correlation with parameters of immune activation may implicate involvement of sL-selectin in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection.
    Medicina 02/2001; 61(4):413-6. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central events in the host defence system and immune-mediated damage are tightly regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Sera from 28 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected children divided into groups according to disease severity, six seroreverting (SR) children and 25 healthy controls were studied to detect the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1). Soluble ICAM-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in HIV-infected children in comparison with SR children or healthy controls. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 were higher in patients with severe forms of HIV-infection than in those with a milder form of the disease. Significant differences in titers of s-ICAM-1 were recorded between SR children and HIV-infected children with mild disease or healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between s-ICAM-1 levels and the concentrations of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) and, to a lesser extend, immunoglobulin A levels (IgA). Soluble ICAM-1 levels didn't change considerably in HIV-infected children in stable clinical conditions, independently of their clinical stage of the disease, during a follow-up period of 9-12 months. Conversely, s-ICAM-1 levels increased simultaneously with the appearance of new well-defined clinical disorders or decreased during the improvement of clinical conditions. A significant negative correlation was recorded between the titers of the s-ICAM-1 and the CD4(+) T-cell levels. These results suggest that the s-ICAM-1 might be another useful tool to evaluate disease progression.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 01/2001; 52(6):628-33. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating soluble selectins in HIV infected children. L-selectin is an adhesion molecule that is responsible for the initial attachment of leukocytes to endothelium. After leukocyte activation L-selectin is endoproteolytically released from the cell surface. In order to analyze the relationship between soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) and parameters of immune activation and disease progression, 51 HIV infected children and 15 healthy controls were studied. Serum L-selectin concentrations were significantly higher in HIV infected children than in the control group. Levels of sL-selectin were higher in HIV infected patients with severe immunologic suppresion than in those with moderate or no evidence of suppresion. A positive correlation between sL-selectin levels and LTCD8 counts, sL-selectin and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1) and immunogobulin A (IgA) levels was detected. On the contrary sL-selectin concentration did not correlate with plasmatic viral load. The correlation with parameters of immune activation may implicate involvement of sL-selectin in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection.
    01/2001;
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    ABSTRACT: The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cytokine-induced glycoprotein involved in the recruitment of cells into tissues undergoing inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of soluble ICAM-1 (s-ICAM-1) in children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to evaluate the usefulness of this molecule as marker of disease activity. Levels of s-ICAM-1 were measured in sera using a monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay. Serum levels (mean+/-SD) of s-ICAM-1 in 37 children with JCA, 18 patients suffering from SLE and 25 healthy controls were 609+/-184, 513+/-139 and 210+/-95 ng/ml, respectively. A significant difference could be demonstrated between the levels of s-ICAM-1 in sera from each disease, as a group, and those of healthy controls. Higher levels of s-ICAM-1 were recorded in JCA patients with systemic features and patients who had polyarthritis than in children who were pauciarticular. A positive correlation was observed between s-ICAM-1 levels and disease activity score in SLE patients. Moreover, s-ICAM-1 levels closely followed clinical conditions in five children with SLE during follow-up. The data show that s-ICAM-1 levels are increased in children suffering from connective tissue diseases and reflect disease status or activity, suggesting the usefulness of this molecule in the follow-up of these diseases.
    Acta Paediatrica 05/1999; 88(4):399-403. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane bound molecule that is involved in cell to cell adhesive interactions within the immune system. The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of soluble ICAM-1 (s-ICAM-1) in 25 HIV-1 infected pediatric patients. We compared s-ICAM-1 values to parameters of immune activation--such as IgA and beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2 m) and viral replication such as adenosine deaminase (ADA). s-ICAM-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in HIV-1 infected children when compared with healthy controls. Levels of s-ICAM-1 were higher in patients with severe forms of HIV-1 infection in comparison with those with a mild form of the disease or non symptomatic infection. No differences in titers of s-ICAM-1 were recorded between seroreverters and healthy controls. A positive correlation between levels of s-ICAM-1 and IgA, beta 2 m or ADA concentrations was detected. Similarly, there was statistically significant correlation between levels of IgA, beta 2 m or ADA. In conclusion, increased s-ICAM-1 levels in HIV-1 pediatric patients appeared to be another important feature among the immune disturbances triggered by HIV-1 infection. s-ICAM-1 might be involved in the development of the immunologic dysfunction during the progression of the disease.
    Medicina 02/1999; 59(4):351-4. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children, 36, predisposed to frequent upper respiratory infections were treated with endonasal administration of an IgA enriched preparation or placebo in a randomized double blind trial. We found a reduction in the number of infectious episodes and in the number of enlarged regional lymph nodes. Also, an increase of IgA levels in saliva in the treated group was observed, probably not only due to the effect of IgA supplementation, but also to an immunoregulatory effect on the mucosa caused by the preparation administered. We found this therapy very useful in the prophylaxis of upper respiratory infections, being the nasal administration very convenient to be used in children.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 04/1997; 39(2):103-10. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels in HIV infected children. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane bound molecule that is involved in cell to cell adhesive interactions within the immune system. The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of soluble ICAM- 1 (s-ICAM-1) in 25 HIV-1 infected pediatric patients. We compared s-ICAM-1 values to parameters of immune activation-such as IgA and β2 microglobulin (β2m) and viral replication such as adenosine deaminase (ADA). s-ICAM-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in HIV-1 infected children when compared with healthy controls. Levels of s-ICAM-1 were higher in patients with severe forms of HIV-1 infection in comparison with those with a mild form of the disease or non symptomatic infection. No differences in titers of s-ICAM-1 were recorded between seroreverters and healthy controls. A positive correlation between levels of s-ICAM-1 and IgA, β2m or ADA concentrations was detected. Similarly, there was statistically significant correlation between levels of IgA, β2m or ADA. In conclusion, increased s-ICAM-1 levels in HIV-1 pediatric patients appeared to be another important feature among the immune disturbances triggered by HIV-1 infection. s-ICAM-1 might be involved in the development of the immunologic dysfunction during the progression of the disease.