Linlin Gao

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China

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Publications (7)19.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the contribution of I(f), an important pacemaker current, and intracellular Ca2+ release (ICR) from sacrcoplasmic reticulum to pacemaking and arrhythmia has been intensively studied. However, their functional roles in embryonic heart remain uncertain. Using patch clamp, Ca2+ imaging, and RT-PCR, we found that I(f) regulated the firing rate in early and late stage embryonic ventricular cells, as ivabradine (30 µM), a specific blocker of I(f), slowed down action potential (AP) frequency. This inhibitory effect was even stronger in late stage cells, though I(f) was down-regulated. In contrast to I(f), ICR was found to be indispensable for the occurrence of APs in ventricular cells of different stages, because abolishment of ICR with ryanodine or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), specific blockers of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), completely abolished APs. In addition, we noticed that RyR- and IP3R mediated ICR coexisted in early-stage ventricular cells and RyRs functionally dominated. While at late stage RyRs, but not IP3Rs, mediated ICR. In both early and late stage ventricular cells, Na-Ca exchanger current (INa/Ca ) mediated ICR-triggered depolarization of membrane potential and resulted in the initiation of APs. We also observed that different from I(f), which presented as the substantial component of the earlier diastolic depolarization current, application of ryanodine and/or 2-APB slowed the late phase of diastolic depolarization. Thus we conclude that in murine embryonic ventricular cells I(f) regulates firing rate, while RyRs and IP3Rs (early stage) or RyRs (late stage) mediated ICR determines the occurrence of APs. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevailing data suggest that ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) contribute to a surprising resistance to hypoxia in mammalian embryos, thus we aimed to characterize the developmental changes of K(ATP) channels in murine fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes. Patch clamp was applied to investigate the functions of K(ATP). RT-PCR, Western blot were used to further characterize the molecular properties of K(ATP) channels. Similar K(ATP) current density was detected in ventricular cardiomyocytes of late development stage (LDS) and early development stage (EDS). Molecular-biological study revealed the upregulation of Kir6.1/SUR2A in membrane and Kir6.2 remained constant during development. Kir6.1, Kir6.2, and SUR1 were detectable in the mitochondria without marked difference between EDS and LDS. Acute hypoxia-ischemia led to cessation of APs in 62.5% of tested EDS cells and no APs cessation was observed in LDS cells. SarcK(ATP) blocker glibenclamide rescued 47% of EDS cells but converted 42.8% of LDS cells to APs cessations under hypoxia-ischemic condition. MitoK(ATP) blocker 5-HD did not significantly influence the response to acute hypoxia-ischemia at either EDS or LDS. In summary, sarcK(ATP) played distinct functional roles under acute hypoxia-ischemic condition in EDS and LDS fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes, with developmental changes in sarcK(ATP) subunits. MitoK(ATP) were not significantly involved in the response of fetal cardiomyocytes to acute hypoxia-ischemia and no developmental changes of K(ATP) subunits were found in mitochondria.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 418(1):74-80. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In fetal mammalian heart, constitutive adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA)-mediated phosphorylation, independent of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation, could under such circumstances play an important role in sustaining the L-type calcium channel current (I(Ca,L)) and regulating other PKA dependent phosphorylation targets. In this study, we investigated the regulation of L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) in murine embryonic ventricles. The data indicated a higher phosphorylation state of LTCC at early developmental stage (EDS, E9.5-E11.5) than late developmental stage (LDS, E16.5-E18.5). An intrinsic adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, PKA activity and basal cAMP concentration were obviously higher at EDS than LDS. The cAMP increase in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor) was further augmented at LDS but not at EDS by chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Furthermore, I(Ca,L) increased with time after patch rupture in LDS cardiomyocytes dialyzed with pipette solution containing BAPTA whereas not at EDS. Thus we conclude that the high basal level of LTCC phosphorylation is due to the high intrinsic PKA activity and the high intrinsic AC activity at EDS. The latter is possibly owing to the little or no effect of Ca(2+) influx via LTCCs on AC activity, leading to the inability to inhibit AC.
    Cell calcium 08/2011; 50(5):433-43. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embryonic cardiomyocytes undergo profound changes in their electrophysiological properties during development. However, the molecular and functional changes in Na⁺ channel during cardiogenesis are not yet fully explained. To study the functional changes in the Na⁺ channel during cardiogenesis, Na⁺ currents were recorded in the early (EDS) and late (LDS) developmental stages of cardiomyocytes in embryonic mice. Compared with EDS myocytes, LDS myocytes exhibited a larger peak current density, a more negative shift in the voltage of half inactivation, a larger fast inactivation component and a smaller slow inactivation component, and smaller time constants for recovery from inactivation. Additionally, multiple Na⁺ channel α-subunits (Nav 1.1-1.6) and β-subunits (Nav β1-β3) of mouse embryos were investigated. Transcripts of Nav 1.1-1.3 were absent or present at very low levels in embryonic hearts. Transcripts encoding Nav 1.4-1.6 and Nav β1-β3 increased during embryogenesis. Data on the sensitivity of total Na⁺ currents to tetrodotoxin (TTX) showed that TTX-resistant Nav 1.5 is the predominant isoform expressed in the heart of the mouse embryo. The results indicate that significant changes in the functional properties of Na⁺ channels develop in the cardiomyocytes of the mouse embryo, and that different Na⁺ channel subunit genes are strongly regulated during embryogenesis, which further support a physiological role for voltage-gated Na⁺ channels during heart development.
    Circulation Journal 06/2011; 75(9):2071-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2010; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Previous studies have shown the dramatic changes in electrical properties of murine fetal cardiomyocytes, while details on inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) are still seldom discussed. Thus we aimed to characterize the functional expression and functional role of IK1 in murine fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes. Methods: Whole cell patch clamp was applied to investigate the electrophysiological properties of IK1. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and double-label immunofluorescence were further utilized to find out the molecular basis of IK1. Results: Compared to early developmental stage (EDS), IK1 at late developmental stage (LDS) displayed higher current density, stronger rectifier property and faster activation kinetics. It was paralleled with the downregulation of Kir2.3 and the upregulation of Kir2.1/Kir2.2. IK1 contributed to maintain the maximum diastolic potential (MDP), late repolarization phase (LRP) as well as the action potential duration (APD). However, the contribution to MDP and velocity of LRP did not change significantly with maturation. Conclusions: During fetal development, the switch of IK1 subtypes from Kir2.1/Kir2.3 to Kir2.1 resulted in the dramatic changes in IK1 electrophysiological properties.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2010; 26(3):413-20. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This experiment aimed to investigate the effect of adrenergic system in the subnucleus commissuriu of nucleus solitrius tractus (CNTS) on renal nerve discharges. Norepinephrine (NE) was microinjected into the CNTS of rabbits and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and renal nerve discharges (FRND) were synchronously recorded. The results indicated that (1) microinjection of norepinephine into the CNTS of rabbit could significantly attenuate the frequency of renal nerve discharge, and at the same time decrease markedly the mean arterial pressure. (2) Microinjection of 0.3 nmol yohimbin into CNTS had no significant influence on FRND and MAP, but could attenuate and even reverse the effects of NE on FRND and MAP. These results suggest that microinjection of NE into CNTS may activate the alpha-adrenorecptor located in CNTS and secondarily produce a depressor effect by attenuating the activity of periphenal sympathetic nervous system.
    Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 02/2005; 25(3):263-4, 268. · 0.58 Impact Factor