T. A. W. Beale

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (35)79.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The hexaferrites are known to exhibit a wide range of magnetic structures, some of which are connected to important technological applications and display magnetoelectric properties. We present data on the low magnetic field structures stabilized in a Y-type hexaferrite as observed by resonant soft x-ray diffraction. The helical spin block arrangement that is present in zero applied magnetic field becomes fanlike as a field is applied in plane. The propagation vectors associated with each fan structure are studied as a function of magnetic field, and a new magnetic phase is reported. Mean field calculations indicate this phase should stabilize close to the boundary of the previously reported phases.
    Physical Review B 11/2013; 88(17). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Through powder x-ray diffraction we have investigated the structural behavior of SmVO3, in which orbital and magnetic degrees of freedom are believed to be closely coupled to the crystal lattice. We have found, contrary to previous reports, that SmVO3 exists in a single, monoclinic, phase below 200 K. The associated crystallographic distortion is then stabilized through the magnetostriction that occurs below 134 K. The crystal structure has been refined using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data measured throughout the structural phase diagram, showing a substantial Jahn-Teller distortion of the VO6 octahedra in the monoclinic phase, compatible with the expected G-type orbital order. Changes in the vanadium ion crystal field due to the structural and magnetic transitions have then been probed by resonant x-ray diffraction.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 08/2012; 85(22). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magneto-electric multiferroic TbMn2O5 has a complex magnetic structure in three different magnetically ordered phases. We have determined the nature of the induced magnetic order on the oxygen sites in the commensurate magnetic phase through full linear X-ray polarisation analysis at the oxygen K edge. This has been achieved rotating the linear polarisation of the incident beam at the source, and using multilayers to analyse the polarisation state of the scattered X-ray beam. We have confirmed that the anisotropy of the magnetic scattering at the oxygen edge is consistent with the anisotropy of the manganese magnetic structure.
    The European Physical Journal Special Topics 06/2012; 208(1). · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resonant Elastic X-Ray Scattering (REXS) has played a fundamental role in understanding electronic properties and in revealing hidden order, local symmetries and exotic states realized in correlated solids. This article reports on some of the relevant scientific contributions and technical advances over the last 20 years, by providing a list of related publications produced by various groups all around the world. The given perspective is that of a group of young scientists involved at various times in the investigation of the beauty of electronic ordering by the REXS technique.
    The European Physical Journal Special Topics 01/2012; 208(1):89-98. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the direct measurement of antiferromagnetic spin polarization at the oxygen sites in the multiferroic TbMn2O5, through resonant soft x-ray magnetic scattering. This supports recent theoretical models suggesting that the oxygen spin polarization is key to the magnetoelectric coupling mechanism. The spin polarization is observed through a resonantly enhanced diffraction signal at the oxygen K edge at the commensurate antiferromagnetic wave vector. Using the fdmnes code we have accurately reproduced the experimental data. We have established that the resonance arises through the spin polarization on the oxygen sites hybridized with the square based pyramid Mn3+ ions. Furthermore we have discovered that the position of the Mn3+ ion directly influences the oxygen spin polarization.
    Physical Review Letters 08/2010; 105(8):087203. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the design and construction of a novel soft x-ray diffractometer installed at Diamond Light Source. The beamline endstation RASOR is constructed for general users and designed primarily for the study of single crystal diffraction and thin film reflectivity. The instrument is comprised of a limited three circle (theta, 2theta, and chi) diffractometer with an additional removable rotation (phi) stage. It is equipped with a liquid helium cryostat, and post-scatter polarization analysis. Motorized motions are provided for the precise positioning of the sample onto the diffractometer center of rotation, and for positioning the center of rotation onto the x-ray beam. The functions of the instrument have been tested at Diamond Light Source, and initial test measurements are provided, demonstrating the potential of the instrument.
    The Review of scientific instruments 07/2010; 81(7):073904. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetite is one of the oldest known magnetic materials, but questions still surround both its crystal and electronic structures at low temperature. The most debated of these low temperature properties regard the presence, or lack of, of charge and orbital order. Using resonant x-ray diffraction at the iron K-edge to probe the long range order present on the iron sites, we have studied (0 0 )C type reflections. By using the technique of full linear polarisation, we have shown that the key features of the reflections can be described merely using the simplified Pmca structure, without invoking orbital order.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 02/2010; 211(1):012009.
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    ABSTRACT: Resonant x-ray scattering measurements have been performed at the (011) Bragg forbidden reflection of YVO3 at the vanadium K-edge. Data were taken above and below the orbital, magnetic and structural transition occurring at 77 K. Energy spectra calculated by the FDMNES code are shown to be in excellent agreement with our experimental data, conclusively showing the signal to originate from anisotropic tensor of susceptibility scattering; ie. solely due to distortions of the lattice and hence the crystal field. We thus resolve the ambiguous origin of the resonant energy spectra in the literature.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 02/2010; 200(1):012073.
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    ABSTRACT: Orbital order has been proposed theoretically for more than half a century, and has subsequently been observed in a huge range of materials. Charge ordering is generally accompanied by a transition from a metal to an insulator. In manganites, colossal magneto-resistance (CMR) is associated with competition between charge and orbital antiferromagnetic insulating phases and ferromagnetic metallic phases. Initial models of charge and orbital order in the manganites concentrated on the chequerboard charge order structure, observed in many half doped systems. Incommensurate charge ordering and structural distortions have been identified in La0.6Sr2.4Mn2O7 through the observation of superlattice reflections using resonant x-ray scattering. Such structural distortions are indicative of concomitant orbital order, leading to our proposal of an incommensurate charge-orbital density wave. Superlattice structural distortion reflections were observed with a modulation vector (0.178, 0.178, 0), and charge order reflections with a modulation vector (0.356, 0.356, 0). Low temperature charge order melting, observed in the half doped bilayer manganite, is not present due to the absence of long range magnetic order.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 02/2010; 211(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Controlling orbital occupancy is a fundamental prerequisite for orbitronics. It has been shown in the orthorhombic bilayer manganite Pr(Sr0.1Ca0.9)2Mn2O7 that the direction of orbital order stripes can be influenced by controlling temperature or through inducing strain in the material. In this paper we have used resonant soft x-ray diffraction at the Mn L-edge to confirm the rotation of the orbital direction TOO2 and furthermore prove that there is no change in the occupied orbital type, however the orbital rotation causes a switch from 3x2-r2 to 3y2-r2 on a single site. We find that unlike the tetragonal bilayer manganites, where an onset of A-type AFM quenches the orbital order, no such effect is found on the orbital order below TN.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2010; 211(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We show that resonant scattering signals at the Bragg forbidden positions in YVO3 originate from the anisotropic nature of the atomic scattering factor. The E1-E1 scattering from the electric-quadrupole moment is explained entirely through the crystal structure and does not require sensitivity to 3d orbital order. Simulations of the resonance using the FDMNES code suggest that the Jahn-Teller distortion provides an insignificant contribution to the intensity of the forbidden reflection. Thus we show that resonant x-ray diffraction at the vanadium K-edge in YVO3 is largely insensitive, even indirectly, to 3d orbital order through Jahn-Teller distortions.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 01/2010; 82(2). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite being one of the oldest known magnetic materials, and the classic mixed valence compound, thought to be charge ordered, the structure of magnetite below the Verwey transition is complex and the presence and role of charge order is still being debated. Here, we present resonant x-ray diffraction data at the iron K-edge on forbidden (0, 0, 2n+1)(C) and superlattice [Formula: see text] reflections. Full linear polarization analysis of the incident and scattered light was conducted in order to explore the origins of the reflections. Through simulation of the resonant spectra we have confirmed that a degree of charge ordering takes place, while the anisotropic tensor of susceptibility scattering is responsible for the superlattice reflections below the Verwey transition. We also report the surprising result of the conversion of a significant proportion of the scattered light from linear to nonlinear polarization.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 12/2009; 21(48):485601. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic structures which endow TbMnO(3) with its multiferroic properties have been reassessed on the basis of a comprehensive soft x-ray resonant scattering (XRS) study. The selectivity of XRS facilitated separation of the various contributions (Mn L(2) edge, Mn 3d moments; Tb M(4) edge, Tb 4f moments), while its variation with azimuth provided information on the moment direction of distinct Fourier components. When the data are combined with a detailed group theory analysis, a new picture emerges of the ferroelectric transition at 28 K. Instead of being driven by the transition from a collinear to a noncollinear magnetic structure, as has previously been supposed, it is shown to occur between two noncollinear structures.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2009; 103(20):207602. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetite, Fe3O4 , displays a highly complex low-temperature crystal structure that may be charge and orbitally ordered. Many of the recent experimental claims of such ordering rely on resonant soft x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K and iron L edges. We have reexamined this system and undertaken soft x-ray diffraction experiments on a high-quality single crystal. Contrary to previous claims in the literature, we show that the intensity observed at the Bragg forbidden (00(1)/(2))c reflection can be explained purely in terms of the low-temperature structural displacements around the resonant atoms. This does not necessarily mean that magnetite is not charge or orbitally ordered but rather that the present sensitivity of resonant soft x-ray experiments does not allow conclusive demonstration of such ordering.
    Physical Review B 05/2009; 79(20). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Full polarisation analysis of resonant X-ray magnetic scattering (RXMS) is shown to advance the determination of magnetic moment directions of complex magnetic structures within single crystals. Key features of this novel method are the variation of the incident beam polarisation through the use of an X-ray phase plate, and the measurement of the scattered beam polarisation in terms of Poincaré–Stokes parameters. Contrary to the established method, no azimuthal rotation is required. Thus, the major sources of systematic error are eliminated, and the method is compatible with exotic and complex sample environments. The technique is demonstrated with the example of TbMn2O5. The RXMS theory briefly outlined in this paper was fitted to the data, and the local and delocalized, band-specific moment directions associated with the magnetic order of the resonating species was refined with a high degree of accuracy.
    Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 04/2009; 321(7):810-813. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Solid State Phenomena. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated orbital ordering in the bilayer manganite, Pr(Sr0.1Ca0.9)2Mn2O7, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques, in particular resonant soft x-ray diffraction. Diffraction signals are observed at (0,1/2,0) above 300 K and (1/2,0,0) below 300 K, corresponding to orbital stripes along the a and b axes, respectively. The previously observed transition at 300 K is evidence of a rotation of the orientation of the 3d orbital stripes. Large resonances of the orbital signals are observed at the Mn L edges, with a complex dependence on incident photon energy indicative of a weakly Jahn-Teller distorted system. A structural transition observed at 92 K is found not to involve a further change in the orbital order.
    Physical Review B 01/2009; 79(5). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have employed resonant x-ray magnetic scattering to specifically probe the magnetic order of the rare-earth ions in multiferroic $\mathrm{TbMn_2O_5}$. Two energy resonances were observed, one originated from the E1-E1 dipolar transition and the other from the E2-E2 quadrupolar transition. These resonances directly probe the valence 5d band and the partially occupied 4f band, respectively. First, full polarization analysis, which is a measurement of the scattered polarization as a function of incident polarization, confirmed a spin polarization of the terbium valence states (probed by the E1-E1 transition) by the $\mathrm{Mn^{4+}}$ spin density in the commensurate phase. Second, full polarization analysis data were collected in the low-temperature incommensurate and commensurate phases when tuned to the E2-E2 resonance. By employing a least-squares fitting procedure, the spin orientations of the terbium ion sublattice were refined. Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures, accepted in Physical Review B
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 09/2008; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soft x-ray resonant scattering (XRS) has been used to observe directly, for the first time, the ordering of localized electronic states on both the Mn and the Tb sites in multiferroic TbMnO3. Large resonant enhancements of the x-ray scattering cross-section were observed when the incident photon energy was tuned to either the Mn L or Tb M edges which provide information on the Mn 3d and Tb 4f electronic states, respectively. The temperature dependence of the XRS signal establishes, in a model independent way, that in the high-temperature phase (28 K
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 01/2008; 20(42). · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soft x-ray resonant scattering has been used to examine the charge and magnetic interactions in the cycloidal antiferromagnetic compound DyFe4Al8 . By tuning to the Dy M4 and M5 absorption edges and the Fe L2 and L3 absorption edges, we can directly observe the behavior of the Dy 4f and Fe 3d electron shells. Magnetic satellites surrounding the (110) Bragg peak were observed below 65K . The diffraction peaks display complex spectra at the Dy M5 edge, indicative of a split 4f electron band. This is in contrast to the simple resonance observed at the Fe L3 absorption edge, which probes the Fe 3d electron shell. Temperature-dependent measurements detail the ordering of the magnetic moments on both the iron and the dysprosium antiferromagnetic cycloids. The ratio between the superlattice peak intensities of the Dy M4 and M5 absorption edges remained constant throughout the temperature range, in contrast to a previous study conducted at the Dy L2,3 edges. Our results demonstrate the ability of soft x-ray diffraction to separate the individual magnetic components in complicated multielement magnetic structures.
    Physical Review B 05/2007; 75(17). · 3.66 Impact Factor