[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a severe complication of BCR-ABL-positive leukemia after allogenic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) associated with fatal outcome. Although second-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as nilotinib have shown activity in systemic BCR-ABL(+) disease, little data exists on their penetration and efficacy within the CNS. Four patients (3 male, 1 female; age 15-49) with meningeal relapse after alloSCT and subsequent treatment with nilotinib were identified. A total of 17 cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum samples were assessed for nilotinib concentration and patient outcome was recorded. Nilotinib concentrations showed a low median csf/plasma ratio of 0.53% (range 0.23-1.5%), yet pronounced clinical efficacy was observed with long-lasting responses (>1 year) in three patients. Comparison with historical data showed a trend towards superior efficacy of nilotinib versus imatinib. Despite poor csf penetration, nilotinib showed significant clinical activity in CNS relapse of BCR-ABL(+) leukemias. As nilotinib has a high protein-binding affinity, the low-protein concentration in csf could translate into a relatively higher amount of free and therefore active nilotinib in csf as compared to blood, possibly explaining the observed efficacy. Thus, treatment with a 2nd generation TKI warrants further investigation and should be considered in cases of CNS relapse of BCR-ABL-positive leukemia after alloSCT.
BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:637059. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that after differentiation bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) become lineage restricted and unipotent in an irreversible manner. However, current results imply that even terminally differentiated cells transdifferentiate across lineage boundaries and therefore act as a progenitor cells for other lineages. This leads to the questions that whether transdifferentiation occurs via direct cell-to-cell conversion or dedifferentiation to a progenitor cells and subsequent differentiation, and whether MSC potency decreases or increases during differentiation. To address these questions, MSC were differentiated into adipogenic lineage cells, followed by dedifferentiation. The process of dedifferentiation was also confirmed by single cell clonal analysis. Finally the dedifferentiated cells were used for adipogenesis, osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Histology, FACS, qPCR and GeneChip analyses of undifferentiated MSC, adipogenic-differentiated and dedifferentiated cells were performed. Interestingly, gene profiling and bioinformatics demonstrated that upregulation (DHCR24, G0S2, MAP2K6, SESN3) and downregulation (DST, KAT2, MLL5, RB1, SMAD3, ZAK) of distinct genes have an association with cell cycle arrest in adipogenic-differentiated cells and perhaps narrow down the lineage potency. However, the upregulation (CCND1, CHEK, HGF, HMGA2, SMAD3) and downregulation (CCPG1, RASSF4, RGS2) of these genes have an association with cell cycle progression and maybe motivate dedifferentiation of adipogenic-differentiated cells. We found that dedifferentiated cells have a multilineage potency comparable to MSC, and also observed the associative role of proliferation genes with cell cycle arrest and progression. Concluded, our results indicate that transdifferentiation of adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or chondrogenic-differentiated cells proceeds via dedifferentiation and correlates with cell cycle arresting and deriving genes. Regarding clinical use, the knowledge of potency and underlying mechanisms are prerequisites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tracking of transplanted stem cells is essential to monitor safety and efficiency of cell-based therapies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a very sensitive, repetitive and non-invasive in vivo detection of magnetically labeled cells but labeling with commercial superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is still problematic because of low labeling efficiencies and the need of potentially toxic transfection agents. In this study, new experimental citrate-coated SPIONs and commercial Endorem and Resovist SPIONs were investigated comparatively in terms of in vitro labeling efficiency, effects on stem cell functionality and in vivo MRI visualization. Efficient labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without transfection agents was only achieved with Citrate SPIONs. Magnetic labeling of human MSCs did not affect cell proliferation, presentation of typical cell surface marker antigens and differentiation into the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. However, chondrogenic differentiation and chemotaxis were significantly impaired with increasing SPION incorporation. Transplanted SPION-labeled MSCs were visualized in vivo after intramuscular injection in rats by 7T-MRI and were retrieved ex vivo by Prussian Blue and immunohistochemical stainings. Though a careful titration of SPION incorporation, cellular function and MRI visualization is essential, Citrate SPIONs are very efficient intracellular magnetic labels for in vivo stem cell tracking by MRI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous human serum is used in cartilage repair and may exert its effect by the recruitment of mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSC). Aim of our study was to analyze the chemokine profile of human serum and to verify chemotactic activity of selected chemokines on MSC. Human MSC were isolated from iliac crest bone marrow aspirates. Chemotactic activity of human serum made from whole blood and pharma grade serum was tested in 96-well chemotaxis assays and chemokine levels were analyzed using human chemokine antibody membrane arrays. The chemotactic potential of selected chemokines on MSC was tested dose dependently using chemotaxis assays. Human serum derived from whole blood significantly attracted human MSC, while pharma grade serum did not recruit MSC. Human chemokine antibody array analysis showed that the level of chemokines CXCL-3, 5, 7-8, 10-12, 16; CCL- 2, 5, 11, 13, 16-20, 24-25, 27; as well as XCL-1 was elevated (fold change >1.5) in serum derived from whole blood compared to nonrecruiting pharma grade serum. Chemotaxis assays showed that the chemokines IP-10/CXCL-10 and I-TAC/CXCL-11 significantly recruit human MSC. PARC/CCL-18, HCC-4/CCL-16, CTACK/CCL-27, and Lymphotactin/XCL-1 showed no chemotactic effect on MSC. Therefore, human serum derived from whole blood contains chemokines that may contribute to serum-mediated recruitment of human mesenchymal progenitors from bone marrow.
Connective tissue research 12/2009; 51(2):113-22. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been associated with the growth, survival and biological behavior of leukemic cells and response to therapy. We determined the expression of IL-15 in lymphoblasts and evaluated its potential impact on the outcome in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Between June 1999 and June 2006, ALL samples were collected from 87 adult patients before initiation of antineoplastic therapy. These patients were enrolled in the German Multicenter Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia June 1999 and July 2003 study trials. The expression of IL-15 in leukemic cells was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
The expression of IL-15 correlated with the immunophenotype: T-lineage ALL had a more than 4-fold higher IL-15 mRNA expression as compared with B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL (P < .001). Patients with BCR-ABL(+)-BCP-ALL had lower IL-15 expression compared with BCR-ABL(-)-BCP-ALL (P = .041). Furthermore, higher expression of IL-15 was associated with mediastinal (P = .001) and lymph node infiltration (P = .051), but not with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Notably, high IL-15 expression in BCP-ALL was associated with an inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) at 5 years (0.17 +/- 0.13 vs 0.47 +/- 0.13) (P = .008), but there was no impact on overall survival (P = .249).
Differential expression of IL-15 in adult ALL at diagnosis was associated with clinical features and outcome, in particular, RFS. It remains to be evaluated whether IL-15 might be a relevant therapy target, or might be used for risk stratification.
Cancer 11/2009; 116(2):387-92. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In situ tissue engineering is a promising approach in regenerative medicine, with the possibility that adult stem or progenitor cells will be guided chemotactically to a tissue defect and subsequently differentiate into the surrounding tissue type. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent attractive candidate cells. Chemokines such as CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) chemoattract MSC, but little is known about the molecular processes involved in the chemotaxis and migration of MSC. In this study, MSC recruitment by CXCL12 was investigated by genome-wide microarray analysis. The dose-dependent migration potential of bone-marrow-derived MSC toward CXCL12 was measured in an in vitro assay, with a maximum being recorded at a concentration of 1,000 nM CXCL12. Microarray analysis of MSC stimulated with CXCL12 and non-stimulated controls showed 30 differentially expressed genes (24 induced and six repressed). Pathway analysis revealed 11 differentially expressed genes involved in cellular movement and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, including those for migratory inducers such as the chemokines CXCL8 and CCL26, the leukocyte inhibitory factor, secretogranin II, and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2. These results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. The obtained data provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in chemotactic processes in cell migration and designate CXCL12 as a promising candidate for in situ recruitment in regenerative therapies.
Cell and Tissue Research 04/2009; 336(2):225-36. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to tissue damages is a promising approach for in situ tissue regeneration. The physiological mechanisms and regulatory processes of MSC trafficking to injured tissue remain poorly understood. However, the pivotal role of chemokines in MSC recruitment has already been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the migratory potential and the gene expression profile of MSC stimulated with the CC chemokine CCL25 (TECK). Bone marrow derived human MSC were exposed to different doses of CCL25 in a standardized chemotaxis assay. Microarray gene expression profiling and pathway analysis were performed for CCL25 stimulated MSC. Maximum migration of MSC towards CCL25 was observed at 10(3) nM. Microarray analysis revealed an induction of molecules directly involved in chemotaxis and homing of bone marrow cells (CXCL1-3, CXCL8, PDE4B), cytoskeletal and membrane reorganisation (CXCL8, PLD1, IGFBP1), cellular polarity (PLD1), and cell movement (CXCL1-3, CXCL6, CXCL8, PTGS2, PDE4B, TGM2). Respective chemokine secretion was confirmed by protein membrane-array analysis. The activation of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL1-3, CXCL5-6, CXCL8) and a LIF-receptor/gp130 ligand (LIF) indicated an involvement of the respective signaling pathways during initiation of chemotaxis and migration. These results suggest CCL25 as a new potential candidate for further in situ regeneration approaches.
Experimental Cell Research 02/2009; 315(8):1468-79. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recruitment of bone marrow CD34- mesenchymal stem- and progenitor cells (MSC) and their subsequent differentiation into distinct tissues is the precondition for in situ tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to determine the entire chemokine receptor expression profile of human MSC and to investigate their chemotactic response to the selected chemokines CCL2, CXCL8 and CXCL12. Human MSC were isolated from iliac crest bone marrow aspirates and showed a homogeneous population presenting a typical MSC-related cell surface antigen profile (CD14-, CD34-, CD44+, CD45-, CD166+, SH-2+). The expression profile of all 18 chemokine receptors was determined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Both methods consistently demonstrated that MSC express CC, CXC, C and CX(3)C receptors. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis documented that MSC express chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR8, CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCR3. A dose-dependent chemotactic activity of CXCR4 and CXCR1/CXCR2 ligands CXCL12 and CXCL8 (interleukin-8) was demonstrated using a 96-well chemotaxis assay. In contrast, the CCR2 ligand CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1) did not recruited human MSC. In conclusion, we report that the chemokine receptor expression profile of human MSC is much broader than known before. Furthermore, for the first time, we demonstrate that human MSC migrate upon stimulation with CXCL8 but not CCL2. In combination with already known data on MSC recruitment and differentiation these are promising results towards in situ regenerative medicine approaches based on guiding of MSC to sites of degenerated tissues.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2007; 101(1):135-46. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute hemolysis due to AB0-incompatibility caused by transfusion of red blood cell concentrates (RBCC) to the wrong recipient is one of the major causes of transfusion-related death. As part of our policy to improve quality and safety in emergency transfusion, we have developed a standardized surveillance system for supplying RBCC in emergency situations. This surveillance system involves the implementation of a standardized set of basic data transmitted from the requesting unit to the blood bank by phone and a scoring system to check for compliance with guidelines and errors in daily routines. Communication deficiencies and delayed pretransfusion sampling were the most common errors.
Transfusion and Apheresis Science 11/2006; 35(2):125-30. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is usually considered to be associated with limited side effects. Generalized foamy cell macrophage syndrome after HES therapy has rarely been reported since Schaefer first described it as 'hydrops lysosomalis generalisatus' in 1982. We present a 19-yr-old male who received large amounts of HES. A bone marrow and a liver biopsy were performed because of persistent thrombocytopenia and liver dysfunction. We found severe infiltration of foamy cell degenerated macrophages in both organ systems, indicating that sequelae of HES therapy have to be included in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow and liver dysfunction.
European Journal Of Haematology 08/2006; 77(1):83-5. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the type of biological reaction to chemotherapy is a prerequisite for its rational enhancement. We previously showed that irinotecan-induced DNA damage triggers in the HCT116p53(wt) colon carcinoma cell line a long-term cell cycle arrest and in HCT116p53(-/-) cells apoptosis (Magrini et al., 2002). To compare the contribution of long-term cell cycle arrest and that of apoptosis to inhibition of cell proliferation after irinotecan-induced DNA damage, we used this isogenic system as well as the cell lines LS174T (p53(wt)) and HT-29 (p53(mut)). Both p53(wt) cell lines responded to damage by undergoing a long-term tetraploid G1 arrest, whereas the p53(mut) cell lines underwent apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis caused a similar delay in cell proliferation. Irinotecan treatment also induced in mouse tumours derived from the p53(wt) cell lines a tetraploid G1 arrest and in those derived from the p53-deficient cell lines a transient G2/M arrest and apoptosis. The delay of tumour growth was in the same range in both groups, that is, arrest- and apoptosis-mediated tumour growth inhibition was comparable. In conclusion, cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis may be equipotent mechanisms mediating the chemotherapeutic effects of irinotecan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagen XIV (CXIV) is a fibril-associated collagen that is mainly expressed in well differentiated tissues and in late embryonic development. Because CXIV is almost absent in proliferating and/or dedifferentiated tissues, a functional role in maintaining cell differentiation is suspected. We demonstrate antiproliferative, quiescence- and differentiation-inducing effects of human CXIV and its recombinant fragments on mesenchymal cells. In primary human fibroblasts, in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, CXIV reduced de novo DNA synthesis by 75%, whereas cell numbers and viability remained unaltered. Cells showed no signs of apoptosis, and maximal proliferation was restored when serum was supplemented, thus indicating that CXIV induced reversible cellular quiescence. Exposure of fibroblasts to CXIV in vitro led to cellular bundles and clusters. CXIV also triggered trans-differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, as could be shown by lipid accumulation and by expression of the glucose transporter Glut4. These effects were also observed with the amino-terminal recombinant fragment Gln(29)-Pro(154) that harbors the first fibronectin type III domain and a 39-amino-acid extension, whereas no activity was found for all other recombinant CXIV fragments. Based on these finding the development of small molecular analogs that modulate fibroblast cell growth and differentiation, e.g. in wound healing and fibrosis, seems feasible.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2005; 280(46):38537-43. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the potential to differentiate into distinct mesenchymal tissues including cartilage, which suggest these cells as an attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering approaches. Our objective was to study the effects of TGF-beta1, hyaluronic acid and synovial fluid on chondrogenic differentiation of equine MSC. For that, bone marrow was aspirated from the tibia of one 18-month-old horse (Haflinger) and MSC were isolated using percoll-density centrifugation. To promote chondrogenesis, MSC were centrifuged to form a micromass and were cultured in a medium containing 10 ng/ml TGF-beta1 or 0.1mg/ml hyaluronic acid (Hylartil, Ostenil) or either 5%, 10% or 50% autologous synovial fluid as the chondrogenesis inducing factor. Differentiation along the chondrogenic lineage was documented by type II collagen and proteoglycan expression. MSC induced by TGF-beta1 alone showed the highest proteoglycan expression. Combining TGF-beta1 with hyaluronic acid could not increase the proteoglycan expression. Cultures stimulated by autologous synovial fluid (independent of concentration) and hyaluronic acid demonstrated a pronounced, but lower proteoglycan expression than cultures stimulated by TGF-beta1. The expression of cartilage-specific type II collagen was high and about the same in all stimulated cultures. In summary, hyaluronic acid and autologous synovial fluid induces chondrogenesis of equine mesenchymal stem cells, which encourage tissue engineering applications of MSC in chondral defects, as the natural environment in the joint is favorable for chondrogenic differentiation.
Tissue and Cell 01/2005; 36(6):431-8. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to differentiate into distinct mesenchymal tissues including bone and cartilage. The capacity of MSCs to replicate undifferentiated and to mature into cartilaginous tissues suggests these cells as an attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. Here we show that the stimulation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) results in chondrogenic lineage development under serum-free conditions. Histological staining of proteoglycan with Alcian blue and immunohistochemical staining of cartilage-specific type II collagen revealed the deposition of typical cartilage extracellular matrix components. Semi-quantitative real-time gene expression analysis of characteristic chondrocytic matrix genes, such as cartilage link protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, aggrecan, and types I, II, and IX collagen, confirmed the induction of the chondrocytic phenotype in high-density culture upon stimulation with BMP2 and transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGFbeta3). Histologic staining of mineralized extracellular matrix with von Kossa, immunostaining of type X collagen (typical for hypertrophic chondrocytes), and gene expression analysis of osteocalcin and adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) further documented that BMP2 induced chondrogenic lineage development and not osteogenesis and/or adipogenesis in human MSCs. These results suggest BMP2 as a promising candidate for tissue engineering approaches regenerating articular cartilage on the basis of mesenchymal progenitors from bone marrow.