[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthesis of methylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleoside phosphonates 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b is described. Cyclopropyl phosphonate 8 was transformed in four steps to methylenecyclopropane phosphonate 16. The latter intermediate was converted in seven steps to the key Z- and E-methylenecyclopropane alcohols 23 and 24 separated by chromatography. Selenoxide eliminations (15 --> 16 and 22 --> 23 + 24) were instrumental in the synthesis. The Z- and E-isomers 23 and 24 were transformed to bromides 25a and 25b which were used for alkylation of adenine and 2-amino-6-chloropurine to give intermediates 26a, 26b, 26c and 26d. Acid hydrolysis provided the adenine and guanine analogues 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b. Phosphonates 6b and 7b are potent inhibitors of replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenylmethylphosphor-L-alaninate pronucleotides 7a, 7b, 8a, and 8b, cyclic phosphates 10a and 10b, and phosphates 11a and 11b derived from 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)methylenecyclopropane analogues 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral activity. An improved protocol for the synthesis of analogues 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b is also described. Phosphate 11a was the most effective agent against human and murine cytomegalovirus (EC(50) 0.25-1.1 microM). The Z-pronucleotides 7a and 7b had EC(50) 3.6-25.2 and 3-18.4 microM, respectively. The EC(50) of cyclic phosphate 10a was 6.0-20 microM. The activity against Epstein-Barr (EBV) was assay-dependent. Pronucleotides 7a and 7b and phosphate 11a had EC(50) 2.3-3.4 microM against EBV/H-1, but 7b was cytotoxic (CC(50) 3.8 microM). Cyclic phosphate 10a was the only compound effective against EBV/Daudi (EC(50) 0.96 microM), but it was inactive in H-1 cells. Pronucleotide 7a was active against varicella zoster virus with EC(50) 6.3 and 7.3 microM, respectively, and hepatitis B virus (HBV, EC(50) 4.1 microM). Cyclic phosphate 10a was the most effective analogue against HBV (EC(50) 0.8 microM).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported previously that purine 2-(hydroxymethyl)methylenecyclopropane analogs have good activity against cytomegalovirus infection. A second-generation analog, (Z)-9-[[2,2-bis-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopropylidene]methyl]guanine (ZSM-I-62, cyclopropavir [CPV]), has particularly good activity against murine and human cytomegaloviruses (MCMV and HCMV) in vitro. To determine the oral activity of this compound in vivo, BALB/c or severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice infected with MCMV and two models using SCID mice implanted with human fetal tissue and subsequently infected with HCMV were used. In MCMV-infected normal mice, CPV at 10 mg/kg of body weight was highly effective in preventing mortality when administered at 24, 48, or 72 h post-viral inoculation and reduced titers of virus in tissues of SCID mice by 2 to 5 log10. In one HCMV model, human fetal retinal tissue was implanted into the anterior chamber of the mouse eye and inoculated with the Toledo strain of HCMV, and in the second, human fetal thymus and liver tissues were implanted under the kidney capsule of mice and then inoculated with HCMV. In general, replication of HCMV in both types of implant tissue increased from 7 through 21 to 28 days and then gradually decreased to undetectable levels by 8 weeks postinfection. Oral treatment with 45 or 15 mg of CPV/kg initiated 24 h after infection was highly effective in reducing replication to undetectable levels in both models and was generally more effective than ganciclovir. These data indicate that the methylenecyclopropane analog, CPV, was highly efficacious in these four animal models and should be evaluated for use in HCMV infections in humans.