[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five preventative HIV vaccine efficacy trials have been conducted over the last 12 years, all of which evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) to prevent HIV infection for a single vaccine regimen versus placebo. Now that one of these trials has supported partial VE of a prime-boost vaccine regimen, there is interest in conducting efficacy trials that simultaneously evaluate multiple prime-boost vaccine regimens against a shared placebo group in the same geographic region, for accelerating the pace of vaccine development. This article proposes such a design, which has main objectives (1) to evaluate VE of each regimen versus placebo against HIV exposures occurring near the time of the immunizations; (2) to evaluate durability of VE for each vaccine regimen showing reliable evidence for positive VE; (3) to expeditiously evaluate the immune correlates of protection if any vaccine regimen shows reliable evidence for positive VE; and (4) to compare VE among the vaccine regimens. The design uses sequential monitoring for the events of vaccine harm, non-efficacy, and high efficacy, selected to weed out poor vaccines as rapidly as possible while guarding against prematurely weeding out a vaccine that does not confer efficacy until most of the immunizations are received. The evaluation of the design shows that testing multiple vaccine regimens is important for providing a well-powered assessment of the correlation of vaccine-induced immune responses with HIV infection, and is critically important for providing a reasonably powered assessment of the value of identified correlates as surrogate endpoints for HIV infection.
Statistical communications in infectious diseases. 10/2011; 3(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation is the mainstay of therapy for progressive prostate cancer. Despite initial and dramatic tumor inhibition, most men eventually fail therapy and die of metastatic castration-resistant (CR) disease. Here, we characterize the profound degree of genomic alteration found in CR tumors using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), gene expression arrays, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bycluster analysis, we show that the similarity of the genomic profiles from primary and metastatic tumors is driven by the patient. Using data adjusted for this similarity, we identify numerous high-frequency alterations in the CR tumors, such as 8p loss and chromosome 7 and 8q gain. By integrating array CGH and expression array data, we reveal genes whose correlated values suggest they are relevant to prostate cancer biology. We find alterations that are significantly associated with the metastases of specific organ sites, and others with CR tumors versus the tumors of patients with localized prostate cancer not treated with androgen deprivation. Within the high-frequency sites of loss in CR metastases, we find an overrepresentation of genes involved in cellular lipid metabolism, including PTEN. Finally, using FISH, we verify the presence of a gene fusion between TMPRSS2 and ERG suggested by chromosome 21 deletions detected by array CGH. We find the fusion in 54% of our CR tumors, and 81% of the fusion-positive tumors contain cells with multiple copies of the fusion. Our investigation lays the foundation for a better understanding of and possible therapeutic targets for CR disease, the poorly responsive and final stage of prostate cancer.
Cancer Research 09/2009; 69(19):7793-802. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterization of the immune responses induced in the initial stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is of critical importance for an understanding of early viral pathogenesis and prophylactic vaccine design. Here, we used sequential plasma samples collected during the eclipse and exponential viral expansion phases from subjects acquiring HIV-1 (or, for comparison, hepatitis B virus [HBV]or hepatitis C virus [HCV]) to determine the nature and kinetics of the earliest systemic elevations in cytokine and chemokine levels in each infection. Plasma viremia was quantitated over time, and levels of 30 cytokines and chemokines were measured using Luminex-based multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The increase in plasma viremia in acute HIV-1 infection was found to be associated with elevations in plasma levels of multiple cytokines and chemokines, including rapid and transient elevations in alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and interleukin-15 (IL-15) levels; a large increase in inducible protein 10 (IP-10) levels; rapid and more-sustained increases in tumor necrosis factor alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 levels; more slowly initiated elevations in levels of additional proinflammatory factors including IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and IFN-gamma; and a late-peaking increase in levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. Notably, there was comparatively little perturbation in plasma cytokine levels during the same phase of HBV infection and a delayed response of more intermediate magnitude in acute HCV infection, indicating that the rapid activation of a striking systemic cytokine cascade is not a prerequisite for viral clearance (which occurs in a majority of HBV-infected individuals). The intense early cytokine storm in acute HIV-1 infection may have immunopathological consequences, promoting immune activation, viral replication, and CD4(+) T-cell loss.
Journal of Virology 02/2009; 83(8):3719-33. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two main histological types of infiltrating breast cancer, lobular (ILC) and the more common ductal (IDC) carcinoma are morphologically and clinically distinct. To assess the molecular alterations associated with these breast cancer subtypes, we conducted a whole-genome study of 166 archival estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors (89 IDC and 77 ILC) using the Affymetrix GeneChip(R) Mapping 10K Array to identify sites of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) that either distinguished, or were shared by, the two phenotypes. We found single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of high-frequency LOH (>50%) common to both ILC and IDC tumors predominately in 11q, 16q, and 17p. Overall, IDC had a slightly higher frequency of LOH events across the genome than ILC (fractional allelic loss = 0.186 and 0.156). By comparing the average frequency of LOH by chromosomal arm, we found IDC tumors with significantly (P < 0.05) higher frequency of LOH on 3p, 5q, 8p, 9p, 20p, and 20q than ILC tumors. We identified additional chromosomal arms differentiating the subtypes when tumors were stratified by tumor size, mitotic rate, or DNA content. Of 5,754 informative SNPs (>25% informativity), we identified 78 and 466 individual SNPs with a higher frequency of LOH (P < 0.05) in ILC and IDC tumors, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of these 544 SNPs grouped tumors into four major groups based on their patterns of LOH and retention of heterozygosity. LOH in chromosomal arms 8p and 5q was common in higher grade IDC tumors, whereas ILC and low-grade IDC grouped together by virtue of LOH in 16q.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/2008; 47(12):1049-66. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disseminated epithelial cells can be isolated from the bone marrow of a far greater fraction of prostate-cancer patients than the fraction of patients who progress to metastatic disease. To provide a better understanding of these cells, we have characterized their genomic alterations. We first present an array comparative genomic hybridization method capable of detecting genomic changes in the small number of disseminated cells (10-20) that can typically be obtained from bone marrow aspirates of prostate-cancer patients. We show multiple regions of copy-number change, including alterations common in prostate cancer, such as 8p loss, 8q gain, and gain encompassing the androgen-receptor gene on Xq, in the disseminated cell pools from 11 metastatic patients. We found fewer and less striking genomic alterations in the 48 pools of disseminated cells from patients with organ-confined disease. However, we identify changes shared by these samples with their corresponding primary tumors and prostate-cancer alterations reported in the literature, evidence that these cells, like those in advanced disease, are disseminated tumor cells (DTC). We also show that DTCs from patients with advanced and localized disease share several abnormalities, including losses containing cell-adhesion genes and alterations reported to associate with progressive disease. These shared alterations might confer the capability to disseminate or establish secondary disease. Overall, the spectrum of genomic deviations is evidence for metastatic capacity in advanced-disease DTCs and for variation in that capacity in DTCs from localized disease. Our analysis lays the foundation for elucidation of the relationship between DTC genomic alterations and progressive prostate cancer.
Cancer Research 07/2008; 68(14):5599-608. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) provides a high-throughput, high-resolution method to measure relative changes in DNA copy number simultaneously at thousands of genomic loci. Typically, these measurements are reported and displayed linearly on chromosome maps, and gains and losses are detected as deviations from normal diploid cells. We propose that one may consider denoising the data to uncover the true copy number changes before drawing inferences on the patterns of aberrations in the samples. Nonparametric techniques are particularly suitable for data denoising as they do not impose a parametric model in finding structures in the data. In this paper, we employ wavelets to denoise the data as wavelets have sound theoretical properties and a fast computational algorithm, and are particularly well suited for handling the abrupt changes seen in array-CGH data. A simulation study shows that denoising data prior to testing can achieve greater power in detecting the aberrant spot than using the raw data without denoising. Finally, we illustrate the method on two array-CGH data sets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization with an array of 4153 bacterial artificial chromosome clones to assess copy number changes in 44 archival breast cancers. The tumors were flow sorted to exclude non-tumor DNA and increase our ability to detect gene copy number changes. In these tumors, losses were more frequent than gains, and gains in 1q and loss in 16q were the most frequent alterations. We compared gene copy number changes in the tumors based on histologic subtype and estrogen receptor (ER) status, i.e., ER-negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma, ER-positive infiltrating ductal carcinoma, and ER-positive infiltrating lobular carcinoma. We observed a consistent association between loss in regions of 5q and ER-negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma, as well as more frequent loss in 4p16, 8p23, 8p21, 10q25, and 17p11.2 in ER-negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma compared with ER-positive infiltrating ductal carcinoma (adjusted P values < or = 0.05). We also observed high-level amplifications in ER-negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma in regions of 8q24 and 17q12 encompassing the c-myc and c-erbB-2 genes and apparent homozygous deletions in 3p21, 5q33, 8p23, 8p21, 9q34, 16q24, and 19q13. ER-positive infiltrating ductal carcinoma showed a higher frequency of gain in 16p13 and loss in 16q21 than ER-negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Correlation analysis highlighted regions of change commonly seen together in ER-negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma. ER-positive infiltrating lobular carcinoma differed from ER-positive infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the frequency of gain in 1q and loss in 11q and showed high-level amplifications in 1q32, 8p23, 11q13, and 11q14. These results indicate that array comparative genomic hybridization can identify significant differences in the genomic alterations between subtypes of breast cancer.
Cancer Research 01/2005; 64(23):8541-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor