Andrew A Adjei

University of Ghana, Akra, Greater Accra, Ghana

Are you Andrew A Adjei?

Claim your profile

Publications (49)100.09 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.
    Nature genetics. 09/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least ten distinct cancers to a small region of 63,000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (ASSET) across six distinct cancers in 34,248 cases and 45,036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): five in the TERT gene (region 1: rs7726159, P=2.10x10-39; region 3: rs2853677, P=3.30x10-36 and PConditional=2.36x10-8; region 4: rs2736098, P=3.87x10-12 and PConditional=5.19x10-6, region 5: rs13172201, P=0.041 and PConditional=2.04x10-6; and region 6: rs10069690, P=7.49x10-15 and PConditional=5.35x10-7) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (region 2: rs451360; P=1.90x10-18 and PConditional=7.06x10-16). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified that a ∼1 M region centromeric to the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8q24.21 harbors at least five independent loci associated with prostate cancer risk and additional loci associated with cancers of breast, colon, bladder, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because GWAS identify genetic markers that may be indirectly associated with disease, fine-mapping based on sequence analysis provides important insights into patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and is critical in defining the optimal variants to nominate for biological follow-up. To catalog variation in individuals of African ancestry, we resequenced a region (250 kb; chr8:128,050, 768–128, 300,801, hg19) containing several prostate cancer susceptibility loci as well as a locus associated with CLL. Our samples included 78 individuals from Ghana and 47 of African-Americans from Johns Hopkins University. After quality control metrics were applied to next-generation sequence data, 1,838 SNPs were identified. Of these, 285 were novel and not yet reported in any public database. Using genotypes derived from sequencing, we refined the LD and recombination hotspots within the region and determined a set of tag SNPs to be used in future fine-mapping studies. Based on LD, we annotated putative risk loci and their surrogates using ENCODE data, which should help guide laboratory studies. In comparison to the 1000 Genome Project data, we have identified additional variants that could be important in establishing priorities for future functional work designed to explain the biological basis of associations between SNPs and both prostate cancer and CLL.
    The Prostate 05/2014; 74(6):579-89. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in African Americans are unknown; both genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. A better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West Africans would help clarify why African Americans have such high rates, since African Americans share genetic ancestry with West Africans yet have very different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate prostate cancer burden in West Africans, we conducted a population-based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana. We randomly selected 1,037 healthy men aged 50-74 from Accra, Ghana for prostate cancer screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examination (DRE). Men who had a positive screen (DRE+ or PSA>2.5 ng/ml) underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. Of the 1,037 men, 154 (14.9%) had a positive DRE and 272 (26.2%) had a PSA>2.5 ng/ml (166 had a PSA>4.0 ng/ml). In total, 352 (33.9%) men had a positive screen by PSA or DRE, and 307 (87%) had a biopsy. Of these, 73 were confirmed to have prostate cancer, yielding a 7.0% screen-detected prevalence of prostate cancer (65 cases, 5.8% with a PSA>4.0 ng/ml). In this relatively unscreened population in Africa, the screen-detected prostate cancer prevalence is high, suggesting a possible role of genetics in both prostate cancer etiology and the disparity in prostate cancer risk between African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Further studies are needed to confirm the high prostate cancer burden in Africans and the role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology.
    The Journal of urology 04/2014; · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Age-adjusted mortality rates for prostate cancer are higher for African-American men compared with those of European ancestry. Recent data suggest that West African men also have elevated risk for prostate cancer relative to European men. Genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer could account for part of this difference. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of prostate cancer in West African men in the Ghana Prostate Study. Association testing was performed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age and genetic ancestry for 474 prostate cancer cases and 458 population-based controls on the Illumina HumanOmni-5 Quad BeadChip. The most promising association was at 10p14 within an intron of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA RP11-543F8.2) 360 kb centromeric of GATA3 (p = 1.29E-7). In sub-analyses, SNPs at 5q31.3 were associated with high Gleason score (≥7) cancers, the strongest of which was a missense SNP in PCDHA1 (rs34575154, p = 3.66E-8), and SNPs at Xq28 (rs985081, p = 8.66E-9) and 6q21 (rs2185710, p = 5.95E-8) were associated with low Gleason score (<7) cancers. We sought to validate our findings in silico in the African Ancestry Prostate Cancer GWAS Consortium, but only one SNP, at 10p14, replicated at p < 0.05. Of the 90 prostate cancer loci reported from studies of men of European, Asian or African-American ancestry, we were able to test 81 in the Ghana Prostate Study, and 10 of these replicated at p < 0.05. Further genetic studies of prostate cancer in West African men are needed to confirm our promising susceptibility loci.
    Human Genetics 11/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients is associated with increased risk of maternal and fetal mortality. This study determines pregnancy outcomes among women with SCD delivering at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Nine hundred sixty (960) medical records of pregnant women (131 HbSS, 112 HbSC, and 717 comparison group) from 2007 to 2008 were reviewed. The HbSS women were at increased risk of eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 10.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.60-30.96, P < 0.001), intrauterine growth restriction (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.38-11.64, P = 0.011), and placenta previa (AOR = 22.03, 95% CI = 9.87-49.14, P < 0.001) compared with the comparison group. The HbSC women had increased risk for intrauterine fetal death (AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.15-9.96, P = 0.027) and decreased risk of delivering low birth weight babies (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.73, P = 0.014). Women with SCD in Ghana are at a greater risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy compared with women without hemoglobinopathies. Improved maternal and fetal outcomes in Ghanaian women with SCD can be achieved through effective intervention by health care providers with thorough knowledge about predisposing factors toward adverse outcomes.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2012; 86(6):936-42. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common among older men in Western countries. However, the prevalence of these two conditions in the developing countries is less clear. We assessed the age-standardized prevalence of BPH and/or LUTS among West Africans in a probability sample of 950 men aged 50-74 in Accra, Ghana, with no evidence of biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer after screening with PSA and digital rectal examination (DRE). Information on LUTS was based on self-reports of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). BPH was estimated using DRE, PSA levels and imputed prostate volume. The prevalence of DRE-detected enlarged prostate was 62.3%, while that of PSA≥1.5 ng ml(-1) (an estimate of prostate volume ≥ 30 cm(3)) was 35.3%. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe LUTS (IPSS≥8) was 19.9%. The prevalence of IPSS≥8 and an enlarged prostate on DRE was 13.3%. Although there is no universally agreed-upon definition of BPH/LUTS, making comparisons across populations difficult, BPH and/or LUTS appear to be quite common among older Ghanaian men. We found that after age standardization, the prevalence of DRE-detected enlarged prostate in Ghanaian men is higher than previously reported for American men, but the prevalence of LUTS was lower than previously reported for African Americans. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the risk factors for BPH in both Africans and African Americans.
    Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases 09/2011; 15(2):170-6. · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic antigenic stimulation is associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. Higher rates of hypergamma-globulinemia in tropical populations are maintained even with migration to temperate regions. We conducted a population-based screening study to assess the prevalence and risk factors for hypergamma-globulinemia in Ghana, Africa. 917 Ghanaian males (50-74 years) underwent in-person interviews and health examinations. Serum from all persons was analyzed by electrophoresis performed on agarose gel; serum with a discrete/localized band was subjected to immunofixation. 54 persons with monoclonal proteins were excluded and 17 samples were insufficient for analysis. Using logistic regression and Chi-square statistics we analyzed patterns of hypergamma-globulinemia. Among 846 study subjects, the median γ-globulin level was 1.86 g/dL. On the basis of a U.S. reference, 616 (73%) had hypergamma-globulinemia (>1.6 g/dL) and 178 (21%) had γ-globulin levels >2.17 gm/dl. On multivariate analyses, lower education status (P = 0.0013) and never smoking (P = 0.038) were associated with increased γ-globulin levels. Self-reported history of syphilis was associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. We conclude that three quarters of this population-based adult Ghanaian male sample had hypergamma-globulinemia with γ-globulin levels >1.6 g/dL. Future studies are needed to uncover genetic and environmental underpinnings of our finding, and to define the relationship between hypergamma-globulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and multiple myeloma.
    American Journal of Hematology 07/2011; 86(7):554-8. · 4.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June-August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2011; 85(1):12-21. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background & Aim: Little is still known about the HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in treatment naïve HIV infected patients in Ghana. More information is therefore needed to inform new strategies to improve the HIV treatment program. Methods: HIV-1 RNA was isolated from 46 HIV infected patients (23 with hepatitis B or C co-infection) and partial polymerase genes (1065-1372bp) amplified with a nested in-house PCR. The Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2 was used to amplify those unsuccessful with the in-house assay. BioEdit 5.0.6 was used for sequence assembly and the Stanford University database used for drug resistance analysis. Phylogenetic analysis was also done to determine subtypes. Results: 43 samples were successfully amplified with majority of subtypes being CRF02_AG, with 3 subtype G, 3 CRF06_cpx, 1 subtype A3, 1 subtype B, 1 CRF42_02G, and 1 subtype GAK. There was no obvious clustering of patients with HIV and hepatitis co-infections as compared to those with HIV infections alone (χ2=8.815, p=.266). Ten patients had drug resistance mutations including K70KT, V90I, V108IV, V108I, V118I, E138A, V179E and V179EV. Discussion & Conclusion: Almost all the subtypes seen in this study have been reported in the Southern-belt of the country but the CRF43_02G has never been characterized in Ghana. The occurrence of the isolated pure HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants may be due to international travel. Four mutations were related to the current drug regimens in Ghana. A sample bank is urgently needed for HIV patients initiating therapy to enable outcomes of patients with resistance mutations to be determined.
    4th Annual Scientific Conference, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 09/2010
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparte aminotransferase (AST) may be markers of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Thus, individuals with elevated ALT and AST may have ongoing subclinical infection of HEV. We estimated the prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and serum ALT and AST levels among persons who work with pigs in Accra, Ghana. Three hundred and fifty- persons who work with pigs provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV, ALT and AST levels. The median age of participants was 32.85±11.38 years (range 15-70 years). HEV seroprevelance was 34.84%. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 19.26% while anti-HEV IgM was detected in 15.58% of the persons who tested positive. On multivariate analysis, the independent determinants of HEV infection were, being employed on the farm for less than six months [odds ratio (OR) 8.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.43-14.80], having piped water in the household and/or on the farm (OR 13.33; 95% CI 5.23-33.93) and consumption of alcohol (OR 4.91: 95% CI 2.65-9.10). Levels>3× the expected maximum were found for both ALT and AST among individuals who tested positive for anti-HEV IgG (ALT, 210.17±11.64 U/L; AST, 127.18±11.12 U/L) and anti-HEV IgM (ALT, 200.97±10.76 U/L; AST, 120.00±15.96 U/L). Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection, ALT and AST values in pig handlers.
    Virology Journal 01/2010; 7:336. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 30 million pregnant women are at risk of contracting malaria annually. Nearly 36% of healthy pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen in Ghana. We tested the hypothesis that asymptomatic HRP II positive pregnant women expressed a unique Th1 and Th2 phenotype that differs from healthy controls. Plasma from healthy (n = 15) and asymptomatic (n = 25) pregnant women were evaluated for 27 biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL- 17, Eotaxin, bFGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, PDGF-bb, RANTES, TNF, and VEGF) associated with Th1 and Th2 cytokine homeostasis. IL-10 and G-CSF levels were elevated in the asymptomatic group when compared with the healthy group (P = .031 and .041, resp.). The median ratios of IL-1beta:5, IL-1beta:10, IL-1beta:G-CSF, IL-1beta:Eotaxin, IL-12:G-CSF, IL-15:10, IL-17:G-CSF, IL-17:Eotaxin, TNF:IL-4, TNF:IL-5, and TNF:G-CSF were significantly different among the two groups. Thus, asymptomatic malaria carriage may be linked to circulating levels of IL-10 and G-CSF.
    Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2010; 2010.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the correlates of hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) in a sample of persons who work with pigs. Cross-sectional study. Three pig farms in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Persons who work with pigs seen at the selected pig farms between the months of January and May 2008. One hundred and five persons who work with pigs voluntarily completed a risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 36.5 +/- 15.0 years (range 12-65 years). Of the 105 subjects tested, HEV seroprevelance was 38.1%. On multivariate analysis, the independent determinants of HEV infection were being employed on the farm for less than six months (odds ratio (OR) 9.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-81.4 and having piped water in the household and/or on the farm (OR 3.9; 95% CI 0.4-90.8). Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in persons who work with pigs. Further studies need to be done to isolate, characterise the virus and define the clinical and epidemiological significance of HEV infection in this population.
    East African medical journal 08/2009; 86(8):359-63.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reports from studies conducted in several countries indicate a high incidence of bacterial contamination of donor blood. The prevalence of bacterial contamination of blood and its products in Ghana is not known. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination of blood and its products at the three major blood transfusion centers in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Stored whole blood and its products were cultured on different media, and isolates were identified using standard biochemical and bacteriological methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to selected antimicrobial agents was also determined by the disc diffusion method. The overall prevalence rate was 9% (28/303; whole blood, 13% [24/192]; plasma, 3% [2/79]; platelet, 9% [2/22]). The Gram-positive bacteria isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, S. aureus, and Bacillus spp., and the Gram-negative organisms were Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to cloxacillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin but resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, and cotrimoxazole, while the Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime (except Y. enterocolitica), and cotrimoxazole. Our results suggest that bacterial contamination of blood and its products is prevalent in Ghana.
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases 08/2009; 62(4):265-9. · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 28.89 +/- 5.76 years (range 13-42 years). Of the 157 women tested, HEV seroprevelance was 28.66% (45/157). Among the seropositive women, 64.40% (29/45) tested positive for anti-HEV IgM while 35.60% (16/45) tested positive to HEV IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was highest (46.15%) among women 21-25 years of age, followed by 42.82% in = 20 year group, then 36.84% in = 36 year group. Of the 157 women, 75.79% and 22.92% were in their third and second trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Anti-HEV antibodies detected in women in their third trimester of pregnancy (30.25%) was significantly higher, P < 0.05, than in women in their second trimester of pregnancy (25.0%). Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in pregnant women.
    Virology Journal 02/2009; 6:108. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Urology 01/2009; 74(4). · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The severity of malaria is multi-factorial. It is associated with parasite-induced alteration in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in host serum and cerebrospinal fluid. It is also associated with sequestration and cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes (pRBCs) in post-capillary venules and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. The role of these factors in development of vascular injury and tissue damage in malaria patients is unclear. While some studies indicate a requirement for pRBC adhesion to vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in brain capillaries to induce apoptosis and BBB damage, others show no role of apoptosis resulting from adhesion of pRBC to EC. In the present study, the hypothesis that soluble factors from Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes induce apoptosis in human brain vascular endothelial (HBVEC) and neuroglia cells (cellular components of the BBB) was tested. Apoptotic effects of parasitized (pRBC) and non-parasitized erythrocyte (RBC) conditioned medium on HBVEC and neuroglia cells were determined in vitro by evaluating nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) in cultured cells. Soluble factors from P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in conditioned medium induced extensive DNA fragmentation in both cell lines, albeit to a greater extent in HBVEC than neuroglia, indicating that extended exposure to high levels of these soluble factors in serum may be associated with vascular, neuronal and tissue injury in malaria patients.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 10/2008; 162(2):172-6. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Detection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in patients with malaria necessitates drawing blood, which increases the risk of accidental infections and is poorly accepted in communities with blood taboos. Thus, non-invasive, cost-effective malaria tests that minimize the need for blood collection are needed. Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRP II) levels in plasma and saliva were compared in malaria-positive and -negative patients in Ghana. Plasma and saliva obtained from 30 thick-film positive and 10 negative children were evaluated for PfHRP II by ELISA. Among the 30 children with positive blood smear, 16 (53%) were PfHRP II positive in plasma and 13 (43%) had PfHRP II positive saliva. The sensitivity of PfHRP II detection was 53% for plasma and 43% for saliva. The specificity was 100% with no false positive for both plasma and saliva when compared with blood smear. Thus, rapid detection of PfHRP II antigen in saliva may be a useful non-invasive and cost-effective malaria diagnostic technique.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2008; 78(5):733-5. · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are prevalent in Africa, but less common elsewhere and the modes of transmission are still subject to debate. Generally, they rarely cause disease in the immunocompetent host but are highly oncogenic when associated with immunosuppression. Although the high prevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV has been well documented in Africa, such data are sparse from Ghana. Serum samples from 3275 HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors and 250 HIV-AIDS patients were tested for antibodies specific for HHV-8, CMV and EBV by IgG ELISA assays. Differences in seropositivity rates by gender and age were evaluated using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. Of the 3275 HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors tested, 2573 (78.6%) were males and 702 (21.4%) were females, with ages ranging from 18 to 65 years (median 32.6; mean 31.2; mode 30). Of the 250 HIV-AIDS patients tested, 140 (56%) were males and 110 (44%) were females, with ages ranging from 17 to 64 years (median 30.8; mean 30.3; mode 28). Among the HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors, overall seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was 23.7%, 77.6% and 20.0%, respectively. Among the HIV-AIDS patients, overall seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was 65.6%, 59.2% and 87.2%, respectively. The seroprevalence of HHV-8 (p < 0.005) and EBV (p < 0.001) was statistically significantly higher in HIV-AIDS patients compared to HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.24) between CMV seroprevalence in HIV-AIDS patients and HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors. Age and gender were not independent determinants (p > 0.05) for all three infections among HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors and HIV-AIDS patients in Ghana. The results presented herein indicate that HHV-8, CMV and EBV infections are hyperendemic in both HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive Ghanaians, and suggest primarily a horizontal route of transmission of these three viral infections in Ghana.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2008; 8:111. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum ; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg). These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336) of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445) of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84) and 38.1 years (range 25–59), respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among officers were age between 25–46, fale gender, being unmarried, being employed in prison service for longer than median duration of employment of 10 years, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion The comparably higher prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in prison inmates and officers in Ghana suggests probable occupational related transmission. The implementation of infection control practices and risk reduction programs targeted at prison inmates and officers in Ghana is urgently required to address this substantial exposure risk.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2008; · 3.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

570 Citations
100.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • University of Ghana
      • Department of Pathology
      Akra, Greater Accra, Ghana
  • 2003–2014
    • Korle Bu Teaching Hospital
      Akra, Greater Accra, Ghana
  • 2007–2012
    • Morehouse School of Medicine
      • Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Immunology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1992–2005
    • Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research
      • Department of Immunology
      Akra, Greater Accra, Ghana