Thakur RP

International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics, Bhaganagar, Telangana, India

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Publications (92)67.69 Total impact

  • Plant Disease 06/2015; DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1089-RE · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blast, also known as leaf spot, caused by Pyricularia grisea (teleomorph: Magnaporthe grisea), is a serious disease affecting both forage and grain production in foxtail millet in India. For the identification of new and diverse sources of blast resistance, a foxtail millet core collection comprising 155 accessions was evaluated against the Patancheru isolate (Fx 57) of M. grisea. In a field screen during 2009 and 2010, 21 accessions were identified with neck and head blast resistance against Fx 57. In a greenhouse screen, 11 of the 155 accessions exhibited seedling leaf blast resistance to the same isolate. Further evaluation of the selected 28 accessions (found resistant to neck and head blast under field conditions during 2009 and 2010 or leaf blast in the greenhouse screen) against four M. grisea isolates (Fx 57, Fx 58, Fx 60, and Fx 62 from Patancheru, Nandyal, Vizianagaram, and Mandya, respectively) led to the identification of 16 accessions with leaf, sheath, neck, and head blast resistance to at least one isolate. Two accessions (ISe 1181 and ISe 1547) were free from head blast infection and showed resistance to leaf (score <= 3.0 on a 1-to-9 scale), neck, and sheath blast (score <= 2.0 on a 1-to-5 scale) against all four isolates. In addition, ISe 1067 and ISe 1575 also exhibited high levels of blast resistance. Blast-resistant accessions with superior agronomic and nutritional quality traits can be evaluated in multilocation yield trials before releasing them for cultivation to farmers.
    Plant Disease 04/2014; 98(4):519-524. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0593-RE · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Finger millet blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph: Pyricularia grisea) is a great threat to finger millet production worldwide. Genetic diversity and population structure of 72 M. grisea isolates collected from finger millet (56), foxtail millet (6), pearl millet (7) and rice (3) from major crop growing areas in India was studied using 24 SSR markers. None of the SSRs detected polymorphism in the M. grisea isolates from pearl millet. Seventeen SSR markers were polymorphic in the 65 non pearl millet isolates and detected 105 alleles, of which one was rare, 83 common, 9 frequent and 12 most frequent. A model-based population structure analysis of the genomic data identified two distinct populations with varying levels of ancestral admixtures among the 65 M. grisea isolates. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 52% of the total variation among the isolates used in this study was due to differences between the pathogen populations adapted to different hosts, 42% was due to differences in the isolates from the same host, and the remaining 6% due to heterozygosity within isolates. High genetic variability present in M. grisea isolates calls for the continuous monitoring of M. grisea populations anticipating blast resistance breakdown in finger millet cultivars grown in India.
    Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 10/2013; 84(1):10–18. DOI:10.1016/j.pmpp.2013.06.001 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to biotic stresses in plants is either due to the presence of preformed biochemical compounds or induced in response to external stimulus. In this study, 13 grain mould resistant and seven susceptible lines of sorghum were analysed for biochemical defence mechanism. The levels of total phenols and phenylalanine ammonia lyase were almost same in the resistant and susceptible genotypes. However, two additional isoforms of peroxidase were found in the three of the 13 resistant genotypes. The isoform peroxidase corresponding to the R f value of 0.25 was found in the resistant genotypes IS 13969, ICSB 377 and IS 8219-1, and two genotypes IS 13969 and ICSB 377 had an additional isoform corresponding to the R f value of 0.32. The results indicated the genotype specific association of peroxidases with grain mould resistance in sorghum. Nine bacterial strains (Bacillus pumilus SB 21, Bacillus megaterium HiB 9, Bacillus subtilis BCB 19, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida SRI 156, Brevibacterium antiquum SRI 158, B. pumilus INR 7, P. fluorescens UOM SAR 80, P. fluorescens UOM SAR 14, B. pumilus SE 34) were tested to induce systemic resistance in sorghum cultivars 296B and Bulk Y against the highly pathogenic grain mould pathogens Curvularia lunata and Fusarium proliferatum, respectively. The bacterial isolates were effective in inducing resistance in sorghum. Among the strains tested, SRI 158 was found highly effective in reducing grain mould severity in both the genotypes.
    Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 05/2013; 46(8). DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.755824
  • International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics 03/2013; 7(3):176-181. DOI:10.3923/ijpbg.2013.176.181
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    ABSTRACT: Blast, also known as leaf spot, caused by Pyricularia grisea (teleomorph: Magnaporthe grisea), has emerged as a serious disease affecting both forage and grain production in pearl millet in India. Pathogenic variation was studied in a greenhouse using 25 M. grisea isolates collected from four major pearl-millet-growing states in India (Rajasthan, Haryana, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh) on 10 pearl millet genotypes (ICMB 02444, ICMB 02777, ICMB 06444, ICMB 93333, ICMB 96666, ICMB 97222, ICMB 99444, 863B, ICMR 06222, and ICMB 95444). Differential reactions to the test isolates were recorded on ICMB 02444, ICMB 93333, ICMB 97222, 863B, and ICMR 06222. The 25 isolates were grouped into five different pathotypes based on their reaction types (virulent = score ≥ 4 and avirulent = score ≤ 3 on a 1-to-9 scale). For the identification of resistance sources, a pearl millet mini-core comprising 238 accessions was evaluated under greenhouse conditions against five M. grisea isolates (Pg118, Pg119, Pg56, Pg53, and Pg45) representing the five pathotypes. Of 238 accessions, 32 were found to be resistant to at least one pathotype. Resistance to multiple pathotypes (two or more) was recorded in several accessions, while three accessions (IP 7846, IP 11036, and IP 21187) exhibited resistance to four of the five pathotypes. Four early-flowering (≤50 days) blast-resistant mini-core accessions (IP 7846, IP 4291, IP 15256, and IP 22449) and four accessions (IP 5964, IP 11010, IP 13636, and IP 20577) having high scores (≥7) for grain and green fodder yield potential and overall plant aspect were found to be promising for utilization in pearl millet improvement programs. Identification of five pathotypes of M. grisea and sources of resistance to these pathotypes will provide a foundation for breeding for blast resistance in pearl millet in India.
    Plant Disease 02/2013; 97(2):189-195. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0481-RE · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blast caused by Pyricularia grisea [teleomorph: Magnaporthe grisea] is an economically important and widespread disease of finger millet in the world. Host resistance is the most economical and effective means of combating this disease as finger millet is predominantly grown by resource-poor and marginal farmers. At the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), we evaluated a finger millet mini-core collection of 80 germplasm accessions (about 1 % of the total germplasm collection representing major trait variability) for blast resistance both in the field and greenhouse. Field evaluation was done using a refined screening technique that included new improved rating scales for leaf, neck and finger infection. Sixty six of the 80 accessions showed combined resistance to leaf, neck and finger blast in two seasons (2009 and 2010) of field screening. A highly significant and positive correlation was found between neck and finger blast ratings (r = 0.92), whereas small but significant correlations were found between leaf blast and neck blast (r = 0.25) and between leaf blast and finger blast (r = 0.30). These accessions were also screened for leaf blast resistance in the greenhouse by artificial inoculation of seedlings to confirm field observations. Fifty-eight of the 80 accessions were resistant to leaf blast in the greenhouse screen as well. These resistant accessions represented one wild (africana) and four cultivated races (vulgaris, plana, elongate and compacta) of finger millet that originated from 13 countries in Asia and Africa and exhibited considerable diversity for agronomic traits, such as maturity period, plant height and panicle type. These blast resistant accessions from the mini-core collection would be useful in finger millet disease resistance breeding programs.
    European Journal of Plant Pathology 01/2013; 135(2):299-331. DOI:10.1007/s10658-012-0086-2 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is susceptible to pre- and post-harvest infections by Aspergillus spp. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is the contaminant produced by the fungus in infected grains posing a threat to human and animal health. This paper reports of a study undertaken in Malawi to determine the occurrence and distribution of Aflatoxigenic Aspergilli in the soil and AFB1 contamination in groundnuts. A total of 1397 groundnut samples collected from farm homesteads, local markets, warehouses and shops in 2008 and 2009 were analyzed for AFB1 contamination using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and A. Aspergilli population densities in 1053 soil samples collected from the same sites were estimated using serial dilutions plated on A. Aspergilli medium. Farmer socio-economic profile information was also collected to determine relationships to AFB1 contamination. The results revealed 46% and 23% of the total samples, from 2008 to 2009, respectively, had AFB1 contamination levels greater than 4 ppb, and those above 20 ppb were 21% for 2008 and 8% for 2009, respectively. Fitted smooth curve relationships show that there is a clear increase in the chance of groundnut contamination when the population density of A. Aspergilli in the soil increased beyond 3000 (log (cfu) > 8). The measured level of A. Aspergilli in soil varied by location, as well as ecologies within location. Low-altitude ecologies, which were warmer and experienced low precipitation levels, had the highest densities of A. Aspergilli, whereas cooler high-altitude ecologies had the lowest density of these fungi. Similarly high AFB1 contamination, was recorded across the country with 11–28% of all samples collected from the warm low to mid-altitude ecologies recording contamination ≥20 ppb and low contamination (2–10% of samples) in the mid to high altitude cool ecologies. From a crop management perspective, this study also suggests that both less experienced and older farmers were more likely to produce groundnuts contaminated with aflatoxin. These findings have implications in the design of intervention strategies to avoid short- and long-term human health effects from aflatoxin exposure.
    Crop Protection 12/2012; 42:149–155. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2012.07.004 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anthracnose, leaf blight, and rust are important biotic constraints to grain and forage sorghum production worldwide and are best managed through host plant resistance. A sorghum mini-core collection, consisting of 242 germplasm accessions developed from a core collection of 2,246 landrace accessions originating from 58 countries, was evaluated to identify sources of resistance to foliar diseases. The mini-core accessions were evaluated in anthracnose- and leaf-blight-screening nurseries under artificial inoculation in the rainy and late rainy seasons, respectively, during 2009 and 2010. For rust resistance, screening was done under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse as well as in the field under natural infection. In all, 13 accessions were found resistant (score <= 3.0 on a 1-to-9 scale) to anthracnose and 27 to leaf blight in both 2009 and 2010. Six accessions exhibited resistance to rust in both the greenhouse and the field. In the resistant accessions, a wide range of diversity was observed for agronomic traits such as days to 50% flowering, plant height, and grain yield/plant, and morphological characteristics such as grain or glume color, glume coverage, endosperm texture, and panicle type (ear head compactness). Three mini-core accessions (IS 473, IS 23684, and IS 23521) exhibited resistance to all three diseases. These accessions with multiple disease resistance will be useful in sorghum disease resistance breeding programs.
    Plant Disease 11/2012; 96(11):1629-1633. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-11-0875-RE · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective management of blast disease in finger millet can best be achieved through host-plant resistance. In this study, field screening technique was developed and core collection evaluated to identify sources of resistance to blast. The field screening technique involved: use of systematic susceptible checks after every four test rows, artificial spray inoculation at pre-flowering stage with an aqueous conidial suspension (1×105 spores ml-1) of Magnaporthe grisea fm strain multiplied on oatmeal agar medium at 27±1ºC for 10 days, and maintaining high humidity and leaf wetness through sprinkler irrigation twice a day for 4 weeks following inoculation. Neck blast was recorded on a 1–5 scale and finger blast as severity percentage on all the tillers of selected 10 plants in a row at physiological maturity. The finger millet core collection consisting of 622 accessions was evaluated for neck and finger blast resistance. Among the core collection, 402 accessions were found resistant to neck blast, 436 to finger blast and 372 had combined resistance to both the diseases. Blast resistant accessions belonged to one wild and four cultivated races of finger millet that originated from 19 countries indicating the wide geographical diversity among resistant accessions. Most of the accessions from Asian origin were susceptible to neck and finger blasts while, those from African origin were resistant. A significant strong positive correlation (r = 0.85, P<0.0001) was found between neck blast and finger blast ratings. Core collection accessions with stable resistance to blast would be useful for finger millet breeding programs.
  • Shashi K. Gupta · Rajan Sharma · Kedar N. Rai · Ram P. Thakur
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    ABSTRACT: With 1 table Foliar blast, caused by Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc, has recently emerged as a serious disease of pearl millet in India. To study the inheritance of resistance to this disease, two resistant restorer lines (ICMR 06222 and ICMR 07555) and two susceptible maintainer lines (ICMB 95444 and ICMB 89111) were selected on the basis of foliar blast reaction in tests conducted under field and greenhouse conditions. Each of the two resistant parents was crossed with two susceptible parents to generate four sets of F1s, F2s and their backcrosses with both resistant and susceptible parental lines. These were evaluated for disease reaction with artificial inoculation under both field and greenhouse conditions. The disease reaction of the F1s, and the segregation patterns of resistance in the F2s and backcross generations, showed that resistance to foliar blast in pearl millet is controlled by a single dominant gene.
    Plant Breeding 02/2012; 131(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0523.2011.01929.x · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breeding for resistance to grain mold, an economically important disease of sorghum, has been only partially successful. Hybrid technology is well developed in sorghum due to availability of the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) system and at present almost all commercial hybrids are based on the A1 CMS system. To compare the available alternate CMS systems for grain mold resistance, 72 hybrids were produced by crossing 36 A-lines (six CMS systems; A1, A2, A3, A4(M), A4(G), A4(VZM) each in six nuclear backgrounds) with two common restorers, and were evaluated during the 2006 and 2007 rainy seasons in grain mold nursery at ICRISAT. Data analyses indicated influence of cytoplasm on the responses of hybrids to grain mold infection as measured by panicle grain mold resistance (PGMR) score. The A1 cytoplasm seemed to contribute to grain mold resistance followed by A4(VZM) and A2 cytoplasms. The A4(M) cytoplasm had superior general combining ability (GCA) effects while the A1 and A4(VZM) cytoplasm based hybrids had superior specific combining ability (SCA) effects on the PGMR score. Almost all hybrids had significant mid-parent heterosis. The A1 cytoplasm is the best suited for the development of sorghum hybrids for the rainy season adaptation with grain mold resistance. However, use of alternate cytoplasms (A2 and A4(VZM)) for hybrid development will not increase susceptibility to grain mold in commercial grain production.Highlights► Effect of six CMS systems on grain mold resistance is studied in iso-nuclear hybrids. ► The A1 cytoplasm is best suited for the development of sorghum hybrids with grain mold resistance. ► The A2 and A4(VZM) cytoplasms can be exploited without increasing the risk of grain mold. ► The A4(M) cytoplasm contributed to superior GCA effects while the A1 and A4(VZM) contributed to superior SCA effects. ► Significant heterosis is reported on all CMS systems based hybrids.
    Crop Protection 06/2011; 30(6):658-662. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2011.02.016 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study a total of 167 isolates collected from different food materials (68.8% from sorghum and the remaining from various other food materials) were assayed by PCR for amplification of the tri 5 gene present in trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Amplification of the tri 5 fragment was observed in 45 isolates (39 isolates from sorghum and 6 isolates from vegetables). Isolates found positive for presence of the tri 5 gene were classified into different morphological groups based on their cultural and conidial characters; 11 of the tri 5 positive isolates from moldy grains of sorghum, one from each morphology group were selected for further analyses. Five deoxynivalenol producers and three deoxynivalenol and Fusarenon-X producers were detected by analysing culture filtrates of the 11 isolates using GC-MS. One isolate each were identified as producers of NIV alone, or NIV along with DON or DAS toxins. Identification of these isolates to the species level was carried out using spore morphology and sequence comparison of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) gene against the database as well as using phylogenetic analyses. The isolates were identified as Fusarium proliferatum (6), F. nelsonii (2), F. equiseti (1), F. thapsinum (1) and F. sacchari (1). Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) based grouping clustered the isolates of same species together. This is the first detailed study of trichothecene production by Fusarium spp. associated with sorghum grain mold in India and the identification of F. nelsonii and F. thapsinum as producers of trichothecenes. KeywordsAFLP–EF-1α– Fusarium –Trichothecenes
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 04/2011; 27(4):981-989. DOI:10.1007/s11274-010-0542-0 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • R Sharma · V P Rao · S Senthilvel · S C Rajput · R P Thakur
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    ABSTRACT: On-farm surveys were conducted in the Uttar Pradesh (India) during the two rainy seasons 2007 and 2008 to monitor pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) downy mildew incidence. Twenty-one isolates of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen, were collected from different hybrid cultivars. These isolates were established on seedlings of the highly susceptible line 7042S grown in the greenhouse and were characterized for their virulence diversity using a set of seven host differential lines. Quantitative differences in virulence among pathogen isolates were determined by calculating virulence index (percent disease incidence × latent period-1). Results were submitted to cluster analysis using the Average Linkage method to determine similarity among pathogen isolates. The two highly virulent isolates, Sg 492 from Aligarh and Sg 510 from Badaun, representing geographically diverse locations were selected for use in greenhouse screening of pearl millet breeding lines.
    JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 03/2011; 93(1-1):71-78. DOI:10.4454/jpp.v93i1.275 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fusarium species are dominant within the sorghum grain mold complex. Some species of Fusarium involved in grain mold complex produce mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. An attempt was made to identify Fusarium spp. associated with grain mold complex in major sorghum-growing areas in India through AFLP-based grouping of the isolates and to further confirm the species by sequencing part of α-Elongation factor gene and comparing the sequences with that available in the NCBI database. The dendrogram generated from the AFLP data clustered the isolates into 5 groups. Five species of Fusarium--F. proliferatum, F. thapsinum, F. equiseti, F. andiyazi and F. sacchari were identified based on sequence similarity of α-Elongation factor gene of the test isolates with those in the NCBI database. Fusarium thapsinum was identified as predominant species in Fusarium--grain mold complex in India and F. proliferatum as highly toxigenic for fumonisins production. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed 54% of the variation in the AFLP patterns of 63 isolates was due to the differences between Fusarium species, and 46% was due to differences between the strains within a species.
    Mycopathologia 03/2011; 171(3):223-30. DOI:10.1007/s11046-010-9354-x · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Ram P. Thakur · Veeranki P. Rao · Rajan Sharma
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    ABSTRACT: Metalaxyl (Apron 35WS) as a seed treatment has been used extensively to control downy mildew (caused by Sclerospora graminicola) in pearl millet in India. However, the extent of disease control has varied across cultivars, years and locations. We investigated the effects of fungicide dosage, storage time and storage temperature of metalaxyl-treated seed on disease incidence in four pearl millet lines having varying levels of resistance. A linear relationship was found between fungicide dosage (0.5, 1.5 and 2g a.i. kg−1 seed) and reduction in disease incidence up to 40days after emergence in all the lines. The normal fungicide dose (2g a.i. kg−1 seed) protected the crop for up to 20, 40 and 50days after emergence in highly susceptible (7042S), moderately susceptible (4042R), and moderately resistant (ICMP 451) lines, respectively. However, the quarter and half the normal dosage of fungicide provided protection only up to 20days after emergence in 7042R and 40days after emergence in ICMP 451. Storage duration of metalaxyl-treated seed (2g a.i. kg−1) up to 9months at 25 ± 2°C did not affect fungicide efficacy. Storage temperatures (5, 25 and 40°C) and duration (30, 60 and 90days) of metalaxyl-treated seed (2g a.i. kg−1) showed differential effects in two pearl millet lines 7042S and 843B with downy mildew incidence being significantly lower in 7042S than in 843B. Metalaxyl-treated seed of 7042S and 843B stored at 40°C for different durations showed phytotoxic effects and it was more pronounced in 843B stored for 60 and 90days where seed germination was inhibited in pot soil. KeywordsMetalaxyl–Pearl millet– Sclerospora graminicola –Storage time–Temperature
    European Journal of Plant Pathology 02/2011; 129(2):353-359. DOI:10.1007/s10658-010-9679-9 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Grain mold and downy mildew are important biotic constraints to grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) production worldwide and are best managed through host plant resistance. A sorghum mini-core collection composed of 242 germplasm accessions developed from a core collection of 2,246 landrace accessions front 58 countries was evaluated to identify sources of grain mold and downy mildew resistance. Of the 242 accessions, 140 that flowered during the rainy season (the other 102 accessions were photoperiod sensitive) were screened for grain mold resistance in a grain mold nursery under field epiphytotic conditions during 2007 and 2008. All 242 accessions were screened for downy mildew in the greenhouse using a sandwich inoculation technique. Fifty accessions were resistant to grain mold (<= 10% mean severity). These resistant accessions represented four basic and six intermediate races of sorghum that originated front 21 countries and exhibited considerable diversity for agronomic and morphological traits. Downy mildew resistance (mean incidence <= 10%) was observed only in six (IS 28747, IS 31714, IS 23992, IS 27697, IS 28449, and IS 30400) of the 242 accessions. One accession. IS 23992. exhibited resistance to both the diseases. The morphologically and agronomically diverse accessions that are resistant to,rain mold or downy mildew should be useful to sorghum disease resistance breeding programs.
    Plant Disease 04/2010; 94(4):439-444. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0439 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genotypic diversity among 46 isolates of Sclerospora graminicola collected from seven states in India during 1992–2005 was determined through pathotyping and AFLP analysis. A high level of variation was observed among the isolates for downy mildew incidence, latent period and virulence index. Based on the reaction on a set of nine pearl millet lines, 46 isolates were classified in 21 pathotypes. Quantitative differences in virulence levels of the test isolates were assessed by calculating the virulence index (disease incidence × latent period). A dendrogram generated by the average linkage cluster analysis of virulence index clustered the 46 isolates into eight groups. Region-specific grouping of five isolates from Gujarat and six from Rajasthan was observed within two distinct groups. Temporal variation was also observed among the isolates collected from the same location and same host over the years. A total of 297 bands were scored following selective amplification with three primer combinations E-TT/M-CAG, E-AT/M-CAG and E-TG/M-CAT and all of them were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of AFLP data clustered the test isolates into seven groups. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that variation in the S. graminicola populations was largely due to differences among the isolates within the states.
    Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 04/2010; 43(6):538-551. DOI:10.1080/03235400801939896

Publication Stats

413 Citations
67.69 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2014
    • International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics
      Bhaganagar, Telangana, India
  • 2008
    • Kansas State University
      • Department of Plant Pathology
      Manhattan, KS, United States