Miki Ishii

Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (90)395.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a new method of analysis for determining the surface geometry of five protoplanetary disks observed with near-infrared imaging polarimetry using Subaru-HiCIAO. Using as inputs the observed distribution of polarized intensity (PI), disk inclination, assumed properties for dust scattering, and other reasonable approximations, we calculate a differential equation to derive the surface geometry. This equation is numerically integrated along the distance from the star at a given position angle. We show that, using these approximations, the local maxima in the PI distribution of spiral arms (SAO 206462, MWC 758) and rings (2MASS J16042165-2130284, PDS 70) is associated with local concave-up structures on the disk surface. We also show that the observed presence of an inner gap in scattered light still allows the possibility of a disk surface that is parallel to the light path from the star, or a disk that is shadowed by structures in the inner radii. Our analysis for rings does not show the presence of a vertical inner wall as often assumed in studies of disks with an inner gap. Finally, we summarize the implications of spiral and ring structures as potential signatures of ongoing planet formation.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars observed by HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope, NIRI on Gemini North, and NICI on Gemini South. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (kap And b, two ~60 M_J brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD-35 2722 B). We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of the ages of our entire sample, using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators, to obtain posterior age distributions. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis beyond which the distribution function for radial-velocity planets cannot extend, finding model-dependent values of ~30--100 AU. Finally, we treat our entire substellar sample together, modeling it as a single power law distribution. After including GJ 758 B and GJ 504 b, two other HiCIAO detections, a distribution $p(M, a) \propto M^{-0.7 \pm 0.6} a^{-0.8 \pm 0.4}$ (1 sigma errors) from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ~5 M_J, provides an adequate fit to our data. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91, we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3--2) observations with the Submillimeter Array ($\sim1\arcsec$--3$\arcsec$ resolution), and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the $K_s$-band by using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope ($0\farcs25$ resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 AU and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H$_2$ mass of $2.4\times10^{-3}$ $M_\sun$ in the cold ($T<$30 K) outer part at $65<r<170$ AU by assuming a canonical gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100, although a small amount ($>3\times10^{-9}$ $M_\sun$) of hot ($T\sim$180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3--2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a H- and K-band multi-object and long-slit spectroscopic survey of substellar mass candidates in the outer regions of the Orion Nebula Cluster. The spectra were obtained using MOIRCS on the 8.2-m Subaru telescope and ISLE on the 1.88-m telescope of Okayama Astronomical Observatory. Eight out of twelve spectra show strong water absorptions and we confirm that their effective temperatures are < 3000 K (spectral type > M6) from a chi-square fit to synthetic spectra. We plot our sources on an HR diagram overlaid with theoretical isochrones of low-mass objects and identify three new young brown dwarf candidates. One of the three new candidates is a cool object near the brown dwarf and planetary mass boundary. Based on our observations and those of previous studies, we determine the stellar (0.08 < M/Msun < 1) to substellar (0.03 < M/Msun < 0.08) mass number ratio in the outer regions of the Orion nebular cluster to be 3.5 +/- 0.8. In combination with the number ratio reported for the central region (3.3+0.8/-0.7), this result suggests the number ratio does not simply change with the distance from the center of the Orion nebular cluster.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Most exoplanets detected by direct imaging so far have been characterized by relatively hot (> ~1000 K) and cloudy atmospheres. A surprising feature in some of their atmospheres has been a distinct lack of methane, possibly implying non-equilibrium chemistry. Recently, we reported the discovery of a planetary companion to the Sun-like star GJ 504 using Subaru/HiCIAO within the SEEDS survey. The planet is substantially colder (<600 K) than previously imaged planets, and has indications of fewer clouds, which implies that it represents a new class of planetary atmospheres with expected similarities to late T-type brown dwarfs in the same temperature range. If so, one might also expect the presence of significant methane absorption, which is characteristic of such objects. Here, we report the detection of deep methane absorption in the atmosphere of GJ 504 b, using the Spectral Differential Imaging mode of HiCIAO to distinguish the absorption feature around 1.6 um. We also report updated JHK photometry based on new Ks-band data and a re-analysis of the existing data. The results support the notion that GJ 504 b has atmospheric properties distinct from other imaged exoplanets, and will become a useful reference object for future planets in the same temperature range.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out adaptive-optics assisted observations at the Subaru telescope, and have found 11 intrinsically polarized sources in the central parsec of our Galaxy. They are selected from 318 point sources with Ks<15.5, and their interstellar polarizations are corrected using a Stokes Q/I - U/I diagram. Considering brightness, near-infrared color excess, and the amount of intrinsic polarization, two of them are good young stellar object (YSO) candidates with an age of ~10^5 yr. If they are genuine YSOs, their existence provides strong constraints on star formation mechanisms in this region. In the remaining sources, two are known as bow-shock sources in the Northern arm. One other is also located in the Northern arm and shows very similar properties, and thus likely to be a so far unknown bow-shock source. The origin of the intrinsic polarization of the other sources is as yet uncertain.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 778(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a discovery of a companion candidate around one of {\it Kepler} Objects of Interest (KOIs), KOI-94, and results of our quantitative investigation of the possibility that planetary candidates around KOI-94 are false positives. KOI-94 has a planetary system in which four planetary detections have been reported by {\it Kepler}, suggesting that this system is intriguing to study the dynamical evolutions of planets. However, while two of those detections (KOI-94.01 and 03) have been made robust by previous observations, the others (KOI-94.02 and 04) are marginal detections, for which future confirmations with various techniques are required. We have conducted high-contrast direct imaging observations with Subaru/HiCIAO in $H$ band and detected a faint object located at a separation of $\sim0.6''$ from KOI-94. The object has a contrast of $\sim 1\times 10^{-3}$ in $H$ band, and corresponds to an M type star on the assumption that the object is at the same distance of KOI-94. Based on our analysis, KOI-94.02 is likely to be a real planet because of its transit depth, while KOI-94.04 can be a false positive due to the companion candidate. The success in detecting the companion candidate suggests that high-contrast direct imaging observations are important keys to examine false positives of KOIs. On the other hand, our transit light curve reanalyses lead to a better period estimate of KOI-94.04 than that on the KOI catalogue and show that the planetary candidate has the same limb darkening parameter value as the other planetary candidates in the KOI-94 system, suggesting that KOI-94.04 is also a real planet in the system.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+-2 AU around the B9 type star {\kappa} Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the Kappa Andromedae system at 2.146 (Ks), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 {\mu}m (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +- 0.21, H = 14.95 +- 0.13, Ks = 14.32 +- 0.09 mag for {\kappa} And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at Ks and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +- 0.3 mag and estimate Log10(L/Lsun) = -3.76 +- 0.06. We build the 1-5 microns spectral energy distribution of the companion and compare it to seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models in order to derive Teff = 1900+100-200 K. Models do not set constrains on the surface gravity. ``Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14+25-2 MJup based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and considering a conservative age range for the system (30+120-10 Myr). ``warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M >= 11 MJup. Therefore, the mass of {\kappa} Andromedae b mostly falls in the brown-dwarf regime, due to remaining uncertainties in age and mass-luminosity models. According to the formation models, disk instability in a primordial disk could account for the position and a wide range of plausible masses of {\kappa} And b.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800--1800 K and very red colors (J - H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly-imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160 [+350, -60] Myr, GJ 504 b has an estimated mass of 4 [+4.5, -1.0] Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of ~30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504 b is also significantly cooler (510 [+30, -20] K) and has a bluer color (J-H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets, as well as their atmospheric properties.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 774(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the $H$ and $K_{S}$ bands using HiCIAO combined with the adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the $H$ band around 9 stars. Five of these 13 were confirmed to be background stars by measurement of their proper motion. One was not found in the second epoch observation, and thus was not a background or companion object. One had multi-epoch image, but the precision of its proper motion was not sufficient to conclude whether it was background object. Four other candidates are waiting for second epoch observations to determine their proper motion. Finally, the remaining 2 were confirmed to be 60 $M_{J}$ brown dwarf companions orbiting around HD 23514 (G0) and HII 1348 (K5) respectively, as had been reported in previous studies. In our observations, the average detection limit for a point source was 20.3 mag in the $H$ band beyond 1''.5 from the central star. On the basis of this detection limit, we calculated the detection efficiency to be 90% for a planet with 6 to 12 Jovian masses and a semi-major axis of 50--1000 AU. For this we extrapolated the distribution of planet mass and semi-major axis derived from RV observations and adopted the planet evolution model of Baraffe et al. (2003). As there was no detection of a planet, we estimated the frequency of such planets to be less than 17.9% ($2\sigma$) around one star of the Pleiades cluster.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (~0".05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 772(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that beta Pic b-like planets (~10 Mjup planets around G--A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15--30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than beta Pic b.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 773(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group targets in the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~10^5 at 1'' and ~10^6 beyond 2'' around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic moving groups. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that six, \beta Pictoris (~12 Myr), AB Doradus (~100 Myr), Columba (~30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium (~30 Myr), TW Hydrae (~10 Myr), and Ursa Majoris (~500 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these moving groups. For all of our targets, we combine proposed moving group membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca II HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS observations discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, \kappa And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of 76 new T dwarfs from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS). Near-infrared broad and narrow-band photometry and spectroscopy are presented for the new objects, along with WISE and warm-Spitzer photometry. Proper motions for 128 UKIDSS T dwarfs are presented from a new two epoch LAS proper motion catalogue. We use these motions to identify two new benchmark systems: LHS 6176AB, a T8+M4 pair and HD118865AB, a T5.5+F8 pair. Using age constraints from the primaries and evolutionary models to constrain the radii we have estimated their physical properties from their bolometric luminosity. We compare the colours and properties of known benchmark T dwarfs to the latest model atmospheres and draw two principal conclusions. Firstly, it appears that the H - [4.5] and J - W2 colours are more sensitive to metallicity than has previously been recognised, such that differences in metallicity may dominate over differences in Teff when considering relative properties of cool objects using these colours. Secondly, the previously noted apparent dominance of young objects in the late-T dwarf sample is no longer apparent when using the new model grids and the expanded sample of late-T dwarfs and benchmarks. This is supported by the apparently similar distribution of late-T dwarfs and earlier-type T dwarfs on reduced proper motion diagrams that we present. Finally, we present updated space densities for the late-T dwarfs, and compare our values to simulation predictions and those from WISE.
    04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics and the polarized differential imaging (PDI) technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.1"<r<0.6" (12<r<75AU). We compare our results with previously published spatially-resolved 880 micron continuum Submillimeter Array (SMA) images that show an inner r<36AU cavity in SR21. Radiative transfer models reveal that the large disk depletion factor invoked to explain SR21's sub-mm cavity cannot be "universal" for all grain sizes. Even significantly more moderate depletions (delta=0.1, 0.01 relative to an undepleted disk) than those that reproduce the sub-mm cavity (delta~10^-6) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r^-3), with no evidence of a break at the 36AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component. We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r~10-20AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 767(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the direct imaging discovery of an extrasolar planet, or possible low-mass brown dwarf, at a projected separation of 55 ± 2 AU (1.''058 ± 0.''007) from the B9-type star κ And. The planet was detected with Subaru/HiCIAO during the SEEDS survey and confirmed as a bound companion via common proper motion measurements. Observed near-infrared magnitudes of J = 16.3 ± 0.3, H = 15.2 ± 0.2, K s = 14.6 ± 0.4, and L' = 13.12 ± 0.09 indicate a temperature of ~1700 K. The galactic kinematics of the host star are consistent with membership in the Columba Association, implying a corresponding age of 30+20–10 Myr. The system's age, combined with the companion photometry, points to a model-dependent companion mass ~12.8 M Jup. The host star's estimated mass of 2.4-2.5 M ☉ places it among the most massive stars ever known to harbor an extrasolar planet or low-mass brown dwarf. While the mass of the companion is close to the deuterium burning limit, its mass ratio, orbital separation, and likely planet-like formation scenario imply that it may be best defined as a "super-Jupiter" with properties similar to other recently discovered companions to massive stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2013; 763(2):L32. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Subaru/HiCIAO H-band high-contrast images of the debris disk around HIP 79977, whose pres- ence was recently inferred from an infrared excess. Our images resolve the disk for the first time, allowing characterization of its shape, size, and dust grain properties. We use angular differential imaging (ADI) to reveal the disk geometry in unpolarized light out to a radius of ~2", as well as polarized differential imaging (PDI) to measure the degree of scattering polarization out to ~1.5". In order to strike a favorable balance between suppression of the stellar halo and conservation of disk flux, we explore the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to both ADI and reference star subtraction. This allows accurate forward modeling of the effects of data reduction on simulated disk images, and thus direct comparison with the imaged disk. The resulting best-fit values and well-fitting intervals for the model parameters are a surface brightness power-law slope of S_out = -3.2 [-3.6,-2.9], an inclination of i = 84{\deg} [81{\deg},86{\deg}], a high Henyey-Greenstein forward-scattering parameter of g = 0.45 [0.35, 0.60], and a non-significant disk-star offset of u = 3.0 [-1.5, 7.5] AU = 24 [-13, 61] mas along the line of nodes. Furthermore, the tangential linear polarization along the disk rises from ~10% at 0.5" to ~45% at 1.5". These measurements paint a consistent picture of a disk of dust grains produced by collisional cascades and blown out to larger radii by stellar radiation pressure.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2013; 763(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first near-IR scattered light detection of the transitional disk associated with the Herbig Ae star MWC 758 using data obtained as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, and 1.1 micron HST/NICMOS data. While sub-millimeter studies suggested there is a dust-depleted cavity with r=0.35, we find scattered light as close as 0.1 (20-28 AU) from the star, with no visible cavity at H, K', or Ks. We find two small-scaled spiral structures which asymmetrically shadow the outer disk. We model one of the spirals using spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h ~ 0.18, indicating a dynamically warm disk. If the spiral pattern is excited by a perturber, we estimate its mass to be 5+3,-4 Mj, in the range where planet filtration models predict accretion continuing onto the star. Using a combination of non-redundant aperture masking data at L' and angular differential imaging with Locally Optimized Combination of Images at K' and Ks, we exclude stellar or massive brown dwarf companions within 300 mas of the Herbig Ae star, and all but planetary mass companions exterior to 0.5. We reach 5-sigma contrasts limiting companions to planetary masses, 3-4 MJ at 1.0 and 2 MJ at 1.55 using the COND models. Collectively, these data strengthen the case for MWC 758 already being a young planetary system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 762(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report high-resolution (0.07 arcsec) near-infrared polarized intensity images of the circumstellar disk around the star 2MASS J16042165-2130284 obtained with HiCIAO mounted on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We present our $H$-band data, which clearly exhibits a resolved, face-on disk with a large inner hole for the first time at infrared wavelengths. We detect the centrosymmetric polarization pattern in the circumstellar material as has been observed in other disks. Elliptical fitting gives the semimajor axis, semiminor axis, and position angle (P.A.) of the disk as 63 AU, 62 AU, and -14 $^{\circ}$, respectively. The disk is asymmetric, with one dip located at P.A.s of $\sim85^{\circ}$. Our observed disk size agrees well with a previous study of dust and CO emission at submillimeter wavelength with Submillimeter Array. Hence, the near-infrared light is interpreted as scattered light reflected from the inner edge of the disk. Our observations also detect an elongated arc (50 AU) extending over the disk inner hole. It emanates at the inner edge of the western side of the disk, extending inward first, then curving to the northeast. We discuss the possibility that the inner hole, the dip, and the arc that we have observed may be related to the existence of unseen bodies within the disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 11/2012; 760(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution H-band polarized intensity (FWHM = 0farcs1: 14 AU) and L'-band imaging data (FWHM = 0farcs11: 15 AU) of the circumstellar disk around the weak-lined T Tauri star PDS 70 in Centaurus at a radial distance of 28 AU (0farcs2) up to 210 AU (1farcs5). In both images, a giant inner gap is clearly resolved for the first time, and the radius of the gap is ~70 AU. Our data show that the geometric center of the disk shifts by ~6 AU toward the minor axis. We confirm that the brown dwarf companion candidate to the north of PDS 70 is a background star based on its proper motion. As a result of spectral energy distribution fitting by Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, we infer the existence of an optically thick inner disk at a few AU. Combining our observations and modeling, we classify the disk of PDS 70 as a pre-transitional disk. Furthermore, based on the analysis of L'-band imaging data, we put an upper limit of ~30 to ~50 M J on the mass of companions within the gap. Taking into account the presence of the large and sharp gap, we suggest that the gap could be formed by dynamical interactions of sub-stellar companions or multiple unseen giant planets in the gap.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

518 Citations
395.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
    • Kanagawa University
      • Department of Information Sciences
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Department of Astronomical Science
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2003–2013
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • • Division of Optical and Infrared Astronomy
      • • Okayama Astrophysical Observatory
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001–2009
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Cell Science
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
  • 2000
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan