[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify molecules that play roles in the clearance of apoptotic cells by Drosophila phagocytes, we examined a series of monoclonal antibodies raised against larval hemocytes for effects on phagocytosis in vitro. One antibody that inhibited phagocytosis recognized terribly reduced optic lobes (Trol), a core protein of the perlecan-type proteoglycan, and the level of phagocytosis in embryos of a Trol-lacking fly line was lower than in a control line. The treatment of a hemocyte cell line with a recombinant Trol protein containing the amino acid sequence RGD augmented the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, a hallmark of integrin activation. A loss of integrin βν, one of the two β subunits of Drosophila integrin, brought about a reduction in the level of apoptotic cell clearance in embryos. The presence of integrin βν at the surface of embryonic hemocytes was confirmed, and forced expression of integrin βν in hemocytes of an integrin βν-lacking fly line recovered the defective phenotype of phagocytosis. Finally, the level of phagocytosis in a fly line that lacks both integrin βν and Draper, another receptor required for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, was lower than that in a fly line lacking either protein. We suggest that integrin βν serves as a phagocytosis receptor responsible for the clearance of apoptotic cells in Drosophila, independent of Draper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell phagocytosis is initiated through the specific interaction between markers for phagocytosis present at the surface of targets and their receptors of phagocytes. Although many molecules have been proposed to be phagocytosis markers and receptors in mammals, information as to the identity of those molecules is limited for invertebrate animals. Calreticulin, a molecular chaperone that functions in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, was recently reported to be the second general marker, the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine being the first, for mammalian apoptotic cells to be recognized by phagocytes. We here asked whether or not calreticulin serves as a marker for phagocytosis in Drosophila. Phagocytosis of apoptotic S2 cells by Drosophila hemocyte-derived l(2)mbn cells, which we previously showed to occur independent of phosphatidylserine, was inhibited by the addition of anti-calreticulin antibody. This inhibition was observed when the target cells, but not phagocytes, were pre-incubated with the antibody. In addition, RNA interference-mediated reduction of calreticulin expression in apoptotic S2 cells, but not in l(2)mbn cells, reduced the level of phagocytosis. An immunocytochemical analysis revealed that calreticulin is widely distributed at the surface of viable S2 cells. After the induction of apoptosis, cell surface calreticulin seemed to form aggregates, with no change in its amount. Furthermore, in embryos of a mutant Drosophila strain that expresses calreticulin at a reduced level, the level of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was about a half of that observed in embryos of a wild-type strain. These results collectively indicate that calreticulin is the first molecule to be identified as a marker for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by Drosophila phagocytes.
Experimental Cell Research 03/2007; 313(3):500-10. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.10.027 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously isolated a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibits phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report here the identification of the cognate antigen. A protein bound by PH2 in Western blotting was identified as the 170-kDa subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 p170/eIF3a). When eIF3a was expressed in a culture cell line as a protein fused to green fluorescence protein, the fusion protein was detected at the cell surface only after the induction of apoptosis. The same phenomenon was seen when the localization of endogenous eIF3a was determined using anti-eIF3a antibody, and eIF3a seemed to be partially degraded during apoptosis. Furthermore, bacterially expressed N-terminal half of eIF3a fused to glutathione S-transferase bound to the surface of macrophages and inhibited phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages when it was added to phagocytosis reactions. These results collectively suggest that eIF3a translocates to the cell surface upon apoptosis, probably after partial degradation, and bridges apoptotic cells and macrophages to enhance phagocytosis.
Experimental Cell Research 10/2005; 309(1):137-48. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2005.05.006 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of phagocytic elimination of dying cells in Drosophila is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to examine the recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells by Drosophila hemocytes/macrophages in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro analysis, l(2)mbn cells (a cell line established from larval hemocytes of a tumorous Drosophila mutant) were used as phagocytes. When l(2)mbn cells were treated with the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, the cells acquired the ability to phagocytose apoptotic S2 cells, another Drosophila cell line. S2 cells undergoing cycloheximide-induced apoptosis exposed phosphatidylserine on their surface, but their engulfment by l(2)mbn cells did not seem to be mediated by phosphatidylserine. The level of Croquemort, a candidate phagocytosis receptor of Drosophila hemocytes/macrophages, increased in l(2)mbn cells after treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone, whereas that of Draper, another candidate phagocytosis receptor, remained unchanged. However, apoptotic cell phagocytosis was reduced when the expression of Draper, but not of Croquemort, was inhibited by RNA interference in hormone-treated l(2)mbn cells. We next examined whether Draper is responsible for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo using an assay for engulfment based on assessing DNA degradation of apoptotic cells in dICAD mutant embryos (which only occurred after ingestion by the phagocytes). RNA interference-mediated decrease in the level of Draper in embryos of mutant flies was accompanied by a decrease in the number of cells containing fragmented DNA. Furthermore, histochemical analyses of dispersed embryonic cells revealed that the level of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by hemocytes/macrophages was reduced when Draper expression was inhibited. These results indicate that Drosophila hemocytes/macrophages execute Draper-mediated phagocytosis to eliminate apoptotic cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dying cells are selectively eliminated from the organism by phagocytosis. Previous studies suggested the existence of some other phagocytosis marker(s) that function together with phosphatidylserine, the best-characterized phagocytosis marker. We obtained here a monoclonal antibody named PH2 that inhibited macrophage phagocytosis of late apoptotic or necrotic cells, but not of early apoptotic cells. On the other hand, phagocytosis of cells at any time during the process of apoptosis was inhibitable by phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes. Inhibition occurred even when target cells were preincubated with PH2 and separated from unbound antibodies. Moreover, PH2 bound to apoptotic cells at late stages more efficiently than to those at early stages, and it did not bind to normal cells unless their plasma membrane was permeabilized. These results suggest that the putative PH2 antigen is a novel phagocytosis marker that translocates to the cell surface at late stages of apoptosis, resulting in maximal recognition and engulfment by macrophages.
Cell Death and Differentiation 12/2001; 8(11):1113-22. DOI:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400920 · 8.18 Impact Factor