[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous results suggested that the effects of Salvia fruticosa tea (SFT) drinking on glucose regulation might be at the intestinal level. Here we aim to characterize the effects of SFT treatment and of its main phenolic constituent--rosmarinic acid (RA)--on the levels and localization of the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), the facilitative glucose transporter 2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
Two models of SGLT1 induction in rats were used: through diabetes induction with streptozotocin (STZ) and through dietary carbohydrate manipulation. Drinking water was replaced with SFT or RA and blood parameters, liver glycogen and the levels of different proteins in enterocytes quantified. Two weeks of SFT treatment stabilized fasting blood glucose levels in STZ-diabetic animals. The increase in SGLT1 localized to the enterocyte brush-border membrane (BBM) induced by STZ treatment was significantly abrogated by treatment with SFT, without significant changes in total cellular transporter protein levels. No effects were observed on glucose transporter 2, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase or glucagon-like peptide-1 levels by SFT. Additionally, SFT and RA for 4 days significantly inhibited the carbohydrate-induced adaptive increase of SGLT1 in BBM.
SFT and RA modulate the trafficking of SGLT1 to the BBM and may contribute to the control of plasma glucose.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HSP12 gene encodes one of the two major small heat-shock proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is induced under different conditions, such as low and high temperatures, osmotic or oxidative stress and high sugar or ethanol concentrations. However, few studies could demonstrate any correlation between HSP12 deletion or overexpression and a phenotype of sensitivity/resistance, making it difficult to attribute a role for Hsp12p under several of these stress conditions. We investigated the possible role of Hsp12p in yeast freezing tolerance. Contrary to what would be expected, the hsp12 null mutant when subjected to prolonged storage at -20 degrees C showed an increased resistance to freezing when compared with the isogenic wild-type strain. Because the mutant strain displayed a higher intracellular trehalose concentration than the wild-type, which could mask the effect of manipulating HSP12, we overexpressed the HSP12 gene in a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS1) null mutant. The tps1Delta strain overexpressing HSP12 showed an increase in resistance to freezing storage, indicating that Hsp12p plays a role in freezing tolerance in a way that seems to be interchangeable with trehalose. In addition, we show that overexpression of HSP12 in this tps1Delta strain also increased resistance to heat shock and that absence of HSP12 compromises the ability of yeast cells to accumulate high levels of trehalose in response to a mild heat stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PCR-based disruption cassettes are one of the most commonly used strategies for gene targeting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efficiencies of gene disruption using this conventional method are highly variable among species, and often quite low with nonconventional yeasts. Here we describe an improved strategy to obtain deletion mutants in baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii, one of the most abundant non-Saccharomyces species, present in home-made corn and rye bread dough.
FEMS Yeast Research 12/2008; 9(1):158-60. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The freeze stress responses to prolonged storage at -20 degrees C in Torulaspora delbrueckii PYCC5323 were investigated. In this yeast, no loss of cell viability was observed for at least 120 days during freezing at -20 degrees C, whereas a loss of 80% was observed in a commercial baker's yeast after 15 days. In the former strain, freeze resistance was dependent on an adaptation process. The primary cell target of freeze stress was the plasma membrane, preservation of its integrity being related with a lower increase of lipid peroxidation and with a higher resistance to H(2)O(2), but not with the intracellular trehalose concentration.