[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous results suggested that the effects of Salvia fruticosa tea (SFT) drinking on glucose regulation might be at the intestinal level. Here we aim to characterize the effects of SFT treatment and of its main phenolic constituent--rosmarinic acid (RA)--on the levels and localization of the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), the facilitative glucose transporter 2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
Two models of SGLT1 induction in rats were used: through diabetes induction with streptozotocin (STZ) and through dietary carbohydrate manipulation. Drinking water was replaced with SFT or RA and blood parameters, liver glycogen and the levels of different proteins in enterocytes quantified. Two weeks of SFT treatment stabilized fasting blood glucose levels in STZ-diabetic animals. The increase in SGLT1 localized to the enterocyte brush-border membrane (BBM) induced by STZ treatment was significantly abrogated by treatment with SFT, without significant changes in total cellular transporter protein levels. No effects were observed on glucose transporter 2, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase or glucagon-like peptide-1 levels by SFT. Additionally, SFT and RA for 4 days significantly inhibited the carbohydrate-induced adaptive increase of SGLT1 in BBM.
SFT and RA modulate the trafficking of SGLT1 to the BBM and may contribute to the control of plasma glucose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The freeze stress responses to prolonged storage at -20 degrees C in Torulaspora delbrueckii PYCC5323 were investigated. In this yeast, no loss of cell viability was observed for at least 120 days during freezing at -20 degrees C, whereas a loss of 80% was observed in a commercial baker's yeast after 15 days. In the former strain, freeze resistance was dependent on an adaptation process. The primary cell target of freeze stress was the plasma membrane, preservation of its integrity being related with a lower increase of lipid peroxidation and with a higher resistance to H(2)O(2), but not with the intracellular trehalose concentration.