Gregory D Byrd

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA, United States

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Publications (6)30.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hyperkalemic cardioplegia (Plegisol) has been shown to result in myocyte swelling and reduced contractility. We have demonstrated the elimination of these detrimental effects by the addition of an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener. To examine whether the mitochondrial or sarcolemmal KATP channel might be involved, volume and contractility in isolated myocytes from wild-type mice and mice lacking the sarcolemmal KATP channel (Kir6.2-/-) were evaluated. Myocytes were perfused for 20 minutes each with control 37 degrees C Tyrode's solution, test solution, and then control solution. Test solutions were (n = 10 per group) either 9 degrees C Plegisol or 9 degrees C Plegisol with 100 micromol/L of diazoxide, a putative mitochondrial-specific KATP channel opener. Cell volume and contractility were measured by digital video microscopy at baseline and during the test solution and reexposure periods. Myocytes from wild-type mice, perfused with 9 degrees C Plegisol, demonstrated significant cell swelling (11.2% +/- 0.4%; p < 0.01) and diminished contractility (32.5% +/- 9.6% reduction in percent shortening, 47.2% +/- 10.1% reduction in peak velocity of shortening, and 52.0% +/- 8.8% reduction in peak velocity of relengthening; p < 0.05) versus baseline. Cell swelling and diminished contractility were significantly reduced by the addition of diazoxide. In Kir6.2-/- myocytes, Plegisol caused a greatly reduced level of cell swelling (3.2% +/- 0.1%; p < 0.01), and this was unaffected by diazoxide. Contractility was unchanged in Kir6.2-/- myocytes after Plegisol. The sarcolemmal KATP channel appears necessary for exaggerated cell swelling and reduced contractility to occur after hyperkalemic cardioplegia in mouse myocytes.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2006; 81(1):148-53. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microwave ablation has been used to replace the traditional incisions used in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, dose-response curves have not been established in surgically relevant models. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-response curves for the Flex 10 (Guidant, Inc) microwave device in both the acute cardioplegia-arrested heart and on the beating heart. Twelve domestic pigs (40 to 45 kg) were subjected to microwave ablation in either the arrested (n = 6) or beating heart (n = 6). The cardioplegia-arrested heart was maintained at 10 degrees to 15 degrees C while six atrial endocardial and seven right ventricular epicardial lesions were created in each animal. On the beating heart, six right atrial and seven ventricular epicardial lesions were created. Ablations were performed for 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 seconds (65 W, 2.45 GHz). The tissue was stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride, and sectioned at 5-mm intervals. Lesion depth and width were determined from digital micrographs. Mean atrial wall thickness was 2.8 mm (range, 1 to 8 mm). In the arrested heart, 94% of atrial lesions were transmural at 45 seconds and 100% were transmural at 90 seconds. In the beating heart, only 20% of atrial lesions were transmural despite prolonged ablation times (90 seconds). Ventricular lesion width and depth increased with duration of application, and were similar on the arrested and beating hearts. Microwave ablation produces linear dose-response curves. Transmural lesions can be reliably produced on the arrested heart, but not consistently on the beating heart.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2006; 81(1):72-6. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The critical mass hypothesis for atrial fibrillation (AF) was proposed in 1914. There has never been a systematic investigation defining the relationship between tissue geometry and AF. The purpose of this study was to determine the association among the probability of maintaining AF and the width, area, weight, effective refractory period (ERP), and wavelength in atrial tissue. Isolated canine atria (n=20) were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. Baseline ERPs were obtained with and without acetylcholine (10E-3.5 mol/L) using single extra-stimulus pacing while unipolar electrograms were recorded from 250 sites. The tissue was then partitioned using bipolar radiofrequency ablation, and the ERPs were measured again with and without acetylcholine. Any section of tissue that maintained AF was divided until the arrhythmia was no longer inducible. ERPs and conduction velocities were measured in all of the sections after each ablation, and the wavelengths were calculated. The probability of AF was found to be correlated with increasing tissue areas, widths, and weights (P<0.001). The probability of AF was significantly associated with the length of the ERP and the wavelength (P<0.001). With shorter ERPs and shorter wavelengths, there was an increased probability of sustained AF. The probability of sustained AF was significantly associated with increasing tissue area, width, and weight and decreasing ERPs and wavelengths. These data may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of AF and, thus, help to design more-effective interventional procedures in the future.
    Circulation 09/2005; 112(9 Suppl):I7-13. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microwave ablation has been used clinically for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation, particularly during valve procedures. However, dose- response curves have not been established for this surgical environment. The purpose of this study was to examine dosimetry curves for the Flex 4 and Flex 10 microwave devices in an acute cardioplegia-arrested porcine model. Twelve domestic pigs (40-45 kg) were acutely subjected to Flex 4 (n = 6) and Flex 10 (n = 6) ablations. On a cardioplegically arrested heart maintained at 10-15(o)C, six endocardial atrial and seven epicardial ventricular lesions were created in each animal. Ablations were performed for 15 s, 30 s, 45 s, 60 s, 90 s, 120 s, and 150 s (65 W, 2.45 GHz). The tissue was stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride and lesions were sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Lesion depth and width were determined from digital photomicrographs of each lesion (resolution +/- .03 mm). Average atrial thickness was 2.88 +/- .4 mm (range 1.0 to 8.0 mm). 94% of ablated atrial sections created by the FLEX 4 (n = 16) and the FLEX 10 (n = 16) were transmural at 45 seconds. 100% of atrial sections were transmural at 90 seconds with the FLEX 10 (n = 14) and at 60 seconds with the Flex 4 device (n = 15). Lesion width and depth increased with duration of application. Both devices were capable of producing transmural lesions on the cardioplegically arrested heart at 65 W. These curves will allow surgeons to ensure transmural ablation by tailoring energy delivery to the specific atrial geometry.
    Heart Surgery Forum 02/2005; 8(5):E331-6. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cox-Maze procedure is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation with proven long-term efficacy. However, its application has been limited by its complexity and significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and safety of performing the Cox-Maze procedure using bipolar radiofrequency ablation on the beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass. After median sternotomy, 6 Hanford mini-pigs underwent a modified Cox-Maze procedure using bipolar radiofrequency energy. The animals survived for 30 days. Atrial function, coronary artery, pulmonary vein anatomy, and valve function were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. At reoperation, pacing documented electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins. Induction of atrial fibrillation was attempted by burst pacing with cholinergic stimulation. Histologic assessment was performed after sacrifice. There were no perioperative mortalities or neurologic events. At 30 days, atrial fibrillation was unable to be induced, and pulmonary vein isolation was confirmed by pacing. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment revealed no coronary artery or pulmonary vein stenoses. Although atrial ejection fraction decreased slightly from 0.344 +/- 0.0114 to 0.300 +/- 0.055 (p = 0.18), atrial contractility was preserved in every animal. Histologic assessment showed all lesions to be transmural, and there were no significant stenoses of the coronary vessels or injuries to the valves. Virtually all of the lesions of the Cox-Maze procedure can be performed without cardiopulmonary bypass using bipolar radiofrequency energy. There were no late stenoses of the pulmonary veins. Clinical trials of this new technology on the beating heart are warranted.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 12/2004; 78(5):1671-7. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The Maze procedure was designed for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). It has had a high success rate but does have decreased efficacy in patients with enlarged atria. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the probability of maintaining AF and the geometry and effective refractory period (ERP) of atrial tissue.Methods: Isolated canine (n = 14) right atriums were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution. Baseline ERPs were obtained with KH and KH with acetylcholine (10E-3.5 M) from predetermined sites on the atrium utilizing single extra stimulus while unipolar electrograms were recorded from 250 sites. The tissue was then partitioned utilizing bipolar radiofrequency ablation and the ERPs were measured again with and without acetylcholine. Any section of tissue that maintained AF was then divided until it was no longer inducible. ERPs were measured in all sections after each ablation.Results: Mapping demonstrated that each tissue area was electrically isolated after ablating, while dye infusion revealed no flow abnormalities. The probability of AF was found to be significantly correlated with increasing tissue areas, widths and weights (p < 0.01). The probability of AF also was significantly associated with the length of the ERP (p < 0.001). With shorter ERPs, there was an increased probability of AF.Conclusions: The probability of sustained atrial fibrillation occurring was significantly associated with increasing tissue area, width and weight and decreasing effective refractory periods. These data may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of AF, and help to design more effective surgical procedures in the future.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 09/2004; 199(3):30-30. · 4.50 Impact Factor