L T Goodnough

Stanford Medicine, Stanford, California, United States

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Publications (306)1689.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Blood transfusion has been cited as one of the five most overutilized therapeutic procedures in the United States. We assessed the impact of clinical decision support at computerized physician order entry and education on red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and clinical patient outcomes at our institution.Study Design and Methods Clinical patient outcomes and RBC transfusions were assessed before and after implementation of a best practice alert triggered for transfusions when the hemoglobin level was higher than 7 g/dL for all inpatient discharges from January 2008 through December 2013. Retrospective clinical and laboratory data related to RBC transfusions were extracted: case-mix complexity, patient discharges and selected surgical volumes, and patient outcomes (mortality, 30-day readmissions, length of stay).ResultsThere was a significant improvement in RBC utilization as assessed by RBC units transfused per 100 patient-days-at-risk. Concurrently, hospital-wide clinical patient outcomes showed improvement (mortality, p = 0.034; length of stay, p = 0.003) or remained stable (30-day readmission rates, p = 0.909). Outcome improvements were even more pronounced in patients who received blood transfusions, with decreased mortality rate (55.2 to 33.0, p < 0.001), length of stay (mean, 10.1 to 6.2 days, p < 0.001), and 30-day readmission rate (136.9 to 85.0, p < 0.001). The mean number of units transfused per patient also declined (3.6 to 2.7, p < 0.001). Acquisition costs of RBC units per 1000 patient discharges decreased from $283,130 in 2009 to $205,050 in 2013 with total estimated savings of $6.4 million and likely far greater impact on total transfusion-related costs.Conclusion Improved blood utilization is associated with improved clinical patient outcomes.
    Transfusion 08/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Best practice alerts (BPAs) provide clinical decision support (CDS) at the point of care to reduce unnecessary blood product transfusions, yet substantial transfusions continue outside of recommended guidelines.OBJECTIVE To understand why providers order blood transfusions outside of recommended guidelines despite interruptive alerts.DESIGNRetrospective review.SETTINGTertiary care hospital.PARTICIPANTSInpatient healthcare providers.INTERVENTIONProvider-BPA interaction data were collected from January 2011 to August 2012 from the hospital electronic medical record.MEASUREMENTSProvider (free-text) responses to blood transfusion BPA prompts were independently reviewed and categorized by 2 licensed physicians, with agreement assessed by χ2 analysis and kappa scoring.RESULTSRationale for overriding blood transfusion BPAs was highly diverse, acute bleeding being the most common (>34%), followed by protocolized behaviors on specialty services (up to 26%), to “symptomatic” anemia (11%–12%). Many providers transfused in anticipation of surgical or procedural intervention (10%–15%) or imminent hospital discharge (2%–5%). Resident physicians represented the majority (55%) of providers interacting with BPAs.CONCLUSION Providers interacting with BPAs (primarily residents and midlevel providers) often do not have the negotiating power to change ordering behavior. Protocolized behaviors, unlikely to be influenced by BPAs, are among the most commonly cited reasons for transfusing outside of guidelines. Symptomatic anemia is a common, albeit subjective, indication cited for blood transfusion. With a wide swath of individually uncommon rationales for transfusion behavior, secondary use of electronic medical record databases and integrated CDS tools are important to efficiently analyze common practice behaviors. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Hospital Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Hospital Medicine
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 07/2014; · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • Article: In reply.
    Jerrold H Levy, Lawrence T Goodnough
    Transfusion 05/2014; 54(5):1443-4. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • David B Bregman, Lawrence T Goodnough
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    ABSTRACT: Erythropoiesis may be limited by absolute or functional iron deficiency or when chronic inflammatory conditions lead to iron sequestration. Intravenous iron may be indicated when oral iron cannot address the deficiency. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is a nondextran iron preparation recently approved in the United States for intravenous treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in adult patients with intolerance or unsatisfactory response to oral iron or with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. The full dose is two administrations of up to 750 mg separated by at least 7 days (up to 1500 mg total). FCM can be injected in 7-8 min or diluted in saline for slower infusion. The efficacy and safety of this dose was established in two prospective trials that randomized over 3500 subjects, 1775 of whom received FCM. One trial showed similar efficacy of FCM to an approved intravenous iron regimen (1000 mg of iron sucrose) in 2500 subjects with chronic kidney disease and additional cardiovascular risk factors. The other trial showed superior efficacy of FCM to oral iron in subjects with IDA due to various etiologies (e.g. gastrointestinal or uterine bleeding). In these trials, there was no significant difference between FCM and comparator with respect to an independently adjudicated composite safety endpoint, including death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. A database of 5799 subjects exposed to FCM provided a safety profile acceptable for regulatory approval. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the transient, asymptomatic reduction in serum phosphate observed following FCM administration results from induction of fibroblast growth factor 23, which in turn induces renal phosphate excretion. An elevated hepcidin level may identify patients with IDA who will not respond to oral iron but will respond to FCM. The ability to administer FCM in two rapid injections or infusions will likely be viewed favorably by patients and healthcare providers.
    Therapeutic advances in hematology. 04/2014; 5(2):48-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Documented transfusion-associated hepatitis A (TAHA) is rare, and blood donors in the United States are not routinely screened for this infection. We report a case of TAHA associated with a donation made 8 days after a donor returned from a trip to South America. This is a review of donor and recipient records and a review of the literature. A donor developed symptoms of hepatitis 20 days after donation (28 days after returning from South America). The donor reported the illness 56 days after donation when contacted to schedule another visit. By this time, the red blood cell and frozen plasma components had been transfused. The recipient of the plasma, a 15-month-old female, tested positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis A virus 43 days after transfusion. The recipient had displayed mild, nonspecific symptoms approximately 2 weeks after transfusion. Hospital infection control investigated the potential for further spread within the hospital because the recipient had been an inpatient for most of the posttransfusion period. The risk of transmission to other patients was determined to be negligible because the patient had been in isolation for other reasons. Family members, who included a health care professional, were counseled and offered prophylaxis. TAHA may be underrecognized. This case was identified only because of a donor report at the time of recruitment. Asymptomatic donor viremia has been documented in plasma donors. Although TAHA rarely results in severe disease, the risk it creates of secondary transmission especially within the hospital setting is not inconsequential.
    Transfusion 04/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence Tim Goodnough
    Blood 02/2014; 123(9):1287-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite its high prevalence, anemia often does not receive proper clinical attention and its detection, evaluation, and management of iron deficiency anemia and iron-restricted erythropoiesis can possibly be an unmet medical need. A multidisciplinary panel of clinicians with expertise in anemia management convened and reviewed recent published data on prevalence, etiology, and health implications of anemia as well as current therapeutic options and available guidelines on management of anemia across various patient populations, and made recommendations on the detection, diagnostic approach and management of anemia. The available evidence confirms that the prevalence of anemia is high across all populations, especially in hospitalized patients. Anemia is associated with worse clinical outcomes including longer length of hospital stay, diminished quality of life and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and it is a modifiable risk factor of allogeneic blood transfusion with its own inherent risks. Iron deficiency is usually present in anemic patients. An algorithm for detection and management of anemia was discussed which incorporated iron study (with primary emphasis on transferrin saturation), serum creatinine and GFR and vitamin B12 and folic acid measurements. Management strategies included iron therapy (oral or intravenous), erythropoiesis stimulating agents and referral as needed.
    Transfusion medicine reviews 01/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Aryeh Shander, Lawrence Tim Goodnough
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 01/2014; 97(1):11-4. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women with placenta increta (PI) and placenta percreta (PP) are at high risk of obstetric hemorrhage; however, the severity of hemorrhage and perioperative morbidity may differ according to the degree of placental invasion. We sought to compare blood component usage and perioperative morbidity between women with PI versus PP undergoing cesarean hysterectomy (CH). We identified 77 women who underwent CH for PI or PP from the NICHD MFMU Network Cesarean Registry, which sourced data from 19 centers from 1999 to 2002. We examined demographic, obstetric, and surgical data and rates of transfusion and perioperative morbidity. We performed statistical tests for between-group analyses; p values less than 0.05 were significant. Rates of intraoperative or postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion were similar between groups (PI 84% vs. PP 88%; p = 0.7). We observed no between-group differences in rates of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion (intraoperative FFP-PI 30% vs. PP 41%; p = 0.3; postoperative FFP-PI 28% vs. PP 18%; p = 0.4) or platelet (PLT) transfusion (intraoperative PLTs-PI 14% vs. PP 29%; p = 0.2; postoperative PLTs-PI 9% vs. PP 9%; p = 1.0). Among the morbidities, a higher proportion of PP women underwent cystotomy (PI 14% vs. PP 38%; p = 0.02) and postoperative mechanical ventilation (PI 14% vs. PP 35%; p = 0.03). Rates of intraoperative RBC, FFP, and PLT transfusion are similar for PI and PP women, and perioperative outcomes are worse for PP women. We suggest the same mobilization transfusion medicine support for both groups, including blood ordering (type and cross-match for CH) and availability of emergency blood protocols including fibrinogen-containing preparations.
    Transfusion 11/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed blood utilization at Stanford Hospital and Clinics after implementing real-time clinical decision support (CDS) and best practice alerts (BPAs) into physician order entry (POE) for blood transfusions. A clinical effectiveness (CE) team developed consensus with a suggested transfusion threshold of a hemoglobin (Hb) level of 7 g/dL, or 8 g/dL for patients with acute coronary syndromes. The CDS was implemented in July 2010 and consisted of an interruptive BPA at POE, a link to relevant literature, and an "acknowledgment reason" for the blood order. The percentage of blood ordered for patients whose most recent Hb level exceeded 8 g/dL ranged at baseline from 57% to 66%; from the education intervention by the CE team August 2009 to July 2010, the percentage decreased to a range of 52% to 56% (p = 0.01); and after implementation of CDS and BPA, by end of December 2010 the percentage of patients transfused outside the guidelines decreased to 35% (p = 0.02) and has subsequently remained below 30%. For the most recent interval, only 27% (767 of 2890) of transfusions occurred in patients outside guidelines. Comparing 2009 to 2012, despite an increase in annual case mix index from 1.952 to 2.026, total red blood cell (RBC) transfusions decreased by 7186 units, or 24%. The estimated net savings for RBC units (at $225/unit) in purchase costs for 2012 compared to 2009 was $1,616,750. Real-time CDS has significantly improved blood utilization. This system of concurrent review can be used by health care institutions, quality departments, and transfusion services to reduce blood transfusions.
    Transfusion 10/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Jerrold H Levy, Ian Welsby, Lawrence T Goodnough
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrinogen plays a critical role in achieving and maintaining hemostasis and is fundamental to effective clot formation. There is increasing awareness of the important role of fibrinogen as a key target for the treatment and prevention of acquired bleeding. Fibrinogen is the first coagulation factor to fall to critically low levels (<1.0 g/L) during major hemorrhage (normal plasma fibrinogen levels range from 2.0 to 4.5 g/L), and current guidelines recommend maintaining the plasma fibrinogen level above 1.5 g/L. Fibrinogen supplementation can be achieved using plasma or cryoprecipitate; however, there are a number of safety concerns associated with these allogeneic blood products and there is a lack of high-quality evidence to support their use. Additionally, there is sometimes a long delay associated with the preparation of frozen products for infusion. Fibrinogen concentrate provides a promising alternative to allogeneic blood products and has a number of advantages: it allows a standardized dose of fibrinogen to be rapidly administered in a small volume, has a very good safety profile, and is virally inactivated as standard. Administration of fibrinogen concentrate, often guided by point-of-care viscoelastic testing to allow individualized dosing, has been successfully used as hemostatic therapy in a range of clinical settings, including cardiovascular surgery, postpartum hemorrhage, and trauma. Results show that fibrinogen concentrate is associated with a reduction or even total avoidance of allogeneic blood product transfusion. Fibrinogen concentrate represents an important option for the treatment of coagulopathic bleeding; further studies are needed to determine precise dosing strategies and thresholds for fibrinogen supplementation.
    Transfusion 10/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence Tim Goodnough, Stanley L Schrier
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    ABSTRACT: Anemia is now recognized as a risk factor for a number of adverse outcomes in the elderly, including hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. What constitutes appropriate evaluation and management for an elderly patient with anemia, and when to initiate a referral to a hematologist, are significant issues. Attempts to identify suggested hemoglobin levels for blood transfusion therapy have been confounded for elderly patients with their co-morbidities. Since no specific recommended hemoglobin threshold has stood the test of time, prudent transfusion practices to maintain hemoglobin thresholds of 9-10 g/dl in the elderly are indicated, unless or until evidence emerges to indicate otherwise.
    American Journal of Hematology 10/2013; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron-deficiency anemia in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) frequently requires parenteral iron replacement, but existing therapies often require multiple administrations. We evaluated the efficacy and cardiovascular safety of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a non-dextran parenteral iron permitting large single-dose infusions, versus iron sucrose in patients with iron-deficiency anemia and NDD-CKD. A total of 2584 participants were randomized to two doses of FCM 750 mg in one week, or iron sucrose 200 mg administered in up to five infusions in 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change to highest hemoglobin from baseline to Day 56. The primary composite safety endpoint included all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, unstable angina, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and hyper- and hypotensive events. The mean hemoglobin increase was 1.13 g/dL in the FCM group and 0.92 g/dL in the iron sucrose group (95% CI, 0.13-0.28). Similar results were observed across all subgroups, except Stage 2 CKD. More subjects in the FCM group achieved a hemoglobin increase of ≥1.0 g/dL between baseline and Day 56 (48.6 versus 41.0%; 95% CI, 3.6-11.6%). There was no significant difference between FCM and iron sucrose recipients with respect to the primary composite safety endpoint, including the major adverse cardiac events of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. A significant difference in the number of protocol-defined, predominantly transient hypertensive episodes was observed in the FCM group. Two 750-mg infusions of FCM are a safe and effective alternative to multiple lower dose iron sucrose infusions in NDD-CKD patients with iron-deficiency anemia.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 08/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence Tim Goodnough
    Critical care medicine 08/2013; 41(8):2041-2. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients receiving oral iron for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) cannot tolerate or fail to respond to therapy, and existing intravenous (IV) iron formulations often require repeated administrations. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a nondextran IV formulation, permits larger single doses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated FCM versus oral iron in IDA patients. After 14 days of oral iron, 507 participants responding inadequately to oral iron (hemoglobin [Hb] increase <1 g/dL; Cohort 1) were assigned to Group A (two doses of FCM, 750 mg, 1 week apart) or Group B (oral iron, 325 mg, 3 × day for 14 additional days). Also, 504 subjects not appropriate for oral iron (Cohort 2) were assigned to Group C (FCM as above) or Group D (standard-of-care IV iron). The primary efficacy endpoint was change to highest observed Hb from baseline to Day 35. The composite safety endpoint included all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, unstable angina, heart failure, arrhythmias, and hyper- or hypotensive events. RESULTS: Mean (± standard deviation [SD]) Hb increase was significantly greater in Group A-FCM than Group B-oral iron: 1.57 (±1.19) g/dL versus 0.80 (±0.80) g/dL (p = 0.001). Post hoc comparison of Group C-FCM and Group D-IV standard of care also demonstrated significant mean (±SD) increase in Hb from baseline to highest value by Day 35 in Group C versus Group D: 2.90 (±1.64) g/dL versus 2.16 (±1.25) g/dL (p = 0.001). Safety endpoints occurred in 17 of 499 (3.4%) participants receiving FCM versus 16 of 498 (3.2%) in comparator groups. CONCLUSION: Two 750-mg FCM infusions are safe and superior to oral iron in increasing Hb levels in IDA patients with inadequate oral iron response.
    Transfusion 06/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the platelet (PLT) glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex is either deficient or dysfunctional. In its most severe form, GT may result in spontaneous bleeding, although most cases are first detected in the setting of an invasive procedure. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old male with Type I GT and a history of transfusion reactions to PLT infusions developed severe aortic stenosis secondary to bicuspid valve disease. He successfully underwent open aortic valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass without perioperative bleeding complications. RESULTS: A multidisciplinary team (anesthesia, hematology, cardiac surgery, and transfusion medicine) was established to optimize perioperative hematologic management. Bleeding risk was assessed given the patient's prior history and a dosing timeline for administration of blood products and recombinant clotting factors was established. Successful management was achieved during the operation by prophylactic administration of HLA-matched PLTs and Factor VIIa. Prophylactic PLT administration was continued through the immediate postoperative period and no bleeding complications occurred. Thromboelastograms (TEGs) were used in conjunction with traditional hematologic laboratory analysis to optimize clinical management. CONCLUSION: Patients with GT requiring cardiac surgical procedures are at high risk for perioperative bleeding complications. This case report illustrates the importance of multidisciplinary planning, TEG analysis, and the judicious use of recombinant factors to minimize operative bleeding risk.
    Transfusion 05/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence T Goodnough, Jerrold H Levy, Michael F Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Recent progress has been made in the identification and implementation of best transfusion practices on the basis of evidence-based clinical trials, published clinical practice guidelines, and process improvements for blood use and clinical patient outcomes. However, substantial variability persists in transfusion outcomes for patients in some clinical settings-eg, patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. This variability could be the result of insufficient understanding of published guidelines; different recommendations of medical societies, including the specification of a haemoglobin concentration threshold to use as a transfusion trigger; the value of haemoglobin as a surrogate indicator for transfusion benefit, even though only changes in concentration and not absolute red cell mass of haemoglobin can be identified; and disagreement about the validity of the level 1 evidence for clinical practice guidelines. Nevertheless, institutional experience and national databases suggest that a restrictive blood transfusion approach is being increasingly implemented as best practice.
    The Lancet 05/2013; 381(9880):1845-1854. · 39.06 Impact Factor
  • Donat R Spahn, Lawrence T Goodnough
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    ABSTRACT: The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias.
    The Lancet 05/2013; 381(9880):1855-1865. · 39.06 Impact Factor
  • Lawrence T Goodnough
    The Lancet 05/2013; 381(9880):1791-1792. · 39.06 Impact Factor
  • Erik J Uhlmann, Shalini Shenoy, Lawrence T Goodnough
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyperhemolysis syndrome is a serious transfusion reaction mostly reported in association with sickle cell disease, characterized by destruction of both donor and host red blood cells (RBCs) by an unknown mechanism. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old man with sickle cell disease and multiple prior transfusions received two phenotype-matched, compatible RBC units during a brief admission for pain crisis. He developed rapid-onset progressive anemia and hemoglobinuria. Methylprednisolone, erythropoietin, and rituximab were administered. Fifteen days posttransfusion the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreased to 3.1 g/dL, with evidence of severe congestive heart failure. No new antibodies were identified. It was felt that his heart failure would not improve without increasing oxygen-carrying capacity. A combination of volume overload, anemia, and hemolysis prompted a novel isovolemic procedure to increase Hb level without removing his own RBCs or causing fluid overload. A cell separator was used operating on the plasma-exchange program, with three cross-match-compatible, washed RBC units as the replacement fluid. After the procedure, there was no evidence of hemolysis. Over the following 6 days, the congestive heart failure resolved, the Hb concentration increased to 7.5 g/dL, and the patient fully recovered. He had a similar event 3 years previously. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma-to-RBC replacement may be beneficial for selected patients with life-threatening anemia. This intervention provides immediate improvement in oxygen-carrying capacity, conserving the patient's own RBCs, while avoiding fluid overload. Although blood transfusion may precipitate further hemolysis, this case report describes successful plasma-to-RBC exchange transfusion with concurrent supportive care to offset hemolysis, including corticosteroid, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab.
    Transfusion 05/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,689.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Stanford Transfusion Service
      • • Department of Pathology
      Stanford, California, United States
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2004–2014
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Pathology
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2013
    • North Carolina Clinical Research
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Zurich
      • Institut für Anästhesiologie
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Georgetown University
      • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2012
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Vanderbilt University
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      Jackson, Mississippi, United States
    • Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Englewood Hospital and Medical Center
      Englewood, New Jersey, United States
    • Cerner Corporation
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 1993–2008
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Division of Oncology
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1999–2006
    • Barnes Jewish Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 1994–2005
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Division of Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
      • Department of Community and Family Medicine
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
    • College of Wooster
      • Department of Biology
      Wooster, Ohio, United States
  • 1997–2003
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1992–1996
    • Puget Sound Blood Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • White River Junction VA Medical Center
      White River Junction, Vermont, United States
  • 1988–1994
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Medicine (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 1991
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States