M. Brodwin

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (242)883.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg$^2$ of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between $0.1\lesssim z\lesssim 0.8$ in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness $\lambda$-mass relation with the following function $\langle\ln\lambda|M_{500}\rangle\propto B_\lambda\ln M_{500}+C_\lambda\ln E(z)$ and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses $\lambda$ to constrain the parameters. We find $B_\lambda= 1.14^{+0.21}_{-0.18}$ and $C_\lambda=0.73^{+0.77}_{-0.75}$. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is $\sigma_{\ln M|\lambda} = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ at a characteristic richness $\lambda=70$. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a sub-dominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalog with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalog threshold significance $\xi=4.5$, using the RM catalog to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for additional low-$\xi$ SPT-SZ candidates.In this way, we identify 15 additional clusters with $\xi\in [4,4.5]$ over the redshift regime explored by RM in the overlapping region between DES science verification data and the SPT-SZ survey.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a deep (100 ks) Chandra observation of IDCS J1426.5+3508, a spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy cluster at $z = 1.75$. This cluster is the most massive galaxy cluster currently known at $z > 1.5$, based on existing Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and gravitational lensing detections. We confirm this high mass via a variety of X-ray scaling relations, including $T_X$-M, $f_g$-M, $Y_X$-M and $L_X$-M, finding a tight distribution of masses from these different methods, spanning M$_{500}$ = 2.3-3.3 $\times 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$, with the low-scatter $Y_X$-based mass $M_{500,Y_X} = 2.6^{+1.5}_{-0.5} \times 10^{14}$ M$_\odot$. IDCS J1426.5+3508 is currently the only cluster at $z > 1.5$ for which X-ray, SZ and gravitational lensing mass estimates exist, and these are in remarkably good agreement. We find a relatively tight distribution of the gas-to-total mass ratio, employing total masses from all of the aforementioned indicators, with values ranging from $f_{gas,500}$ = 0.087-0.12. We do not detect metals in the intracluster medium (ICM) of this system, placing a 2$\sigma$ upper limit of $Z(r < R_{500}) < 0.18 Z_{\odot}$. This upper limit on the metallicity suggests that this system may still be in the process of enriching its ICM. The cluster has a dense, low-entropy core, offset by $\sim$30 kpc from the X-ray centroid, which makes it one of the few "cool core" clusters discovered at $z > 1$, and the first known cool core cluster at $z > 1.2$. The offset of this core from the large-scale centroid suggests that this cluster has had a relatively recent ($\lesssim$500 Myr) merger/interaction with another massive system.
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    ABSTRACT: We study the stellar, Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) and intracluster medium (ICM) masses of 14 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected galaxy clusters with median redshift $z=0.9$ and median mass $M_{500}=6\times10^{14}M_{\odot}$. We estimate stellar masses for each cluster and BCG using six photometric bands spanning the range from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared observed with the VLT, HST and Spitzer. The ICM masses are derived from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, and the virial masses are derived from the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect signature. At $z=0.9$ the BCG mass $M_{\star}^{\textrm{BCG}}$ constitutes $0.12\pm0.01$% of the halo mass for a $6\times10^{14}M_{\odot}$ cluster, and this fraction falls as $M_{500}^{-0.58\pm0.07}$. The cluster stellar mass function has a characteristic mass $M_{0}=10^{11.0\pm0.1}M_{\odot}$, and the number of galaxies per unit mass in clusters is larger than in the field by a factor $1.65\pm0.2$. Both results are consistent with measurements on group scales and at lower redshift. We combine our SPT sample with previously published samples at low redshift that we correct to a common initial mass function and for systematic differences in virial masses. We then explore mass and redshift trends in the stellar fraction (fstar), the ICM fraction (fICM), the cold baryon fraction (fc) and the baryon fraction (fb). At a pivot mass of $6\times10^{14}M_{\odot}$ and redshift $z=0.9$, the characteristic values are fstar=$1.1\pm0.1$%, fICM=$9.6\pm0.5$%, fc=$10.4\pm1.2$% and fb=$10.7\pm0.6$%. These fractions all vary with cluster mass at high significance, indicating that higher mass clusters have lower fstar and fc and higher fICM and fb. When accounting for a 15% systematic virial mass uncertainty, there is no statistically significant redshift trend at fixed mass in these baryon fractions. (abridged)
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    ABSTRACT: Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters using CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. The net magnitude of the systematic shift to lower cluster mass is approximately the size of our statistical error bar, and we do not attempt to correct for it. We apply the maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their SZ signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.0$\sigma$. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: $M_{200,\rm{lens}} = 0.76^{+0.37}_{-0.36} M_{200,\rm{SZ}}$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).
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    ABSTRACT: We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg2 Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r 0 = (32 ± 7) h –1 Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M min, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than . We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to ; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of present-day massive galaxy clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2014; 797(2):109. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/797/2/109 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) is a comprehensive program to detect and characterize the most massive galaxy clusters in the universe at z~1, and is the only all-sky survey sensitive to galaxy clusters at this epoch. We propose a large snapshot program to obtain photometry for clusters drawn from the 2000 highest significance detections in the MaDCoWS catalog. From a previous pilot program and CARMA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich imaging, we have calibrated a low-scatter mass-richness relation. The proposed observations will yield photometric redshifts and richness estimates for the full snapshot sample. The requested observations are designed to be optimal for (1) investigation of the evolution of massive galaxies in the most overdense environments, (2) unbiased calibration of scaling relations for cluster mass observables, and (3) identification of extremely massive clusters that can be used for the fgas cosmological test and as constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. These observations also have substantial legacy value, providing a fiducial reference sample for the next generation of wide-area cluster surveys. We intend for this survey to be a community resource for years to come.
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a small 9.9 hour program to complete Spitzer/IRAC coverage of SZ-selected clusters at z>1 from the 2500 deg^2 SPT-SZ survey (10 clusters) as well as to image a representative sample of high-significance high-redshift SPTpol cluster candidates (20 candidates). Combined with existing optical imaging data, these IRAC data will permit us to (a) definitively confirm galaxy overdensities at the locations of these candidates, (b) estimate precise redshifts, and (c) measure stellar masses for cluster members, as well as the total stellar mass content of these extreme halos. This program will also enable the study of galaxy evolution in the richest environments for a mass-limited cluster sample over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5 and will highlight the potential for high-z cluster science with the new generation of mm-wave surveys.
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    ABSTRACT: We are conducting a large survey of distant clusters of galaxies using radio sources with bent jets and lobes as tracers. These radio sources are driven by AGN and achieve their bent morphologies through interaction with the surrounding gas found in clusters of galaxies. Based on low-redshift studies, these types of sources can be used to identify clusters very efficiently. We present initial results from our survey of 653 bent-double radio sources with optical hosts too faint to appear in the SDSS. The sample was observed in the infrared with Spitzer, and it has revealed $\sim$200 distant clusters or proto-clusters in the redshift range $z\sim0.7 - 3.0$. The sample of bent-doubles contains both quasars and radio galaxies enabling us to study both radiative and kinetic mode feedback in cluster and group environments at a wide range of redshifts.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 11/2014; 10(S313). DOI:10.1017/S1743921315002410
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the clustering of high-redshift galaxies in the recently completed 94 deg2 Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep-Field survey. Applying flux and colour cuts to the mid-infrared photometry efficiently selects galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 in the stellar mass range 1010–1011 M⊙, making this sample the largest used so far to study such a distant population. We measure the angular correlation function in different flux-limited samples at scales >6 arcsec (corresponding to physical distances >0.05 Mpc) and thereby map the one- and two-halo contributions to the clustering. We fit halo occupation distributions and determine how the central galaxy's stellar mass and satellite occupation depend on the halo mass. We measure a prominent peak in the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at a halo mass of log (Mhalo/M⊙) = 12.44 ± 0.08, 4.5 times higher than the z = 0 value. This supports the idea of an evolving mass threshold above which star formation is quenched. We estimate the large-scale bias in the range bg = 2–4 and the satellite fraction to be fsat ∼ 0.2, showing a clear evolution compared to z = 0. We also find that, above a given stellar mass limit, the fraction of galaxies that are in similar mass pairs is higher at z = 1.5 than at z = 0. In addition, we measure that this fraction mildly increases with the stellar mass limit at z = 1.5, which is the opposite of the behaviour seen at low redshift.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 446(1):169-194. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1998 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present clustering measurements and halo masses of star forming galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. After excluding AGN, we construct a sample of 22553 24 {\mu}m sources selected from 8.42 deg^2 of the Spitzer MIPS AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of Bo\"otes. Mid-infrared imaging allows us to observe galaxies with the highest star formation rates (SFRs), less biased by dust obscuration afflicting the optical bands. We find that the galaxies with the highest SFRs have optical colors which are redder than typical blue cloud galaxies, with many residing within the green valley. At z > 0.4 our sample is dominated by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L_TIR > 10^11 Lsun) and is comprised entirely of LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, L_TIR > 10^12 Lsun) at z > 0.6. We observe weak clustering of r_0 = 3-6 Mpc/h for almost all of our star forming samples. We find that the clustering and halo mass depend on L_TIR at all redshifts, where galaxies with higher L_TIR (hence higher SFRs) have stronger clustering. Galaxies with the highest SFRs at each redshift typically reside within dark matter halos of M_halo ~ 10^12.9 Msun/h. This is consistent with a transitional halo mass, above which star formation is largely truncated, although we cannot exclude that ULIRGs reside within higher mass halos. By modeling the clustering evolution of halos, we connect our star forming galaxy samples to their local descendants. Most star forming galaxies at z < 1.0 are the progenitors of L < 2.5L* blue galaxies in the local universe, but star forming galaxies with the highest SFRs (L_TIR >10^11.7 Lsun) at 0.6<z<1.0 are the progenitors of early-type galaxies in denser group environments.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 797(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/797/2/125 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present CARMA 30 GHz Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations of five high-redshift ($z \gtrsim 1$), infrared-selected galaxy clusters discovered as part of the all-sky Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The SZ decrements measured toward these clusters demonstrate that the MaDCoWS selection is discovering evolved, massive galaxy clusters with hot intracluster gas. Using the SZ scaling relation calibrated with South Pole Telescope clusters at similar masses and redshifts, we find these MaDCoWS clusters have masses in the range $M_{200} \approx 2-6 \times 10^{14}$ $M_\odot$. Three of these are among the most massive clusters found to date at $z\gtrsim 1$, demonstrating that MaDCoWS is sensitive to the most massive clusters to at least $z = 1.3$. The added depth of the AllWISE data release will allow all-sky infrared cluster detection to $z \approx 1.5$ and beyond.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 806(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/26 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray cavities are key tracers of mechanical (or radio mode) heating arising from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in brightest cluster galaxies. We report on a survey for X-ray cavities in 83 massive, high-redshift (0.4<z<1.2) clusters of galaxies selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. Based on Chandra X-ray images, we find a total of 6 clusters having symmetric pairs of surface brightness depressions consistent with the picture of radio jets inflating X-ray cavities in the intracluster medium. The majority of these detections are of relatively low significance and require deeper follow-up data in order to be confirmed. Further, due to the limitations of Chandra at high redshift, this search misses small (<10 kpc), unresolved X-ray cavities at high (z>0.5) redshift. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the power generated by AGN feedback in brightest cluster galaxies has remained unchanged for over half of the age of the Universe (>7 Gyrs at z=0.8). On average, the detected X-ray cavities have powers of 0.8-5*10^45 erg/s, enthalpies of 3-6*10^59 erg, and radii of 17 kpc. Integrating over 7 Gyrs, we find that the supermassive black holes in the brightest cluster galaxies may have accreted 10^8 to several 10^9M_sun of material to power these outflows. This level of accretion indicates that significant supermassive black hole growth may occur not only at early times, in the quasar era, but at late times as well. We also find that X-ray cavities at high-redshift may inject an excess heat of 0.1-1.0 keV per particle into the hot intracluster medium above and beyond the energy needed to offset cooling. This value is similar to the energy needed to preheat clusters, break self-similarity, and explain the excess entropy in hot atmospheres.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 805(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/35 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg$^2$ of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of $\xi$ =4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the $\xi$>4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the $\xi$>5 candidates; the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts; we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above $z$~0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is $M_{\scriptsize 500c}(\rho_\mathrm{crit})$ ~ 3.5 x 10$^{14} M_\odot h^{-1}$, the median redshift is $z_{med}$ =0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at $z$>1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We use 95, 150, and 220GHz observations from the SPT to examine the SZE signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg^2 of the XMM-BCS. These systems extend to redshift z=1.02, have characteristic masses ~3x lower than clusters detected directly in the SPT data and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>10^42 erg s^-1) yet. We develop an analysis tool that combines the SZE information for the full ensemble of X-ray-selected clusters. Using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, we extract selection-bias corrected constraints on the SZE significance- and Y_500-mass relations. The SZE significance- mass relation is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high mass clusters. However, the fit to the Y_500-mass relation at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from high mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the constraints from the Planck sample. We examine the tension with the Planck relation, discussing sample differences and biases that could contribute. We also present an analysis of the radio galaxy point source population in this ensemble of X-ray selected systems. We find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz SUMSS sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8$\sigma$ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17+-9) per cent in this sample of low mass systems.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a velocity dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion ($\sigma_v$) and 16 X-ray Yx measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. The calibrations using $\sigma_v$ and Yx are consistent at the $0.6\sigma$ level, with the $\sigma_v$ calibration preferring ~16% higher masses. We use the full cluster dataset to measure $\sigma_8(\Omega_ m/0.27)^{0.3}=0.809\pm0.036$. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming the sum of the neutrino masses is $\sum m_\nu=0.06$ eV, we find the datasets to be consistent at the 1.0$\sigma$ level for WMAP9 and 1.5$\sigma$ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger $\sum m_\nu$ further reconciles the results. When we combine the cluster and Planck+WP datasets with BAO and SNIa, the preferred cluster masses are $1.9\sigma$ higher than the Yx calibration and $0.8\sigma$ higher than the $\sigma_v$ calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (~44% and ~23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness of fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe dataset, we measure $\Omega_ m=0.299\pm0.009$ and $\sigma_8=0.829\pm0.011$. Within a $\nu$CDM model we find $\sum m_\nu = 0.148\pm0.081$ eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate. Allowing both the growth index $\gamma$ and the dark energy equation of state parameter $w$ to vary, we find $\gamma=0.73\pm0.28$ and $w=-1.007\pm0.065$, demonstrating that the expansion and the growth histories are consistent with a LCDM model ($\gamma=0.55; \,w=-1$).
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 799(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/214 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 < z 3 in the 9 deg2 Boötes multiwavelength survey field that are selected using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera colors and are well-detected as luminous X-ray sources (with >150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to mid-IR color, and measure the neutral hydrogen column density N H through fitting of the X-ray spectra. We find that all subsets of quasars have consistent power law photon indices Γ 1.9 that are uncorrelated with N H. We classify the quasars as gas-absorbed or gas-unabsorbed if N H > 1022 cm–2 or N H < 1022 cm–2, respectively. Of 24 dust-unobscured quasars in the sample, only one shows clear evidence for significant intrinsic N H, while 22 have column densities consistent with N H < 1022 cm–2. In contrast, of the nine dust-obscured quasars, six show evidence for intrinsic gas absorption, and three are consistent with N H < 1022 cm–2. We conclude that dust extinction in IR-selected quasars is strongly correlated with significant gas absorption as determined through X-ray spectral fitting. These results suggest that obscuring gas and dust in quasars are generally co-spatial, and confirm the reliability of simple mid-IR and optical photometric techniques for separating quasars based on obscuration.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2014; 788(1):L3. DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/788/1/L3 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identify a strong lensing galaxy in the cluster IRC 0218 (also known as XMM-LSS J02182-05102) that is spectroscopically confirmed to be at $z=1.62$, making it the highest-redshift strong lens galaxy known. The lens is one of the two brightest cluster galaxies and lenses a background source galaxy into an arc and a counterimage. With Hubble Space Telescope grism and Keck/LRIS spectroscopy, we measure the source redshift to be $z_{\rm S}=2.26$. Using HST imaging in ACS/F475W, ACS/F814W, WFC3/F125W, and WFC3/F160W, we model the lens mass distribution with an elliptical power-law profile and account for the effects of the cluster halo and nearby galaxies. The Einstein radius is $\theta_{\rm E}=0.38^{+0.02}_{-0.01}$'' ($3.2_{-0.1}^{+0.2}$ kpc) and the total enclosed mass is M$_{\rm tot} (< \theta_{\rm E})=1.8^{+0.2}_{-0.1}\times10^{11} {\rm M}_{\odot}$. We estimate that the cluster environment contributes $\sim10$% of this total mass. Assuming a Chabrier IMF, the dark matter fraction within $\theta_{{\rm E}}$ is $f_{\rm DM}^{{\rm Chab}} = 0.3_{-0.3}^{+0.1}$, while a Salpeter IMF is marginally inconsistent with the enclosed mass ($f_{\rm DM}^{{\rm Salp}} = -0.3_{-0.5}^{+0.2}$). The total magnification of the source is $\mu_{\rm tot}=2.1_{-0.3}^{+0.4}$. The source has at least one bright compact region offset from the source center. Emission from Ly$\alpha$, [O II], and [O III] may also probe different regions in the source.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2014; 789(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/789/2/L31 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We present the results of an X-ray analysis of 80 galaxy clusters selected in the 2500 deg^2 South Pole Telescope survey and observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We divide the full sample into subsamples of ~20 clusters based on redshift and central density, performing an X-ray fit to all clusters in a subsample simultaneously, assuming self-similarity of the temperature profile. This approach allows us to constrain the shape of the temperature profile over 0<r<1.5R500, which would be impossible on a per-cluster basis, since the observations of individual clusters have, on average, 2000 X-ray counts. The results presented here represent the first constraints on the evolution of the average temperature profile from z=0 to z=1.2. We find that high-z (0.6<z<1.2) clusters are slightly (~40%) cooler both in the inner (r<0.1R500) and outer (r>R500) regions than their low-z (0.3<z<0.6) counterparts. Combining the average temperature profile with measured gas density profiles from our earlier work, we infer the average pressure and entropy profiles for each subsample. Overall, our observed pressure profiles agree well with earlier lower-redshift measurements, suggesting minimal redshift evolution in the pressure profile outside of the core. We find no measurable redshift evolution in the entropy profile at r<0.7R500. We observe a slight flattening of the entropy profile at r>R500 in our high-z subsample. This flattening is consistent with a temperature bias due to the enhanced (~3x) rate at which group-mass (~2 keV) halos, which would go undetected at our survey depth, are accreting onto the cluster at z~1. This work demonstrates a powerful method for inferring spatially-resolved cluster properties in the case where individual cluster signal-to-noise is low, but the number of observed clusters is high.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 794(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/67 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the clustering of high-redshift galaxies in the recently completed 94 deg$^2$ Spitzer-SPT Deep Field survey. Applying flux and color cuts to the mid-infrared photometry efficiently selects galaxies at $z\sim1.5$ in the stellar mass range $10^{10}-10^{11}M_\odot$, making this sample the largest used so far to study such a distant population. We measure the angular correlation function in different flux-limited samples at scales $>6^{\prime \prime}$ (corresponding to physical distances $>0.05$ Mpc) and thereby map the one- and two-halo contributions to the clustering. We fit halo occupation distributions and determine how the central galaxy's stellar mass and satellite occupation depend on the halo mass. We measure a prominent peak in the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at a halo mass of $\log(M_{\rm halo} / M_\odot) = 12.44\pm0.08$, 4.5 times higher than the $z=0$ value. This supports the idea of an evolving mass threshold above which star formation is quenched. We estimate the large-scale bias in the range $b_g=2-4$ and the satellite fraction to be $f_\mathrm{sat}\sim0.2$, showing a clear evolution compared to $z=0$. We also find that, above a given stellar mass limit, the fraction of galaxies that are in similar mass pairs is higher at $z=1.5$ than at $z=0$. In addition, we measure that this fraction mildly increases with the stellar mass limit at $z=1.5$, which is the opposite of the behavior seen at low-redshift.
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    ABSTRACT: We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at $z > 1.3$ selected from the 94 deg$^{2}$ Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates in SSDF adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Bo\"otes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three $1.4 < z \leq 1.75$ X-ray detected clusters in the Bo\"otes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE and XMM-Newton. This rich dataset will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density $n_c = (0.7^{+6.3}_{-0.6}) \times 10^{-7} h^{3} \mathrm{Mpc}^{-3}$ and a spatial clustering correlation scale length $r_0 = (32 \pm 7) h^{-1} \rm{Mpc}$. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, $M_{{\rm min}}$, we derive that at $z=1.5$ these clusters reside in halos larger than $M_{{\rm min}} = 1.5^{+0.9}_{-0.7} \times 10^{14} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$. (abridged)

Publication Stats

5k Citations
883.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012–2014
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Department of Physics
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      • Center for Cosmology and Astoparticle Physics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Chicago
      • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006–2012
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2001–2008
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Monash Centre for Astrophysics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia