N. Elias-Rosa

Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (184)512.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this Letter we present an optical spectrum of SN 2011fe taken 1034 d after the explosion, several hundred days later than any other spectrum of a Type Ia supernova (disregarding light-echo spectra and Local Group remnants). The spectrum is still dominated by broad emission features, with no trace of a light echo or interaction of the supernova ejecta with surrounding interstellar material. Comparing this extremely late spectrum to an earlier one taken 331 d after the explosion, we find that the most prominent feature at 331 d - [Fe III] emission around 4700 Å - has entirely faded away, suggesting a significant change in the ionization state. Instead, [Fe II] lines are probably responsible for most of the emission at 1034 d. An emission feature at 6300-6400 Å has newly developed at 1034 d, which we tentatively identify with Fe I λ6359, [Fe I] λλ6231, 6394 or [O I] λλ6300, 6364. Interestingly, the features in the 1034 d spectrum seem to be collectively redshifted, a phenomenon that we currently have no convincing explanation for. We discuss the implications of our findings for explosion models, but conclude that sophisticated spectral modelling is required for any firm statement.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 12/2015; 448(1):L48-L52. DOI:10.1093/mnrasl/slu201 · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: H-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) are a rare and poorly understood class of explosion. We assemble the largest sample (24) of such objects to date, with griz light curves and optical spectra. We parameterize the light curve through rise and decline timescales, finding that these are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline driven by the diffusion timescale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise-decline relation, but for only a narrow density range, which may be problematic for these models. We see a similar correlation in normal SNe Ibc (powered by 56Ni), though SLSNe rise and decline more slowly, and their peak luminosity requires an additional energy source. We find that SLSN light curves are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and 3 times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. Some SLSNe (2007bi-like) have very broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not distinguish separate populations in our sample. The spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from the Fe II 5169 line are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ic, suggesting that the difference in diffusion time is dominated by the ejected mass. If the opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, then the average ejected mass in SLSNe is higher by more than a factor of two. Assuming kappa = 0.1 cm2/g, we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of ~10 Msun (6 Msun), with a range of ~3-30 Msun, though doubling the opacity would bring the mass estimates in line with other SNe Ibc. The velocities of many SLSNe are constant, indicating a dense shell of ejecta. We conclude that the most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe is the explosion of a star similar to, but more massive than, a typical SN Ic progenitor, powered by an engine such as a magnetar.
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterise the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely $^{56}$Co-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow ($\lesssim$2000 km~s$^{-1}$) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe~{\sc ii}] $\lambda$7155 and [O~{\sc i}] $\lambda\lambda$6300,6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km~s$^{-1}$. The lines are not blue-shifted, and we see no significant near- or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 days after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar Type Ibn supernova (SN Ibn) OGLE-2012-SN-006, discovered and monitored by the OGLE-IV survey, and spectroscopically followed by PESSTO at late phases. Stringent pre-discovery limits constrain the explosion epoch with fair precision to JD = 2456203.8 +- 4.0. The rise time to the I-band light curve maximum is about two weeks. The object reaches the peak absolute magnitude M(I) = -19.65 +- 0.19 on JD = 2456218.1 +- 1.8. After maximum, the light curve declines for about 25 days with a rate of 4 mag per 100d. The symmetric I-band peak resembles that of canonical Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe), whereas SNe Ibn usually exhibit asymmetric and narrower early-time light curves. Since 25 days past maximum, the light curve flattens with a decline rate slower than that of the 56Co to 56Fe decay, although at very late phases it steepens to approach that rate. An early-time spectrum is dominated by a blue continuum, with only a marginal evidence for the presence of He I lines marking this SN Type. This spectrum shows broad absorptions bluewards than 5000A, likely O II lines, which are similar to spectral features observed in super-luminous SNe at early epochs. The object has been spectroscopically monitored by PESSTO from 90 to 180 days after peak, and these spectra show the typical features observed in a number of SN 2006jc-like events, including a blue spectral energy distribution and prominent and narrow (v(FWHM) ~ 1900 km/s) He I emission lines. This suggests that the ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The detection of broad (10000 km/s) O I and Ca II features likely produced in the SN ejecta (including the [O I] 6300A,6364A doublet in the latest spectra) lends support to the interpretation of OGLE-2012-SN-006 as a core-collapse event.
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw discovered by the La Silla-QUEST survey. LSQ12btw reaches an absolute peak magnitude of M(g) = -19.3 +- 0.2, and shows an asymmetric light curve. Stringent prediscovery limits constrain its rise time to maximum light to less than 4 days, with a slower post-peak luminosity decline, similar to that experienced by the prototypical SN~Ibn 2006jc. LSQ13ccw is somewhat different: while it also exhibits a very fast rise to maximum, it reaches a fainter absolute peak magnitude (M(g) = -18.4 +- 0.2), and experiences an extremely rapid post-peak decline similar to that observed in the peculiar SN~Ib 2002bj. A stringent prediscovery limit and an early marginal detection of LSQ13ccw allow us to determine the explosion time with an uncertainty of 1 day. The spectra of LSQ12btw show the typical narrow He~I emission lines characterising Type Ibn SNe, suggesting that the SN ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The He I lines in the spectra of LSQ13ccw exhibit weak narrow emissions superposed on broad components. An unresolved Halpha line is also detected, suggesting a tentative Type Ibn/IIn classification. As for other SNe~Ibn, we argue that LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw likely result from the explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars that experienced instability phases prior to core collapse. We inspect the host galaxies of SNe Ibn, and we show that all of them but one are hosted in spiral galaxies, likely in environments spanning a wide metallicity range.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the spectroscopic observation of CSS150213:100134+453359 in SDSS J100134.51+453339.9. The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm), equipped with the CCD Andor IKON L936. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ATel.7120....1E
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    ABSTRACT: In this letter we present an optical spectrum of SN 2011fe taken 1034 d after the explosion, several hundred days later than any other spectrum of a Type Ia supernova before (disregarding light-echo spectra and local-group remnants). The spectrum is still dominated by broad emission features, with no trace of a light echo or interaction of the supernova ejecta with surrounding material. Comparing this extremely late spectrum to an earlier one taken 331 d after the explosion, we find that the most prominent feature at 331 d - an [Fe III] emission around 4700 {\AA} - has entirely faded away, suggesting a significant change in the ionisation state. Instead, [Fe II] lines are probably responsible for most of the emission at 1034 d. An emission feature at 6300-6400 {\AA} has newly developed at 1034 d, which we tentatively identify with Fe I {\lambda}6359, [Fe I] {\lambda}{\lambda}6231, 6394 or [O I] {\lambda}{\lambda}6300, 6364. Interestingly, the features in the 1034-d spectrum seem to be collectively redshifted, a phenomenon that we currently have no good explanation for. We discuss the implications of our findings for explosion models, but conclude that sophisticated spectral modelling is required for any firm statement.
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    ABSTRACT: The Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) began as a public spectroscopic survey in April 2012. We describe the data reduction strategy and data products which are publicly available through the ESO archive as the Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 1 (SSDR1). PESSTO uses the New Technology Telescope with EFOSC2 and SOFI to provide optical and NIR spectroscopy and imaging. We target supernovae and optical transients brighter than 20.5mag for classification. Science targets are then selected for follow-up based on the PESSTO science goal of extending knowledge of the extremes of the supernova population. The EFOSC2 spectra cover 3345-9995A (at resolutions of 13-18 Angs) and SOFI spectra cover 0.935-2.53 micron (resolutions 23-33 Angs) along with JHK imaging. This data release contains spectra from the first year (April 2012 - 2013), consisting of all 814 EFOSC2 spectra and 95 SOFI spectra (covering 298 distinct objects), in standard ESO Phase 3 format. We estimate the accuracy of the absolute flux calibrations for EFOSC2 to be typically 15%, and the relative flux calibration accuracy to be about 5%. The PESSTO standard NIR reduction process does not yet produce high accuracy absolute spectrophotometry but the SOFI JHK imaging will improve this. Future data releases will focus on improving the automated flux calibration of the data products.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L= 0.9 times 10 to 42 (erg s to -1) and duration ~90 days; which is shorter than standard Type IIP supernovae. We estimate the nickel mass M(56Ni)= 0.040 pm 0.015 Msun from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predications from a hydrodynamical model. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 Msun, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 times 10 to 13 (cm) and explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M=14-22 Msun was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two other type IIP supernovae (SNe 2012aw and 2012A), and carried out a comparison with the properties of SN 2012ec derived in this paper. We find a reasonable agreement between the masses of progenitor obtained from pre-explosion images and the masses derived from hydrodynamical models. We estimate distances to SN 2012ec with Standardized Candle Method (SCM) and compare with other estimates based on other primary and secondary indicators. SNe 2012A, 2012aw and 2012ec all follow the standard relations for SCM for the use of Type IIP SNe as distance indicators.
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    ABSTRACT: We present observational data for a peculiar supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV survey and followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects. The inferred redshift of z=0.07 implies an absolute magnitude in the rest-frame I-band of M$_{I}\sim-17.6$ mag. This places it in the luminosity range between normal Type Ia SNe and novae. Optical and near infrared spectroscopy reveal mostly Ti and Ca lines, and an unusually red color arising from strong depression of flux at rest wavelengths <5000 \AA. To date, this is the only reported SN showing Ti-dominated spectra. Our multi band and bolometric lightcurves, as well as the spectral evolution, are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of models for the pure detonation of a helium shell around a low-mass CO white dwarf and "double-detonation" models that include a secondary detonation of a CO core following a primary detonation in an overlying helium shell.
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    ABSTRACT: Super-luminous supernovae of type Ic have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. PTF12dam is one of the closest and best studied super-luminous explosions that has a broad and slowly fading lightcurve similar to SN 2007bi. These events have been previously proposed to be pair-instability explosions of very massive stars in metal poor, dwarf galaxies. An alternative explanation is that they are powered by spinning down magnetars and this model fits the published data well. Here we present new photometry and spectroscopy for PTF12dam from 200-500 days (rest-frame) after peak and a detailed analysis of the host galaxy (SDSS J142446.21+461348.6 at z = 0.107). Using deep templates and image subtraction we show that the full lightcurve can be fit with a magnetar model if escape of high-energy gamma rays is taken into account. The full bolometric lightcurve from -53 to +399 days (with respect to peak) cannot be fit satisfactorily with the pair-instability models. An alternative model of interaction with a dense CSM produces a good fit to the data although the physical configuration of the progenitor system is somewhat contrived. The host galaxy is a compact dwarf (M_g = -19.30 +/- 0.10), low mass system (2.8 x 10^8 M_sun) with a high star-formation rate (5.0 M_sun/year). The remarkably strong nebular lines provide detections of the [O III] \lambda 4363 and [O II] \lambda\lambda 7320,7330 auroral lines and an accurate oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.04 +\- 0.09. This adds weight to previous results that the hosts of type Ic super-luminous supernovae are all metal poor, low mass, high star-formation rate galaxies. We show here that they are at the extreme end of the metallicity distribution of dwarf galaxies and propose that low metallicity is a requirement to produce these rare and peculiar supernovae.
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    ABSTRACT: Optical observations of the type IIb SN 2013df from a few days to about 250 days after explosion are presented. These observations are complemented with UV photometry taken by \textit{SWIFT} up to 60 days post-explosion. The double-peak optical light curve is similar to those of SNe 1993J and 2011fu although with different decline and rise rates. From the modelling of the bolometric light curve, we have estimated that the total mass of synthesised $^{56}$Ni in the explosion is $\sim0.1$ M$_{\odot}$, while the ejecta mass is $0.8-1.4$ M$_{\odot}$ and the explosion energy $0.4-1.2 \times 10^{51}$erg. In addition, we have estimated a lower limit to the progenitor radius ranging from $64-169$ $R_{\odot}$. The spectral evolution indicates that SN 2013df had a hydrogen envelope similar to SN 1993J ($\sim 0.2$ M$_{\odot}$). The line profiles in nebular spectra suggest that the explosion was asymmetric with the presence of clumps in the ejecta, while the [O\,{\sc i}] $\lambda$$\lambda$$6300$, $6364$ luminosities, may indicate that the progenitor of SN 2013df was a relatively low mass star ( $\sim 12-13 $ M$_{\odot}$).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 445(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1837 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy as well as modelling of the lightcurves of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh. Our extensive dataset spans 2 years, and complemented with Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data, we use it to build a 3-732 days optical to MIR bolometric lightcurve. To model the <400 days bolometric lightcurve we use a hydrodynamical model grid and a bolometric correction determined with steady-state NLTE modelling. We obtain similar results using the <100 days and <400 days bolometric lightcurves, and using the latter we find a helium core mass of 3.1 (+0.7-0.4) solar masses for SN 2011dh. We present 100-500 days bolometric and photometric lightcurves for the Jerkstrand et al. (2014) steady-state NLTE models, and the preferred 12 solar masses (initial mass) model shows a good overall agreement with the observed lightcurves. We find an excess in the K and the MIR bands developing between 100 and 250 days, during which an increase in the optical decline rate is also observed. A local origin of the excess is suggested by the depth of the HeI 2.058 micron absorption. Steady-state NLTE models with a modest dust opacity in the core, turned on during this period, reproduce the observed behaviour, but an additional excess in the Spitzer 4.5 micron band remains. Assuming this excess to be caused by CO fundamental band emission is consistent with the CO first overtone band emission detected at 206 days, and possibly at 89 days. We also extend our analysis to SNe 1993J and 2008ax, and the initial masses of ~15 solar masses found for SNe 2011dh, 1993J and 2008ax, by hydrodynamical modelling and steady-state NLTE modelling of nebular spectra (Jerkstrand et al. 2014), suggest that all of these Type IIb SNe originates from binary systems, as previously established for SN 1993J.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of the photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the transient SN 2007sv. The observables are similar to those of type IIn supernovae, a well-known class of objects whose ejecta interact with pre-existing circum-stellar material. The spectra show a blue continuum at early phases and prominent Balmer lines in emission, however, the absolute magnitude at the discovery of SN 2007sv (M_R = - 14.25 +/- 0.38) indicate it to be most likely a supernova impostor. This classification is also supported by the lack of evidence in the spectra of very high velocity material as expected in supernova ejecta. In addition we find no unequivocal evidence of broad lines of alpha - and/or Fe-peak elements. The comparison with the absolute light curves of other interacting objects (including type IIn supernovae) highlights the overall similarity with the prototypical impostor SN 1997bs. This supports our conclusion that SN 2007sv was not a genuine supernova, and was instead a supernova impostor, most likely similar to the major eruption of a luminous blue variable.
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical spectra and light curves for three hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). Time series spectroscopy from a few days after maximum light to 100 days later shows them to be fairly typical of this class, with spectra dominated by Ca II, Mg II, Fe II and Si II, which evolve slowly over most of the post-peak photospheric phase. We determine bolometric light curves and apply simple fitting tools, based on the diffusion of energy input by magnetar spin-down, \Ni decay, and collision of the ejecta with an opaque circumstellar shell. We investigate how the heterogeneous light curves of our sample (combined with others from the literature) can help to constrain the possible mechanisms behind these events. We have followed these events to beyond 100-200 days after peak, to disentangle host galaxy light from fading supernova flux and to differentiate between the models, which predict diverse behaviour at this phase. Models powered by radioactivity require unrealistic parameters to reproduce the observed light curves, as found by previous studies. Both magnetar heating and circumstellar interaction still appear to be viable candidates. A large diversity in the luminosity in the tail phases is emerging with magnetar models failing in some cases to predict the rapid drop in flux. This would suggest either that magnetars are not responsible, or that the X-ray flux from the magnetar wind is not fully trapped. The light curve of one object shows a distinct re-brightening at around 100d after maximum light. We argue that this could result either from multiple shells of circumstellar material, or from a magnetar ionisation front breaking out of the ejecta.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; 444(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1579 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the type IIP supernova SN 2012aw. The dataset densely covers the evolution of SN 2012aw shortly after the explosion up to the end of the photospheric phase, with two additional photometric observations collected during the nebular phase, to fit the radioactive tail and estimate the $^{56}$Ni mass. Also included in our analysis is the already published \textit{Swift} UV data, therefore providing a complete view of the ultraviolet-optical-infrared evolution of the photospheric phase. On the basis of our dataset, we estimate all the relevant physical parameters of SN 2012aw with our radiation-hydrodynamics code: envelope mass $M_{env} \sim 20 M_\odot$, progenitor radius $R \sim 3 \times 10^{13}$ cm ($ \sim 430 R_\odot$), explosion energy $E \sim 1.5$ foe, and initial $^{56}$Ni mass $\sim 0.06$ $M_\odot$. These mass and radius values are reasonably well supported by independent evolutionary models of the progenitor, and may suggest a progenitor mass higher than the observational limit of $16.5 \pm 1.5 M_\odot$ of the Type IIP events.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 787(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/787/2/139 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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Publication Stats

2k Citations
512.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Institut de Ciències de l'Espai
      Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006–2015
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2013
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2010–2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2009–2010
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Physics
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2006–2007
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain