N. Elias-Rosa

Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (189)519.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this Letter we present an optical spectrum of SN 2011fe taken 1034 d after the explosion, several hundred days later than any other spectrum of a Type Ia supernova (disregarding light-echo spectra and Local Group remnants). The spectrum is still dominated by broad emission features, with no trace of a light echo or interaction of the supernova ejecta with surrounding interstellar material. Comparing this extremely late spectrum to an earlier one taken 331 d after the explosion, we find that the most prominent feature at 331 d - [Fe III] emission around 4700 Å - has entirely faded away, suggesting a significant change in the ionization state. Instead, [Fe II] lines are probably responsible for most of the emission at 1034 d. An emission feature at 6300-6400 Å has newly developed at 1034 d, which we tentatively identify with Fe I λ6359, [Fe I] λλ6231, 6394 or [O I] λλ6300, 6364. Interestingly, the features in the 1034 d spectrum seem to be collectively redshifted, a phenomenon that we currently have no convincing explanation for. We discuss the implications of our findings for explosion models, but conclude that sophisticated spectral modelling is required for any firm statement.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 12/2015; 448(1):L48-L52. DOI:10.1093/mnrasl/slu201 · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectroscopic and photometric data of the peculiar SN 2001gh, discovered by the 'Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search' (STRESS) at a redshift z=0.16. SN 2001gh has relatively high luminosity at maximum (M_B = -18.55 mag), while the light curve shows a broad peak. An early-time spectrum shows an almost featureless, blue continuum with a few weak and shallow P-Cygni lines that we attribute to HeI. HeI lines remain the only spectral features visible in a subsequent spectrum, obtained one month later. A remarkable property of SN 2001gh is the lack of significant spectral evolution over the temporal window of nearly one month separating the two spectra. In order to explain the properties of SN 2001gh, three powering mechanism are explored, including radioactive decays of a moderately large amount of 56Ni, magnetar spin-down, and interaction of SN ejecta with circumstellar medium. We favour the latter scenario, with a SN Ib wrapped in a dense, circumstellar shell. The fact that no models provide an excellent fit with observations, confirms the troublesome interpretation of the nature of SN 2001gh. A rate estimate for SN 2001gh-like event is also provided, confirming the intrinsic rarity of these objects.
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data spans 140 days after discovery including $BVRIu'g'r'i'z'$ photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow H$\alpha$ emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. Firstly, the light curve shows a double plateau; a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Secondly, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity ($M_{V}=-15.72$), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Thirdly, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change of line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P-Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. While we favour an impostor origin for SN 2011A, we highlight the difficulty in differentiating between terminal and non-terminal interacting transients.
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    ABSTRACT: We present data for LSQ14bdq, a hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the La Silla QUEST survey and classified by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. The spectrum and light curve are very similar to slow-declining SLSNe such as PTF12dam. However, detections within $\sim1$ day after explosion show a bright and relatively fast initial peak, lasting for $\sim15$ days, prior to the usual slow rise to maximum light. The broader, main peak can be fit with either central engine or circumstellar interaction models. We discuss the implications of the precursor peak in the context of these models. It is too bright and narrow to be explained as a normal \Ni-powered SN, and we suggest that interaction models may struggle to fit the precursor and main peak simultaneously. We propose that the initial peak is from the post-shock cooling of an extended stellar envelope, and reheating by a central engine drives the second peak. In this picture, we show that an explosion energy of $\sim2\times10^{52}$\,erg and a progenitor radius of a few hundred solar radii are required to power the early emission. The two competing engine models involve rapidly spinning magnetars (neutron stars) or fall-back accretion onto a central black hole. The prompt energy required may favour the black hole scenario. The remarkably bright initial peak effectively rules out a compact Wolf-Rayet star as a progenitor, since the inferred energies and ejected masses become unphysical.
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2009ib, a Type II-P supernova in NGC 1559. This object has moderate brightness, similar to those of the intermediate-luminosity SNe 2008in and 2009N. Its plateau phase is unusually long, lasting for about 130 d after explosion. The spectra are similar to those of the subluminous SN 2002gd, with moderate expansion velocities. We estimate the 56Ni mass produced as 0.046 ± 0.015 M⊙. We determine the distance to SN 2009ib using both the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standard candle method. We also apply EPM to SN 1986L, a Type II-P SN that exploded in the same galaxy. Combining the results of different methods, we conclude the distance to NGC 1559 as D = 19.8 ± 3.0 Mpc. We examine archival, pre-explosion images of the field taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and find a faint source at the position of the SN, which has a yellow colour [(V − I)0 = 0.85 mag]. Assuming it is a single star, we estimate its initial mass as MZAMS = 20 M⊙. We also examine the possibility, that instead of the yellow source the progenitor of SN 2009ib is a red supergiant star too faint to be detected. In this case, we estimate the upper limit for the initial zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass of the progenitor to be ∼14–17 M⊙. In addition, we infer the physical properties of the progenitor at the explosion via hydrodynamical modelling of the observables, and estimate the total energy as ∼0.55 × 1051 erg, the pre-explosion radius as ∼400 R⊙, and the ejected envelope mass as ∼15 M⊙, which implies that the mass of the progenitor before explosion was ∼16.5–17 M⊙.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2015; 450(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv857 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type~Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera~3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and near-infrared data provide complementary information. The combined data-set covers the wavelength range $0.2$--$2~\mu$m. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to $E(B-V)=1.4~$mag. We study the wavelength dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterised by the total-to-selective extinction $R_V$. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with $E(B-V)\gtrsim1~$mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find $R_V=1.4\pm0.1$ and $R_V=2.8\pm0.1$. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted $R_V$ by $\sim50\,$% allowing us to also measure $R_V$ of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe~Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the universe.
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    ABSTRACT: H-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) are a rare and poorly understood class of explosion. We assemble the largest sample (24) of such objects to date, with griz light curves and optical spectra. We parameterize the light curve through rise and decline timescales, finding that these are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline driven by the diffusion timescale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise-decline relation, but for only a narrow density range, which may be problematic for these models. We see a similar correlation in normal SNe Ibc (powered by 56Ni), though SLSNe rise and decline more slowly, and their peak luminosity requires an additional energy source. We find that SLSN light curves are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and 3 times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. Some SLSNe (2007bi-like) have very broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not distinguish separate populations in our sample. The spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from the Fe II 5169 line are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ic, suggesting that the difference in diffusion time is dominated by the ejected mass. If the opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, then the average ejected mass in SLSNe is higher by more than a factor of two. Assuming kappa = 0.1 cm2/g, we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of ~10 Msun (6 Msun), with a range of ~3-30 Msun, though doubling the opacity would bring the mass estimates in line with other SNe Ibc. The velocities of many SLSNe are constant, indicating a dense shell of ejecta. We conclude that the most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe is the explosion of a star similar to, but more massive than, a typical SN Ic progenitor, powered by an engine such as a magnetar.
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterise the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely $^{56}$Co-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow ($\lesssim$2000 km~s$^{-1}$) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe~{\sc ii}] $\lambda$7155 and [O~{\sc i}] $\lambda\lambda$6300,6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km~s$^{-1}$. The lines are not blue-shifted, and we see no significant near- or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 days after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar Type Ibn supernova (SN Ibn) OGLE-2012-SN-006, discovered and monitored by the OGLE-IV survey, and spectroscopically followed by PESSTO at late phases. Stringent pre-discovery limits constrain the explosion epoch with fair precision to JD = 2456203.8 +- 4.0. The rise time to the I-band light curve maximum is about two weeks. The object reaches the peak absolute magnitude M(I) = -19.65 +- 0.19 on JD = 2456218.1 +- 1.8. After maximum, the light curve declines for about 25 days with a rate of 4 mag per 100d. The symmetric I-band peak resembles that of canonical Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe), whereas SNe Ibn usually exhibit asymmetric and narrower early-time light curves. Since 25 days past maximum, the light curve flattens with a decline rate slower than that of the 56Co to 56Fe decay, although at very late phases it steepens to approach that rate. An early-time spectrum is dominated by a blue continuum, with only a marginal evidence for the presence of He I lines marking this SN Type. This spectrum shows broad absorptions bluewards than 5000A, likely O II lines, which are similar to spectral features observed in super-luminous SNe at early epochs. The object has been spectroscopically monitored by PESSTO from 90 to 180 days after peak, and these spectra show the typical features observed in a number of SN 2006jc-like events, including a blue spectral energy distribution and prominent and narrow (v(FWHM) ~ 1900 km/s) He I emission lines. This suggests that the ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The detection of broad (10000 km/s) O I and Ca II features likely produced in the SN ejecta (including the [O I] 6300A,6364A doublet in the latest spectra) lends support to the interpretation of OGLE-2012-SN-006 as a core-collapse event.
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw discovered by the La Silla-QUEST survey. LSQ12btw reaches an absolute peak magnitude of M(g) = -19.3 +- 0.2, and shows an asymmetric light curve. Stringent prediscovery limits constrain its rise time to maximum light to less than 4 days, with a slower post-peak luminosity decline, similar to that experienced by the prototypical SN~Ibn 2006jc. LSQ13ccw is somewhat different: while it also exhibits a very fast rise to maximum, it reaches a fainter absolute peak magnitude (M(g) = -18.4 +- 0.2), and experiences an extremely rapid post-peak decline similar to that observed in the peculiar SN~Ib 2002bj. A stringent prediscovery limit and an early marginal detection of LSQ13ccw allow us to determine the explosion time with an uncertainty of 1 day. The spectra of LSQ12btw show the typical narrow He~I emission lines characterising Type Ibn SNe, suggesting that the SN ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The He I lines in the spectra of LSQ13ccw exhibit weak narrow emissions superposed on broad components. An unresolved Halpha line is also detected, suggesting a tentative Type Ibn/IIn classification. As for other SNe~Ibn, we argue that LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw likely result from the explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars that experienced instability phases prior to core collapse. We inspect the host galaxies of SNe Ibn, and we show that all of them but one are hosted in spiral galaxies, likely in environments spanning a wide metallicity range.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the spectroscopic observation of CSS150213:100134+453359 in SDSS J100134.51+453339.9. The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm), equipped with the CCD Andor IKON L936. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ATel.7120....1E
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    ABSTRACT: In this letter we present an optical spectrum of SN 2011fe taken 1034 d after the explosion, several hundred days later than any other spectrum of a Type Ia supernova before (disregarding light-echo spectra and local-group remnants). The spectrum is still dominated by broad emission features, with no trace of a light echo or interaction of the supernova ejecta with surrounding material. Comparing this extremely late spectrum to an earlier one taken 331 d after the explosion, we find that the most prominent feature at 331 d - an [Fe III] emission around 4700 {\AA} - has entirely faded away, suggesting a significant change in the ionisation state. Instead, [Fe II] lines are probably responsible for most of the emission at 1034 d. An emission feature at 6300-6400 {\AA} has newly developed at 1034 d, which we tentatively identify with Fe I {\lambda}6359, [Fe I] {\lambda}{\lambda}6231, 6394 or [O I] {\lambda}{\lambda}6300, 6364. Interestingly, the features in the 1034-d spectrum seem to be collectively redshifted, a phenomenon that we currently have no good explanation for. We discuss the implications of our findings for explosion models, but conclude that sophisticated spectral modelling is required for any firm statement.
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    ABSTRACT: The Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) began as a public spectroscopic survey in April 2012. We describe the data reduction strategy and data products which are publicly available through the ESO archive as the Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 1 (SSDR1). PESSTO uses the New Technology Telescope with EFOSC2 and SOFI to provide optical and NIR spectroscopy and imaging. We target supernovae and optical transients brighter than 20.5mag for classification. Science targets are then selected for follow-up based on the PESSTO science goal of extending knowledge of the extremes of the supernova population. The EFOSC2 spectra cover 3345-9995A (at resolutions of 13-18 Angs) and SOFI spectra cover 0.935-2.53 micron (resolutions 23-33 Angs) along with JHK imaging. This data release contains spectra from the first year (April 2012 - 2013), consisting of all 814 EFOSC2 spectra and 95 SOFI spectra (covering 298 distinct objects), in standard ESO Phase 3 format. We estimate the accuracy of the absolute flux calibrations for EFOSC2 to be typically 15%, and the relative flux calibration accuracy to be about 5%. The PESSTO standard NIR reduction process does not yet produce high accuracy absolute spectrophotometry but the SOFI JHK imaging will improve this. Future data releases will focus on improving the automated flux calibration of the data products.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L= 0.9 times 10 to 42 (erg s to -1) and duration ~90 days; which is shorter than standard Type IIP supernovae. We estimate the nickel mass M(56Ni)= 0.040 pm 0.015 Msun from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predications from a hydrodynamical model. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 Msun, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 times 10 to 13 (cm) and explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M=14-22 Msun was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two other type IIP supernovae (SNe 2012aw and 2012A), and carried out a comparison with the properties of SN 2012ec derived in this paper. We find a reasonable agreement between the masses of progenitor obtained from pre-explosion images and the masses derived from hydrodynamical models. We estimate distances to SN 2012ec with Standardized Candle Method (SCM) and compare with other estimates based on other primary and secondary indicators. SNe 2012A, 2012aw and 2012ec all follow the standard relations for SCM for the use of Type IIP SNe as distance indicators.
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    ABSTRACT: We present observational data for a peculiar supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV survey and followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects. The inferred redshift of z=0.07 implies an absolute magnitude in the rest-frame I-band of M$_{I}\sim-17.6$ mag. This places it in the luminosity range between normal Type Ia SNe and novae. Optical and near infrared spectroscopy reveal mostly Ti and Ca lines, and an unusually red color arising from strong depression of flux at rest wavelengths <5000 \AA. To date, this is the only reported SN showing Ti-dominated spectra. Our multi band and bolometric lightcurves, as well as the spectral evolution, are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of models for the pure detonation of a helium shell around a low-mass CO white dwarf and "double-detonation" models that include a secondary detonation of a CO core following a primary detonation in an overlying helium shell.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the compilation of the first 221 supernovae classified during the Asiago Classification Program (ACP). The details of transients classification and the preliminarily reduced spectra, in fits format, are immediately posted on the Padova-Asiago SN group web site. The achieved performances for the first 2 years of the ACP are analysed, showing that half of all our classifications were made within 5 days from transient detection. The distribution of the supernova types of this sample resembles the distribution of the general list of all the supernovae listed in the Asiago SN catalog (ASNC, Barbon et al. 1999). Finally, we use our sub-sample of 78 core-collapse supernovae, for which we retrieve the host-galaxy morphology and r-band absolute magnitudes, to study the observed subtype distribution in dwarf compared to giant galaxies. This ongoing program will give its contribution to the classification of the large number of transients that will be soon delivered by the Gaia mission.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 10/2014; 335(8). DOI:10.1002/asna.201412068 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Super-luminous supernovae of type Ic have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. PTF12dam is one of the closest and best studied super-luminous explosions that has a broad and slowly fading lightcurve similar to SN 2007bi. These events have been previously proposed to be pair-instability explosions of very massive stars in metal poor, dwarf galaxies. An alternative explanation is that they are powered by spinning down magnetars and this model fits the published data well. Here we present new photometry and spectroscopy for PTF12dam from 200-500 days (rest-frame) after peak and a detailed analysis of the host galaxy (SDSS J142446.21+461348.6 at z = 0.107). Using deep templates and image subtraction we show that the full lightcurve can be fit with a magnetar model if escape of high-energy gamma rays is taken into account. The full bolometric lightcurve from -53 to +399 days (with respect to peak) cannot be fit satisfactorily with the pair-instability models. An alternative model of interaction with a dense CSM produces a good fit to the data although the physical configuration of the progenitor system is somewhat contrived. The host galaxy is a compact dwarf (M_g = -19.30 +/- 0.10), low mass system (2.8 x 10^8 M_sun) with a high star-formation rate (5.0 M_sun/year). The remarkably strong nebular lines provide detections of the [O III] \lambda 4363 and [O II] \lambda\lambda 7320,7330 auroral lines and an accurate oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.04 +\- 0.09. This adds weight to previous results that the hosts of type Ic super-luminous supernovae are all metal poor, low mass, high star-formation rate galaxies. We show here that they are at the extreme end of the metallicity distribution of dwarf galaxies and propose that low metallicity is a requirement to produce these rare and peculiar supernovae.
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    ABSTRACT: Optical observations of the type IIb SN 2013df from a few days to about 250 days after explosion are presented. These observations are complemented with UV photometry taken by \textit{SWIFT} up to 60 days post-explosion. The double-peak optical light curve is similar to those of SNe 1993J and 2011fu although with different decline and rise rates. From the modelling of the bolometric light curve, we have estimated that the total mass of synthesised $^{56}$Ni in the explosion is $\sim0.1$ M$_{\odot}$, while the ejecta mass is $0.8-1.4$ M$_{\odot}$ and the explosion energy $0.4-1.2 \times 10^{51}$erg. In addition, we have estimated a lower limit to the progenitor radius ranging from $64-169$ $R_{\odot}$. The spectral evolution indicates that SN 2013df had a hydrogen envelope similar to SN 1993J ($\sim 0.2$ M$_{\odot}$). The line profiles in nebular spectra suggest that the explosion was asymmetric with the presence of clumps in the ejecta, while the [O\,{\sc i}] $\lambda$$\lambda$$6300$, $6364$ luminosities, may indicate that the progenitor of SN 2013df was a relatively low mass star ( $\sim 12-13 $ M$_{\odot}$).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 445(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1837 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy as well as modelling of the lightcurves of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh. Our extensive dataset spans 2 years, and complemented with Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data, we use it to build a 3-732 days optical to MIR bolometric lightcurve. To model the <400 days bolometric lightcurve we use a hydrodynamical model grid and a bolometric correction determined with steady-state NLTE modelling. We obtain similar results using the <100 days and <400 days bolometric lightcurves, and using the latter we find a helium core mass of 3.1 (+0.7-0.4) solar masses for SN 2011dh. We present 100-500 days bolometric and photometric lightcurves for the Jerkstrand et al. (2014) steady-state NLTE models, and the preferred 12 solar masses (initial mass) model shows a good overall agreement with the observed lightcurves. We find an excess in the K and the MIR bands developing between 100 and 250 days, during which an increase in the optical decline rate is also observed. A local origin of the excess is suggested by the depth of the HeI 2.058 micron absorption. Steady-state NLTE models with a modest dust opacity in the core, turned on during this period, reproduce the observed behaviour, but an additional excess in the Spitzer 4.5 micron band remains. Assuming this excess to be caused by CO fundamental band emission is consistent with the CO first overtone band emission detected at 206 days, and possibly at 89 days. We also extend our analysis to SNe 1993J and 2008ax, and the initial masses of ~15 solar masses found for SNe 2011dh, 1993J and 2008ax, by hydrodynamical modelling and steady-state NLTE modelling of nebular spectra (Jerkstrand et al. 2014), suggest that all of these Type IIb SNe originates from binary systems, as previously established for SN 1993J.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
519.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Institut de Ciències de l'Espai
      Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006–2015
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2013
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2010–2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2009–2010
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Physics
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2006–2008
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain