ABSTRACT: Propofol reduces neuronal damage from cerebral ischemia when investigated for less than 8 postischemic days. This study investigates the long-term effects of propofol on neuronal damage and apoptosis-related proteins after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned as follows: group 1 (n = 32, control): fentanyl and nitrous oxide-oxygen; group 2 (n = 32, propofol): propofol and oxygen-air. Ischemia (45 min) was induced by carotid artery occlusion and hemorrhagic hypotension. Pericranial temperature and arterial blood gases were maintained constant. After 1, 3, 7, and 28 postischemic days, brains were removed, frozen, and sliced. Hippocampal eosinophilic cells were counted. The amount of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, p53, Bcl-2, and Mdm-2 and neurons positive for activated caspase-3 were analyzed.
In propofol-anesthetized rats, no eosinophilic neurons were detected, whereas in control animals, 16-54% of hippocampal neurons were eosinophilic (days 1-28). In control animals, the concentration of Bax was 70-200% higher after cerebral ischemia compared with that in animals receiving propofol over time. Bcl-2 was 50% lower in control animals compared with propofol-anesthetized rats during the first 3 days. In both groups, a maximal 3% of the hippocampal neurons were positive for activated caspase-3.
These data show sustained neuroprotection with propofol. This relates to reduced eosinophilic and apoptotic injury. Activated caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathways were not affected by propofol. This suggests the presence of activated caspase-3-independent apoptotic pathways.
Anesthesiology 11/2004; 101(4):912-7. · 5.36 Impact Factor