[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to explore the hypothesis that the risk of leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) in patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases is influenced by the site of the primary cancer, the addition of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), surgical resection, and control over their systemic disease. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 805 patients who were treated with SRS for brain metastases between 1999 and 2012 at the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, and excluded all patients with evidence of LMD before SRS. The primary outcome was LMD. Forty-nine of 795 patients developed LMD with a cumulative incidence of 6.2 % (95 % Confidence Interval (CI), 4.7-8.0). Median time from SRS to LMD was 7.4 months (Interquartile Range (IQR), 3.3-15.4). A colorectal primary site (Hazard Ratio (HR), 4.5; 95 % CI 2.5-8.0; p < 0.0001), distant brain failure (HR, 2.0; 95 % CI 1.2-3.2; p = 0.007), breast primary site (HR, 1.6; 95 % CI 1.0-2.7; p = 0.05), the number of intracranial metastases at time of initial SRS (HR, 1.1; 95 % CI 1.0-1.2; p = 0.02), and age (by 5-year interval) (HR, 0.9; 95 % CI 0.8, 0.9; p = 0.0006) were independent factors associated with LMD. There was no evidence that surgical resection before SRS altered the risk of LMD (HR, 1.1; 95 % CI 0.6-2.0, p = 0.78). In patients who underwent SRS for brain metastases, a colorectal or breast primary site, distant brain failure, younger age, and an increased number of intracranial metastases were independently associated with LMD. Given its relative rarity as an outcome, multi-institutional prospective studies will likely be necessary to validate and quantify these relationships.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 07/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the differences in molecular signature and clinical outcomes between multiple lesion glioblastoma (GBM) and single focus GBM in the modern treatment era. Between August 2000 and May 2010, 161 patients with GBM were treated with modern radiotherapy techniques. Of this group, 33 were considered to have multiple lesion GBM (25 multifocal and 8 multicentric). Patterns of failure, time to progression and overall survival were compared based on whether the tumor was considered a single focus or multiple lesion GBM. Genomic groupings and methylation status were also investigated as a possible predictor of multifocality in a cohort of 41 patients with available tissue for analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (p < 0.3) between the multiple lesion tumors (8.2 months) and single focus GBM (11 months). Progression free survival was superior in the single focus tumors (7.1 months) as compared to multi-focal (5.6 months, p = 0.02). For patients with single focus, multifocal and multicentric GBM, 81, 76 and 88 % of treatment failures occurred in the 60 Gy volume (p < 0.5), while 54, 72, and 38 % of treatment failures occurred in the 46 Gy volume (p < 0.4). Out of field failures were rare in both single focus and multiple foci GBM (7 vs 3 %). Genomic groupings and methylation status were not found to predict for multifocality. Patterns of failure, survival and genomic signatures for multiple lesion GBM do not appreciably differ when compared to single focus tumors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 07/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies represent an "at-risk" population for contracting influenza, particularly if they are receiving ongoing chemotherapy, radiation, and/or glucocorticoid treatment. The Centers for Disease Control endorses vaccination for these patients, although data are not available to indicate whether they mount an immunologic response adequate to achieve clinical protection.
A pilot prospective cohort study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity of the standard-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in patients with malignant CNS tumors. Baseline data collection included diagnosis, chemotherapy, timing of chemotherapy or radiation relative to vaccination, and glucocorticoid dose. Serum samples were collected at baseline, day 14, day 28, and month 3 following vaccination. Samples were tested using hemagglutinin inhibition to determine seroconversion (4-fold rise in titer) and seroprotection (titer >1:40).
A total of 38 patients were enrolled (mean age, 54 years ±13.5 years, 60.5% male, 94.7% Caucasian, and 5.3% African American). CNS tumor diagnoses included glioblastoma multiforme (55.2%), other high-grade glioma (13.2%), low-grade glioma (15.8%), and primary CNS lymphoma (15.8%). At enrollment, 20 patients (52.6%) were taking glucocorticoids, 25 (65.8%) were on active chemotherapy, and 3 (7.9%) were undergoing radiation. Seroconversion rates at day 28 for the A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains were 37%, 23% and 23%, respectively. Seroprotection was 80%, 69%, and 74%, respectively. All rates were significantly lower than published rates in healthy adults (P < .001).
Influenza vaccine immunogenicity is significantly reduced in patients with CNS malignancies. Future studies are needed to determine the causative etiologies and appropriate vaccination strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequency and causes of chemosensory (taste and smell) disorders in cancer patients remain under-reported. This study examined the impact of cancer therapy on taste/smell functions and salivary constituents in brain tumor patients.
Twenty-two newly diagnosed patients with primary malignant gliomas underwent 6 weeks of combined modality treatment (CMD) with radiation and temozolomide followed by six monthly cycles of temozolomide. Chemosensory functions were assessed at 0, 3, 6, 10, 18, and 30 weeks with paired samples of saliva collected before and after an oral rinse with ferrous-spiked water. Iron (Fe)-induced oxidative stress was measured by salivary lipid oxidation (SLO); salivary proteins, electrolytes, and metals were determined. Parallel salivary analyses were performed on 22 healthy subjects.
Chemosensory complaints of cancer patients increased significantly during treatment (p = 0.04) except at 30 weeks. Fe-induced SLO increased at 10 and 18 weeks. When compared with healthy subjects, SLO, total protein, Na, K, Cu, P, S, and Mg levels, as averaged across all times, were significantly higher (p < 0.05), whereas salivary Zn, Fe, and oral pH levels were significantly lower in cancer patients (p < 0.05). Neither time nor treatment had a significant impact on these salivary parameters in cancer patients.
Impact of CMT treatment on chemosensory functions can range from minimal to moderate impairment. Analysis of SLO, metals, and total protein do not provide for reliable measures of chemosensory dysfunctions over time.
Taste and smell functions are relevant in health and diseases; study of salivary constituents may provide clues on the causes of their dysfunctions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing treatment for glioblastoma multiforme are routinely placed on prophylactic treatment for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia because of significant therapy-induced lymphopenia. In patients with sulfa allergies, dapsone prophylaxis is often used due to its efficacy, long half-life, cost effectiveness, and general safety at low doses. However, dapsone may uncommonly induce a hemolytic anemia, particularly in patients deficient of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This hemolysis is thought to be a result of oxidative stress on red blood cells induced by dapsone metabolites which produce reactive oxygen species that disrupt the red blood cell membrane and promote splenic sequestration. A single case report of dapsone-induced hemolytic anemia in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme has been reported. We present two patients with glioblastoma multiforme who developed severe hemolytic anemia shortly after initiating therapy with vorinostat, a pan-active histone deacetylase inhibitor, while on prophylactic dapsone. There are several potential mechanisms by which histone deacetylase inhibition may alter dapsone metabolism including changes in hepatic acetylation or N-glucuronidation leading to an increase in the bioavailability of dapsone's hematotoxic metabolites. In addition, vorinostat may lead to increased hemolysis through inhibition of heat shock protein-90, a chaperone protein that maintains the integrity of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton. The potential interaction between dapsone and vorinostat may have important clinical implications as more than 10 clinical trials evaluating drug combinations with vorinostat in patients with malignant glioma are either ongoing or planned in North America.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma cell granuloma is a pathological entity reported in nearly every organ system; however, intracranial cases remain rare. In the current case report, we present a case of intracranial plasma cell granuloma with the longest known follow-up period in the literature. Medical follow-up over 14 years, detailing four recurrences following the patient's initial presentation and management, is presented. The patient's treatment course consisted of three craniotomies, 3,600-cGy fractionated radiation and two courses of glucocorticoid therapy. In addition to disease surveillance using clinical examination and imaging, this case represents the first description of the clinical utility of analyzing changes in an inflammatory blood marker, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which coincided with recurrence and response to therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Radiation-induced taste and smell disturbances are prevalent in patients receiving brain radiation therapy, although the mechanisms underlying these toxicities are poorly understood. We report the results of a single institution prospective clinical trial aimed at correlating self-reported taste and smell disturbances with radiation dose delivered to defined areas within the brain and nasopharynx.
Methods and Materials
Twenty-two patients with gliomas were enrolled on a prospective observational trial in which patients underwent a validated questionnaire assessing taste and smell disturbances at baseline and at 3 and 6 weeks after commencement of brain radiation therapy. Fourteen patients with glioblastoma, 3 patients with grade 3 gliomas, and 5 patients with low grade gliomas participated. Median dose to tumor volume was 60 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Dose–volume histogram (DVH) analysis was performed for specific regions of interest that were considered potential targets of radiation damage, including the thalamus, temporal lobes, nasopharynx, olfactory groove, frontal pole, and periventricular stem cell niche. The %v10 (percent of region of interest receiving 10 Gy), %v40, and %v60 were calculated for each structure. Data from questionnaires and DVH were analyzed using stepwise regression.
Twenty of 22 patients submitted evaluable questionnaires that encompassed at least the entire radiation therapy course. Ten of 20 patients reported experiencing some degree of smell disturbance during radiation therapy, and 14 of 20 patients experienced taste disturbances. Patients reporting more severe taste toxicity also reported more severe toxicities with sense of smell (r2 = 0.60, P < .006). Tumor location in the temporal lobe predicted for increased severity of taste toxicity (F3, 16 = 1.44, P < .06). The nasopharynx was the only structure in which the DVH data predicted the presence of radiation-induced taste changes (r2 = 0.28, P < .02).
Radiation-induced taste toxicity appears to be more common in temporal lobe tumors, and may be related to the dose received by the nasopharynx.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumors that closely mimic meningiomas. However, in contrast to meningiomas, HPCs have a relatively high incidence of local recurrence and distant metastases, manifesting the need for sensitive noninvasive methods of detection that efficiently image the entire body. We present a rare case of a right optic nerve sheath HPC in which we identified a previously unknown distant metastasis in the thoracic spine on an In-pentetreotide scan. We detail the radiologic characteristics seen with somatostatin receptor imaging, FDG PET, and MRI and discuss how to exploit these findings to detect recurrence and metastatic disease in HPC.
Clinical nuclear medicine 12/2013; 38(12):984-7. · 3.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hot flashes occur in approximately 80% of androgen-deprived men. Few intervention studies have been conducted to relieve hot flashes in men.
Eligible androgen-deprived men were randomly assigned to one of four daily regimens (2 × 2 factorial design) for 12 weeks: milk protein powder and placebo pill, venlafaxine and milk protein powder, soy protein powder and placebo pill, or venlafaxine and soy protein powder. The primary end point was hot flash symptom severity score (HFSSS), defined as number of hot flashes times severity. The secondary end point was quality of life (QoL), assessed by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate.
In all, 120 men age 46 to 91 years participated. Most were white (78%) and overweight or obese (83%). Toxicity was minimal. Neither venlafaxine nor soy protein alone or in combination had a significant effect on HFSSS. Soy protein, but not venlafaxine, improved measures of QoL.
In androgen-deprived men, neither venlafaxine nor soy proved effective in reducing hot flashes. Interventions that appear effective for decreasing hot flashes in women may not always turn out to be effective in men.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant transformation of epidermoid cysts (ECs) to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the CNS is exceedingly rare and has only been described in intracranial ECs. In this article, the authors describe a 53-year-old man with a history of a previously resected T3-4 EC, who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening weakness in the left side of his body. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing mass in the T3-4 region, the exact location of the previous cyst. The mass was resected in gross-total fashion, and pathological analysis revealed an SCC. Postoperatively, the patient regained full strength in his lower extremities. After the resection, he received radiotherapy administered at an isodose of 50 Gy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of malignant transformation of an intramedullary spinal EC in the literature.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 09/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular subtyping of tumors and treatment with specifically targeted therapy is a rapidly developing trend in oncology. Genetic and protein biomarkers impact biological behavior, patient prognosis, and inform treatment options. Select examples include EGFR mutations in primary non-small cell lung cancers, Her2 overexpression in breast cancer, and BRAF mutations in melanoma. Systemic benefit is emphasized in targeted therapies; yet lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma comprise the most common diagnoses in patients with brain metastases making the effectiveness of targeted therapies in the treatment and/or prevention of brain metastases relevant.Emerging evidence suggests efficacy for targeted therapy in the setting of brain metastases. Randomized, phase III clinical trials indicate targeted HER2 treatment with lapatinib and capecitabine in brain metastases from breast cancer increases the time to progression and decreases the frequency of CNS involvement at progression. Phase II trials and retrospective reviews for gefitinib and erlotinib demonstrate these agents may have a role in both the chemoprevention of brain metastases and, in combination with WBRT, treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases. Dabrafenib and other BRAF inhibitors have demonstrated improved survival in patients with brain metastases from melanoma in a recent phase II clinical trial. Further data that support the use of these agents are the subject of several active clinical trials. Challenges and future directions for targeted therapies in brain metastases include both better characterization and drug design with respect to central nervous system distribution. Limited published data demonstrate suboptimal CNS distribution of currently available targeted chemotherapeutic agents. Increasing systemic dosing, alternate delivery methods, and new compounds with improved CNS distribution are being pursued. Additionally, eventual resistance to targeted therapies poses a challenge; however, research is showing resistance mutations are conserved and relatively predictable creating opportunities for second-line therapies with additional targeted drugs. Newer targeted therapies represent an additional chemotherapeutic option for the treatment and/or prevention of brain metastases in patients with an appropriate molecular profile.
Current Treatment Options in Oncology 08/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patient compliance with routine monitoring for self-administered chemotherapy is problematic. We sought to assess monitoring lapses and incidents of myelosuppression in patients undergoing self-administered chemotherapy for glioblastoma, as well as test software designed to detect and alert clinicians to lapses in monitoring.
A retrospective analysis was conducted to identify patients (N = 117) who received standard oral temozolomide for glioblastoma at our institution from 2003 to 2010. Gaps in monitoring were classified as minor (10 to 12 days) or major (13 to 28 days), and adverse events were graded using standard criteria. During the prospective portion of the study, we tested a software-based system that alerted clinicians of monitoring lapses and adverse events among patients receiving self-administered temozolomide for glioblastoma (n = 37).
Our retrospective review found that 34 of 117 patients experienced monitoring gaps during treatment. No association between gaps and risk of myelosuppression were found. Patients with gaps were more likely to be male (P = .04). Patients monitored prospectively with the software experienced no major gaps in monitoring (P = .007 compared with retrospective patients).
Our retrospective review demonstrated that monitoring nonadherence was occurring at a substantial rate. Our computerized system eliminated major gaps in monitoring in the prospective portion of our study. Although there is no association between monitoring gaps and the occurrence of adverse events, when they do coincide, continuing oral chemotherapy during an unrecognized adverse event may worsen the patient's condition. Automated systems are justified and serve a function not currently being addressed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Among patients with glioblastoma (GBM) who progress on standard temozolomide, the optimal therapy is unknown. Resistance to temozolomide is partially mediated by O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Because MGMT may be depleted by prolonged temozolomide administration, dose-intense schedules may overcome resistance.Methods
This was a multicenter, phase 2, single-arm study of temozolomide (75-100 mg/m(2)/day) for 21 days of each 28-day cycle. Patients had GBM in first recurrence after standard therapy. The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6).ResultsFifty-eight participants were accrued, 3 of whom were ineligible for analysis; one withdrew before response assessment. There were 33 men (61%), with a median age of 57 years (range, 25-79 years) and a median Karnofsky performance score of 90 (range, 60-100). Of 47 patients with MGMT methylation results, 36 (65%) had methylated tumors. There were 7 (13%) partial responses, and PFS6 was only 11%. Response and PFS did not depend on MGMT status; MSH2, MLH1, or ERCC1 expression; the number of prior temozolomide cycles; or the time off temozolomide. Treatment was well tolerated, with limited grade 3 neutropenia (n = 2) or thrombocytopenia (n = 2).Conclusions
Dose-intense temozolomide on this schedule is safe in recurrent GBM. However, efficacy is marginal and predictive biomarkers are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 5% of breast cancer patients develop leptomeningeal metastases over the course of their disease. Though several treatments options are available for these patients, their prognosis is typically considered to be poor. We report a case of leptomeningeal failure after a patient underwent prior radiotherapy, radiosurgery, surgery, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy. This patient experienced a prolonged response after receiving bevacizumab and capecitabine. The literature currently contains several reports regarding the use of systemic therapy to manage leptomeningeal metastases from breast cancer, which we summarize. Finally, we review the relevant effects of the patient's treatment modalities and provide a rationale for the mechanism that led to her prolonged response.
Journal of Breast Cancer 03/2013; 16(1):122-126. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: We investigate the patterns of failure in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) based on clinical target volume (CTV) margin size, dose delivered to the site of initial failure, and the use of temozolomide and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS:: Between August 2000 and May 2010, 161 patients with GBM were treated with radiotherapy with or without concurrent temozolomide. Patients were treated with CTV expansions that ranged from 5 to 20 mm using a shrinking field technique. Patterns of failure and time to progression and overall survival were compared based on CTV margin, use of temozolomide, and use of IMRT. Kaplan Meier analysis was used to estimate survival times, and χ test was used for comparison of cohorts. RESULTS:: For patients treated with 5-, 10-, and 15- to 20-mm CTV, 79%, 77%, and 86% experienced failures in the 60 Gy volume, respectively. Forty-eight percent, 55%, and 66% of patients with 5-, 10-, and 15- to 20-mm CTV experienced failures in the 46 Gy volume, respectively. There was no statistical difference between patients treated with 5-, 10-, 15- to 20-mm margins with regard to 60 Gy failure (P=0.76), 46 Gy failure (P=0.51), or marginal failure (P=0.73). Eighty percent of patients receiving temozolomide experienced failures in the 60 Gy volume. There was no increased likelihood of marginal failures in patients receiving IMRT (P=0.97). CONCLUSIONS:: Modern treatment techniques including use of concurrent temozolmide, limited CTV margin size, and IMRT have not greatly changed the patterns of failure of GBM.
American journal of clinical oncology 12/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Patients with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies have a substantial risk for developing both thrombotic and bleeding disorders. The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is substantially higher in these patients, both in the perioperative period and throughout their disease course. Patients with CNS malignancy harbor a latent hypercoagulability, which predisposes to VTE, as do postoperative immobility, hemiparesis, and other factors. The management of VTE in these patients is complex, given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with intratumoral hemorrhage. In the past, the perceived risk of intracranial hemorrhage limited the use of anticoagulation for the management of VTE with many favoring nonpharmacologic methods for prophylaxis and treatment. Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have since lost favor at many centers given significant complications, which appear to be more frequent in patients with CNS malignancy. Recent studies have demonstrated safe and efficacious use of anticoagulation in these patients with a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. Treatment of established VTE is now recommended in this population with many centers favoring low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus oral warfarin for short- or long-term treatment. We advocate a multimodality approach utilizing compression stockings, intermittent compression devices, and heparin in the perioperative setting as the best proven method to reduce the risk of VTE. In the absence of a strict contraindication to systemic anticoagulation, such as previous intracranial hemorrhage or profound thrombocytopenia, we recommend LMWH in patients with newly diagnosed VTE and a CNS malignancy.
Current Treatment Options in Oncology 07/2012; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginkgo biloba has been reported to improve cognitive function in older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. We conducted an open-label phase II study of this botanical product in symptomatic irradiated brain tumor survivors. Eligibility criteria included: life expectancy ≥30 weeks, partial or whole brain radiation ≥6 months before enrollment, no imaging evidence of tumor progression in previous 3 months, or stable or decreasing steroid dose, and no brain tumor treatment planned while on study. The Ginkgo biloba dose was 120 mg/day (40 mg t.i.d.) for 24 weeks followed by a 6-week washout period. Assessments performed at baseline, 12, 24 (end of treatment), and 30 weeks (end of washout) included KPS, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br), Profile of Mood States, Mini-Mental Status Exam, Trail Making Test Parts A (TMT-A) and B (TMT-B), Digit Span Test, Modified Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF), California Verbal Learning Test Part II, and the F-A-S Test. Results: Of the 34 patients enrolled on study, 23 (68 %) completed 12 weeks of treatment and 19 (56 %) completed 24 weeks of treatment. There were significant improvements at 24 weeks in: executive function (TMT-B) (p = 0.007), attention/concentration (TMT-A) (p = 0.002), and non-verbal memory (ROCF-immediate/delayed recall) (p = 0.001/0.002), mood (p = 0.002), FACT-Br subscale (p = 0.001), and the FACT physical subscale (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Some improvement in quality of life and cognitive function were noted with Ginkgo biloba. However, treatment with Ginkgo biloba was associated with a high dropout rate.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 06/2012; 109(2):357-63. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is a common antioxidant supplement with known cardioprotective effects and potential anticancer benefits. OBJECTIVES: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral CoQ(10) in female breast cancer patients with the primary objective of determining CoQ(10)'s effects on self-reported fatigue, depression, and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: Eligible women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and planned adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to oral supplements of 300 mg CoQ(10) or placebo, each combined with 300 IU vitamin E, divided into 3 daily doses. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks. Blood tests, QOL measures, and levels of plasma CoQ(10) and vitamin E were obtained at baseline and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Mixed-effects models were used to assess treatment differences in outcomes over time. RESULTS: Between September 2004 and March 2009, 236 women were enrolled. Treatment arms were well balanced with respect to age (range, 28-85 years), pathologic stage (stage 0, 91%; stage I, 8%; stage II, 1%), ethnicity (white, 87%; black, 11%; Hispanic, 2%), and planned therapy. Baseline CoQ(10) levels in the CoQ(10) and placebo arms were 0.70 and 0.73 μg/mL, respectively; the 24-week CoQ(10) levels were 1.83 and 0.79 μg/mL, respectively. There were no significant differences between the CoQ(10) and placebo arms at 24 weeks for scores on the Profile of Mood States-Fatigue questionnaire (least squares means, 7.08 vs 8.24, P = .257), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue tool (37.6 vs 37.6, P = .965), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer instrument (111.9 vs 110.4, P = .577), or the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (11.6 vs 12.3, P = .632). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with conventional doses of CoQ(10) led to sustained increases in plasma CoQ(10) levels but did not result in improved self-reported fatigue or QOL after 24 weeks of treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients are at high risk for acute respiratory illness (ARI).
We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a proprietary extract of Panax quinquefolius, CVT-E002, in reducing ARI.
This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 293 subjects with early-stage, untreated CLL conducted January-March 2009.
ARI was common, occurring on about 10% of days during the study period. There were no significant differences of the 2 a priori primary end points: ARI days (8.5 ± 17.2 for CVT-E002 vs 6.8 ± 13.3 for placebo) and severe ARI days (2.9 ± 9.5 for CVT-E002 vs 2.6 ± 9.8 for placebo). However, 51% of CVT-E002 vs 56% of placebo recipients experienced at least 1 ARI (difference, -5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -16% to 7%); more intense ARI occurred in 32% of CVT-E002 vs 39% of placebo recipients (difference, -7%; 95% CI, -18% to 4%), and symptom-specific evaluation showed reduced moderate to severe sore throat (P = .004) and a lower rate of grade ≥3 toxicities (P = .02) in CVT-E002 recipients. Greater seroconversion (4-fold increases in antibody titer) vs 9 common viral pathogens was documented in CVT-E002 recipients (16% vs 7%, P = .04).
Serologic evaluation of antibody titers was not tied to a specific illness, but covered the entire study period.
CVT-E002 was well tolerated. It did not reduce the number of ARI days or antibiotic use; however, there was a trend toward reduced rates of moderate to severe ARI and significantly less sore throat, suggesting that the increased rate of seroconversion most likely reflects CVT-E002-enhanced antibody responses.
The journal of supportive oncology 01/2012; 10(5):195-201.