[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incorporation of L- or D-Tic into position 7 of oxytocin (OT) and its deamino analogue ([Mpa(1)]OT) resulted in four analogues, [L-Tic(7)]OT (1), [D-Tic(7)]OT (2), [Mpa(1),L-Tic(7)]OT (3) and [Mpa(1),D-Tic(7)]OT (4). Their biological properties were described by Fragiadaki et al. (Eur J Med Chem 42:799-806, 2007). Their NMR study (NOESY, TOCSY, (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra) is presented here. Analogues 1, 3 and 4 showed partial agonistic activity, analogue 2 was pure antagonist, suggesting that a cis conformation between residues 6 and 7 of the molecule does not result in antagonistic activity. However, the reduction in agonistic activity of analogues 1, 3 and 4 in comparison to oxytocin is consistent with the reduction of the trans conformation form. Binding affinity for the human oxytocin receptor with IC(50) value of 130, 730, 103, and 380 nM for peptides 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, showed lower affinity in the case of D analogues. Deamination slightly increased the affinity. The existence of both cis and trans configurations of the Cys(6)-D-Tic(7) bond is supported by observation of two sets of cross-peaks for (1)H and (13)C nuclei for most of the residues of the peptide not only in NOESY and TOCSY but also in (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra. The MS and HPLC indicate the presence of a single molecule/peptide, and NMR data thus suggest that this second set of peaks is due to the cis conformation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progesterone non-genomically attenuates the calcium signaling of the human oxytocin receptor and several other Galpha(q) protein-coupled receptors. High progesterone concentrations are found in the endometrium during pregnancy opposing the responsiveness of the underlying myometrium to labor-inducing hormones. Here, we demonstrate that within minutes, progesterone inhibits oxytocin- and bradykinin-induced contractions of rat uteri, calcium responses induced by platelet-activating factor in the human endometrial cell line MFE-280, and oxytocin-induced calcium signals in PHM1-31 immortalized pregnant human myometrial cells. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells as model system, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data indicate that progesterone rapidly depletes intracellular calcium stores. The resulting desensitization of the cells might contribute to the quiescence of the uterus during pregnancy.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 04/2010; 67(16):2815-24. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH (5P), in ovaries of Neobellieria bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. During selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3HPro(3)]5P after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. The ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. A detection sensitivity of 60-100 fmol of the labeled 5P was achieved using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. While the uptake of the applied radioactivity strongly depended on the stage of vitellogenesis, especially for the in vitro experiment, degradation of 5P was very quick and independent of whether the label was injected or incubated with the ovaries, regardless of the developmental stage of ovaries. No tracers of 5P were detected at 30 s after applying the labeled 5P in all tests.
Journal of Insect Science 01/2010; 10:48. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we describe the synthesis and some pharmacological properties of eight new analogues of bradykinin (BK). Two peptides were designed by substitution of position 7 or 8 of the known [D-Arg(0),Hyp(3),Thi(5,8),D-Phe(7)]BK antagonist (Stewart's antagonist) with L-pipecolic acid (L-Pip). The next two analogues were obtained by replacement of the d-Phe residue in position 7 of the Stewart's peptide with L-beta(2)-isoproline (L-beta(2)-iPro) or L-beta(3)-homoproline (L-beta(3)-hPro). The four analogues mentioned above were also prepared in N-acylated form with 1-adamantaneacetic acid (Aaa). Biological activity of the compounds was assessed by isolated rat uterus and rat blood pressure tests. Our results showed that L-Pip in position 7 slightly increased antagonistic potency in the blood pressure test, but it turned the analogue into an agonist in the rat uterus test. Replacement of Thi by L-Pip in position 8 also enhanced antagonism in the rat pressure test but preserved the antagonism in the rat uterus test. L-beta(2)-iPro or L-beta(3)-hPro in position 7 decreased the potencies in both tests. We also demonstrated that acylation of the N-terminus did not increase, as was claimed previously, the antagonistic potencies of the resulting peptides. The results thus support the hypothesis about the existence of different types of BK receptors in the rat uterus and blood vessels. Our studies provide new information about the structure-activity relationship of BK antagonists which may help in designing more potent BK receptor blockers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the solid phase synthesis and some pharmacological properties of 24 oxytocin (OT) analogues. Basic modifications at position 9 (introduction of L- or D-beta-(2-thienyl)-alanine [L- or D-Thi], or L- or D-3-Pyridylalanine [L- or D-3-Pal]) were combined with D-tyrosine(OEthyl) [D-Tyr(Et)] or D-1-naphthylalanine [D-1-Nal] in position 2 and beta-mercaptopropionic acid (Mpa) in position 1 modifications in altogether 14 analogues. Additionally, 8 analogues having alpha-aminoisobutyric acid [Aib] or D-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (D-Tic) or diethylglycine (Deg) in position 9 and D-Tyr(Et) or D-1-Nal or D-Tic in position 2 and Mpa or Pen (beta beta-dimethylcysteine) in position 1 were prepared. Two of these analogues have one more modification in position 6, i.e. Pen. Furthermore, two analogues having Mpa in position 1 and D-Tyr(Et) or D-1-Nal in position 2 were prepared for comparison purposes. The analogues were tested for rat uterotonic activity in vitro, in the rat pressor assay and for binding affinity to human OT receptor. The analogue having the highest anti-oxytocic activity was [Mpa(1), D-Tyr(Et)(2), Deg(9)]OT (pA(2) = 8.68 +/- 0.26); this analogue was also selective.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuing our efforts to obtain potent and selective analogues of AVP we synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated ten new compounds modified at position 2 with alpha-2-indanylglycine or its D-enantiomer (Igl or D-Igl, respectively). All the peptides were tested for pressor, antidiuretic, and in vitro uterotonic activities. We also determined the binding affinity of these compounds to human OT receptor. The Igl(2) substitution resulted in a significant change of the pharmacological profile of the peptides. The new analogues were moderate or potent OT antagonists (pA(2) values ranging from 7.19 to 7.98) and practically did not interact with V(1a) and V(2) receptors. It is worth emphasizing that these new peptides were exceptionally selective. On the other hand, the D-Igl(2) substituted counterparts turned out to be weak antagonists of the pressor response to AVP and displayed no antidiuretic activity. Some of the results were unexpected, e.g. dual activity in the rat uterotonic test in vitro: the D-Igl peptides showed a strong antioxytocic potency (pA(2) values ranging from 7.70 to 8.20) at low concentrations and full agonism at high concentrations. The results provided useful information about the SAR of AVP analogues.
Journal of Peptide Science 11/2009; 16(1):15-20. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humanin (HN) and HN-derivatives are a family of peptides first reported in the last decade with potent in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective activity, which is mediated through a not completely elucidated mechanism. Recently, our group has evaluated the effect of various HN-derivatives on the 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB)-induced impairment of spatial orientation and memory in rats, by employing the T-maze test. In the present work four new, tyrosine containing HN-derivatives were synthesized (Y-PAGASRLLLTGEIDLP, peptide I; Y-PAGASRLLLLTGEIDLP, peptide II; Y-SALLRSIPAPAGASRLLLTGEIDLP, peptide III; Y-SALLRSIPAPAGASRLLLLTGEIDLP, peptide IV). The neuroprotective action of these peptides was evaluated in the T-maze test and the most active among them (peptides I and III) was radiolabeled with (125)I. The pure monoradioiodinated peptides were used in: (i) in vitro binding studies with various neuronal cell lines and with brain and stomach membranes from rats and mice and (ii) in vivo biodistribution studies in rats and mice. Moreover, the metabolic stability of the above radiolabeled peptides was studied. Under the experimental conditions used, our data do not confirm the existence of specific binding sites for HN on the neuronal tissue. Nevertheless, they are setting the basis for further relevant studies aiming at the clarification of the mode of the neuroprotective action of HN-peptides.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of N (alpha)-acyl (alkyl)- and N (alpha)-alkoxycarbonyl-derivatives of L- and D-ornithine were prepared, characterized, and analyzed for their potency toward the bacterial enzyme N (alpha)-acetyl-L-ornithine deacetylase (ArgE). ArgE catalyzes the conversion of N (alpha)-acetyl-L-ornithine to L-ornithine in the fifth step of the biosynthetic pathway for arginine, a necessary step for bacterial growth. Most of the compounds tested provided IC(50) values in the muM range toward ArgE, indicating that they are moderately strong inhibitors. N (alpha)-chloroacetyl-L-ornithine (1g) was the best inhibitor tested toward ArgE providing an IC(50) value of 85 microM while N (alpha)-trifluoroacetyl-L-ornithine (1f), N (alpha)-ethoxycarbonyl-L-ornithine (2b), and N (alpha)-acetyl-D-ornithine (1a) weakly inhibited ArgE activity providing IC(50) values between 200 and 410 microM. Weak inhibitory potency toward Bacillus subtilis-168 for N (alpha)-acetyl-D-ornithine (1a) and N (alpha)-fluoro- (1f), N (alpha)-chloro- (1g), N (alpha)-dichloro- (1h), and N (alpha)-trichloroacetyl-ornithine (1i) was also observed. These data correlate well with the IC(50) values determined for ArgE, suggesting that these compounds might be capable of getting across the cell membrane and that ArgE is likely the bacterial enzymatic target.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three novel structurally related pentadecapeptides, named lasioglossins, were isolated from the venom of the eusocial bee Lasioglossum laticeps. Their primary sequences were established as H-Val-Asn-Trp-Lys-Lys-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys-Ile-Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Lys-NH(2) (LL-I), H-Val-Asn-Trp-Lys-Lys-Ile-Leu-Gly-Lys-Ile-Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Lys-NH(2) (LL-II) and H-Val-Asn-Trp-Lys-Lys-Ile-Leu-Gly-Lys-Ile-Ile-Lys-Val-Val-Lys-NH(2) (LL-III). These lasioglossins exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, low haemolytic and mast cell degranulation activity, and a potency to kill various cancer cells in vitro. The lasioglossin CD spectra were measured in the presence of trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and indicated a high degree of alpha-helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy, which was carried out in trifluoroethanol/water confirmed a curved alpha-helical conformation with a concave hydrophobic and convex hydrophilic side. To understand the role of this bend on biological activity, we studied lasioglossin analogues in which the Gly in the centre of the molecule was replaced by other amino acid residues (Ala, Lys, Pro). The importance of the N-terminal part of the molecule to the antimicrobial activity was revealed through truncation of five residues from both the N and C termini of the LL-III peptide. C-terminal deamidation of LL-III resulted in a drop in antimicrobial activity, but esterification of the C terminus had no effect. Molecular modelling of LL-III and the observed NOE contacts indicated the possible formation of a bifurcated H-bond between hydrogen from the Lys15 CONH peptide bond and one H of the C-terminal CONH(2) to the Ile11 oxygen atom. Such interactions cannot form with C-terminal esterification.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven new analogues of arginine vasopressin (AVP) modified in position 2 by 3,3-diphenyl-L-alanine or its D-enantiomer (Dip or D-Dip) were synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated for their pressor, antidiuretic and in vitro uterotonic activities. Both the Dip and D-Dip modifications at position 2 of AVP are sufficient to completely change the pharmacological profile of the peptides. They preserve or increase antidiuretic activity, cause its prolongation, transform uterotonic property in antagonistic one and cancel the effect on blood pressure. Four of the new peptides ([Mpa1,D-Dip2]AVP, [Mpa1,D-Dip2,Val4]AVP, [Mpa1,D-Dip2,D-Arg8]VP, [Mpa1,D-Dip2,Val4,D-Arg8]VP) are exceptionally potent antidiuretic agents with significantly prolonged activities.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 08/2009; 44(7):2862-67. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six [Pen6]oxytocin analogs were synthesized by substituting penicillamine for cysteine in oxytocin, [Mpa1]oxytocin, [dPen1]oxytocin, [5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin, [Mpa1, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin and [dPen1, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin. When tested in the uterotonic test in vitro[Pen6]oxytocin, [Pen6, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin, [Mpa1, Pen6]oxytocin and [Mpa1, Pen6, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin, all were found to possess both agonistic and antagonistic properties. Their agonistic potency ranged from negligible (0.08 IU/mg) to low (5.85 IU/mg) and their antagonistic potency (pA2) was estimated to range from 6.6 to 7.9. [dPen1, Pen6]Oxytocin and [dPen1, Pen6, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin were found to be pure antagonists with similarly high pA2 values of ≈ 8.2. Replacement of proline by 5-tert-butylproline increased binding affinity by a factor of two in [Pen6]oxytocin and had no influence on the binding affinity of [Mpa1, Pen6]oxytocin and [dPen1, Pen6]oxytocin. Assignment of the proton signals for prolyl amide cis- and trans-isomers by NMR experiments in water indicated that the Pen6−5-tert-BuPro7 peptide bond cis-isomer population was augmented relative to the prolyl peptides and measured, respectively, at 20, 35 and 35% in the 5-tert-butylproline7 analogs of [Pen6]oxytocin, [Mpa1, Pen6]oxytocin and [dPen1, Pen6]oxytocin. This augmentation in cis-isomer population was correlated with a 21-fold reduction in the agonistic potency and 2-fold augmentation in antagonistic potency for [Pen6, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin relative to [Pen6]oxytocin. Augmentation of cis-isomer population was also correlated to reduced agonist potency without effect on antagonism on conversion of [Mpa1, Pen6]oxytocin to [Mpa1, Pen6, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin. In the potent oxytocin antagonist, [dPen1, Pen6]oxytocin, substitution of 5-tert-butylproline for proline augmented the cis-isomer population without affecting antagonistic potency. The synthesis and evaluation of [Pen6]oxytocin and [Pen6, 5-t-BuPro7]oxytocin analogs 1–6 indicated that steric interactions influenced agonist and antagonist activity by modifying peptide conformation. Augmentations in the prolyl cis-isomer population caused by 5-tert-butylproline occurred concurrently with enhanced or maintained antagonistic potency and binding affinity and reduced agonistic potency.
European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 12/2008; 58(3):263 - 273. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using SPPS techniques, six new analogues of AVP and some of its agonists were synthesised. The peptides were designed by substitution of Phe at position 3 of AVP, [Mpa(1)] AVP (dAVP) and [Mpa(1),Val(4),D-Arg(8)]VP (dVDAVP) with L- or D-Pip, a non-coded alpha-imino acid, also called homoproline. Surprisingly enough, both the analogues of AVP and [Mpa(1)]AVP with identical substituents at position 2 turned out to be highly sensitive to TFA used for deprotection and cleavage of the synthesised peptides from the resin and it was the reason why we were not able to obtain these four peptides. The mechanisms of their fragmentation were proposed in this study. Unfortunately, all the new analogues were inactive in bioassays for the pressor, antidiuretic and uterotonic invitro activities in the rat.
Journal of Peptide Science 12/2008; 15(3):161-5. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humanin (HN) and its analogues have been shown to protect cells against death induced by various Alzheimer's disease (AD) genes and amyloid-beta-peptides in vitro; the analogues [Gly(14)]-HN and colivelin have also been shown to be potent in reversing learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine or quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) in mice or rats in vivo using the Y-maze or multiple T-maze tests. This paper describes the activity of new peptides of the HN family, after i.p. administration, on QNB-induced impairment of spatial memory in the multiple T-maze test in rats. The following peptides have been studied: HN analogues truncated either on the C- or N-terminus, or analogues having a tert-Leu in place of Leu in the central part of the molecule, the active HN core PAGASRLLLLTGEIDLP (RG-PAGA) and its analogues having three or five leucines instead of four, and finally the recently described hybrid peptide colivelin (i.e. a peptide having the activity-dependent neurotrophic factor SALLRSIPA attached to the N-terminus of the active RG-PAGA) and its des-Leu- and plus-Leu-analogues. While the truncated analogues and most of the tert-Leu containing analogues were devoid of activity, the analogues of the RG-PAGA were active, i.e. they reversed the impairment of spatial memory irrespective of the number of Leu present in their sequence. The highest activity was shown by colivelin and its des-Leu-analogue. These results demonstrate the potential of HN analogues in the modulation of the cholinergic system, which plays an important role in the cognitive deficits associated with AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel antimicrobial peptide designated melectin was isolated from the venom of the cleptoparasitic bee Melecta albifrons. Its primary sequence was established as H-Gly-Phe-Leu-Ser-Ile-Leu-Lys-Lys-Val-Leu-Pro-Lys-Val-Met-Ala-His-Met-Lys-NH(2) by Edman degradation and ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry. Synthetic melectin exhibited antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and -negative bacteria and it degranulated rat peritoneal mast cells, but its hemolytic activity was low. The CD spectra of melectin measured in the presence of trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate showed a high content alpha-helices, which indicates that melectin can adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical secondary structure in an anisotropic environment such as the bacterial cell membrane. To envisage the role of the proline residue located in the middle of the peptide chain on biological activity and secondary structure, we prepared several melectin analogues in which the Pro11 residue was either replaced by other amino acid residues or was omitted. The results of biological testing suggest that a Pro kink in the alpha-helical structure of melectin plays an important role in selectivity for bacterial cells. In addition, a series of N- and C-terminal-shortened analogues was synthesized to examine which region of the peptide is related to antimicrobial activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four new peptides of the mastoparan family, characterized recently in the venom of three neotropical social wasps collected in the Dominican Republic, Polistes major major, Polistes dorsalis dorsalis and Mischocyttarus phthisicus were synthesized and tested for antimicrobial potency against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E.c.) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for hemolytic and mast cells degranulation activities. As these peptides possess strong antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Bacillus subtillis and E.c. in the range of 5-40 microM), we prepared 40 of their analogs to correlate biological activities, especially antimicrobial, with the net positive charge, hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, peptide length, amino acid substitutions at different positions of the peptide chain, N-terminal acylation and C-terminal deamidation. Circular dichroism spectra of the peptides measured in the presence of trifluoroethanol or SDS showed that the peptides might adopt alpha-helical conformation in such anisotropic environments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuropeptides abundant in the central nervous system and periphery found to be involved in the regulation of food intake behavior and other physiological processes. Recently, we reported specific binding of (125)I-CART(61-102) to the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, both intact cells and cell membranes. In this study, several fragments of CART(61-102) corresponding to its structural loops were synthesized and tested for their potency in binding experiments using PC12 intact cells and cell membranes and in feeding test with fasted mice. From all shorter peptides tested, only CART(74-86) and CART(62-86) containing disulfide bridges kept partial binding potency of the original molecule with K(i) in 10(-5) and 10(-4)M range. However, these fragments were not able to inhibit food intake after their central administration up to a dose of 4 nmol/mouse. The results showed that a compact structure containing three disulfide bridges is necessary for preservation of full biological activity of CART peptides.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we present the synthesis and some pharmacological properties of nine new analogues of arginine vasopressin modified in the N-terminal part of the molecule with 2-aminoindane-2-carboxylic acid (Aic). The peptides were tested for their in vitro uterotonic and in vivo pressor and antidiuretic activities. One of the new peptides, [Mpa1,Aic2,Val4,D-Arg8]VP, exhibited an antidiuretic activity similar to that of [Mpa1,D-Arg8]VP, thus being one of the most potent antidiuretic vasopressin analogues reported to date.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2007; 50(12):2926-9. · 5.61 Impact Factor