Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years worldwide. However, few data have been collected on children with rotavirus diarrhea basing on outpatient department surveillance.
To define the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea and to investigate the burden associated with diarrhea and rotavirus infection in Hangzhou, China.
Systematic surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea was conducted in inpatient wards and outpatient department from January 2007 to December 2008 in the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. All stool specimens were tested for rotavirus by latex agglutination test.
46,499 stool samples were collected and 15,649 (33.7%) were tested positive for rotavirus. Positive rate for rotavirus was highest among children aged 12-24 months (39.0-39.6%). 92.4% children with rotavirus infection were <2 years, with constitution ratios of 21.8%, 41.8%, 21.8%, 8.4% and 6.2% in children aged 0-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-18 months, 19-24 months and >24 months, respectively. The percentage of children whose samples were tested positive for rotavirus ranged from 22.6% to 44.9% at different months, with a peak in October, November and December. The estimated annual rotavirus-associated outpatient visit and hospitalization incidences were 20.1 episodes/1000 children and 2.1 cases/1000 children for children <5 years of age, and were 39.1/1000 and 4.1/1000 for children <2 years of age in Hangzhou, respectively.
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea of children in Hangzhou, especially for children <2 years, which highlight the need of widespread rotavirus immunization for young children.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 10/2010; 50(1):84-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.10.003 · 3.47 Impact Factor
To investigate molecular epidemiologic features of rotavirus (RV) infection in infantile diarrhea in Hangzhou area.
Stool specimens of 683 infants with suspected acute viral enteritis in the autumn and winter of 2001 - 2003 were collected. RV (group A) was detected by using latex agglutination test (LAT). VP7 serotype (G) positive specimens were detected by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then the RNA of the virus was determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). cDNA of VP7 gene fragment was sequenced by automatic gene analyzor (ABI3730) and compared with the RV VP7 gene sequences stored in Genebank.
RV was detected in 297 of 683 (43.5%) specimens by LAT. The highest frequency of RV (group A) detected was 52.9% (228/431) in patients aged 7 - 18 months. The prevalent serotypes were G1 (36.7%, 109/297) and G3 (30.9%, 92/297), followed by mixed type (11.8%, 35/297), untyped (9.4%, 28/297), G4 (7.1%, 21/297) and G2 (4.0%, 12/297). The prevalent serotypes seen each year were different. G1 (54.9%, 45/82) was the major serotype in 2001 followed by G3 (14.6%, 12/82). In 2003, the major serotype was G3 (43.0%, 63/146) and followed by G1 (29.5%, 43/146). The reliability of ELISA was confirmed by RT-PCR, gene sequencing and homology analysis.
The main prevalent serotypes of VP7 of rotavirus were G1 and G3. The dominant serotypes of rotavirus varied in Hangzhou area from 2001 to 2003.
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 09/2005; 43(8):595-8.
To explore a method for rapid diagnosis of sepsis in newborn infants.
(1) The primers and oligonucleotide probes were designed and synthesized based on the sequences of bacterial 16SrRNA gene. The gene chip was prepared through the probes printed onto special glass slides. The gene chip included 18 special probes: universal probe 1, universal probe 2, Gram positive bacterial probe, Gram negative bacterial probe 1, Gram negative bacterial probe 2, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) 1, CoNS 2, Escherichia coli, Hemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacillus, Meningococcus, Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium; (2) Blood specimens from 285 cases of suspected septicemia were cultured and bacterial 16S rRNA gene was detected separately; DNA isolated from blood specimens and cerebrospinal fluid was amplified by PCR, and PCR products were hybridized with the probes on the gene chips. Hybridization results were scanned and read by laser-scanner.
(1) Of the 285 cases, 17 were positive by PCR and the positive rate (5.96%) was significantly higher than that of blood culture (2.81%) (P < 0.01). When blood culture was taken as control, the sensitivity of PCR was 100% and Specificity was 96.75%, the index of accurate diagnosis was 0.968. (2) The 17 specimens which showed positive results by PCR were further hybridized on the gene chip. All were positive by universal probes. Among all of them, 5 were positive by E. coli probe; 4 were positive by Staphylococcus epidermidis; two were positive by Bacillus and Propionibacterium probes, separately; 4 were positive by CoNS. The 8 specimens which showed positive results by both PCR and blood culture, the result of gene chip hybridization coincided with the result of blood culture.
Detection of the bacterial 16SrRNA genes in clinical specimens by gene chip hybridization technology can diagnose neonatal septicemia rapidly. This method has higher sensitivity and specificity than blood culture or other methods and can provide a rapid way for the etiological diagnosis of neonatal septicemia. Therefore the genechip method may be valuable and practical in early diagnosis of neonatal septicemia.
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 10/2004; 42(9):663-7.