[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typically, growth failure in Turner syndrome (TS) begins prenatally, and height sd score (SDS) declines progressively from birth.
This study aimed to determine whether GH treatment initiated before 4 yr of age in girls with TS could prevent subsequent growth failure. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with treatment response, to determine whether outcome could be predicted by a regression model using these factors, and to assess the safety of GH treatment in this young cohort.
This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial (Toddler Turner Study, August 1999 to August 2003).
The study was conducted at 11 U.S. pediatric endocrine centers.
Eighty-eight girls with TS, aged 9 months to 4 yr, were enrolled.
Interventions comprised recombinant GH (50 mug/kg.d; n = 45) or no treatment (n = 43) for 2 yr.
The main outcome measure was baseline-to-2-yr change in height SDS.
Short stature was evident at baseline (mean length/height SDS = -1.6 +/- 1.0 at mean age 24.0 +/- 12.1 months). Mean height SDS increased in the GH group from -1.4 +/- 1.0 to -0.3 +/- 1.1 (1.1 SDS gain), whereas it decreased in the control group from -1.8 +/- 1.1 to -2.2 +/- 1.2 (0.5 SDS decline), resulting in a 2-yr between-group difference of 1.6 +/- 0.6 SDS (P < 0.0001). The baseline variable that correlated most strongly with 2-yr height gain was the difference between mid-parental height SDS and subjects' height SDS (r = 0.32; P = 0.04). Although attained height SDS at 2 yr could be predicted with good accuracy using baseline variables alone (R(2) = 0.81; P < 0.0001), prediction of 2-yr change in height SDS required inclusion of initial treatment response data (4-month or 1-yr height velocity) in the model (R(2) = 0.54; P < 0.0001). No new or unexpected safety signals associated with GH treatment were detected.
Early GH treatment can correct growth failure and normalize height in infants and toddlers with TS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe a Gender Assessment Team that has provided a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, genetic counseling, and psychosocial support of patients with ambiguous genitalia, intersex disorders, and other genital anomalies, collectively termed disorders of sex development; and to determine the major diagnostic categories and approach.
A retrospective review of 250 patients evaluated by the Team at Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle, WA, from January 1981 through December 2005. The Team included the following specialties: medical genetics, cytogenetics, gynecology, pediatric urology, endocrinology, and psychiatry.
Of the subjects, 177 were infants, 46 were children or adolescents, and 27 had a multisystem genetic condition. The most common diagnoses were congenital adrenal hyperplasia (14%), androgen insensitivity syndrome (10%), mixed gonadal dysgenesis (8%), clitoral/labial anomalies (7%), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (6%), and 46,XY small-for-gestational-age males with hypospadias (6%).
The six most common diagnoses comprised 50% of the cohort. The expertise of a multidisciplinary team allowed for integrated care for patients with disorders of sex development and identification of novel conditions. Geneticists play an important role in a team approach through knowledge of genetic testing options and diagnosis of patients with karyotypic abnormalities and syndromes with genital anomalies.
Genetics in Medicine 07/2007; 9(6):348-57. · 5.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally twins are classified as dizygous or fraternal and monozygous or identical (Hall Twinning, 362, 2003 and 735-743). We report a rare case of 46,XX/46,XY twins: Twin A presented with ambiguous genitalia and Twin B was a phenotypically normal male. These twins demonstrate a third, previously unreported mechanism for twinning. The twins underwent initial investigation with 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone levels, pelvic ultrasound and diagnostic laparoscopy. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood cells and skin fibroblasts. Histological examination and Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on touch imprints were performed on gonadal biopsies. DNA analysis using more than 6,000 DNA markers was performed on skin fibroblast samples from the twins and on peripheral blood samples from both parents. Twin A was determined to be a true hermaphrodite and Twin B an apparently normal male. Both twins had a 46,XX/46,XY chromosome complement in peripheral lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, and gonadal biopsies. The proportion of XX to XY cells varied between the twins and the tissues evaluated. Most significantly the twins shared 100% of maternal alleles and approximately 50% of paternal alleles in DNA analysis of skin fibroblasts. The twins are chimeric and share a single genetic contribution from their mother but have two genetic contributions from their father thus supporting the existence of a third, previously unreported type of twinning.
Human Genetics 05/2007; 121(2):179-85. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little information exists regarding FSH values in very young girls with Turner syndrome (TS).
The objective of the study was to evaluate the pattern, natural progression, and karyotype-related differences in FSH secretion in young, prepubertal girls with TS.
FSH was measured at study entry and annually for 2 yr.
The Toddler Turner study was conducted at 11 U.S. pediatric endocrine centers.
Eighty-eight girls with karyotype-proven TS aged 9 months to 4 yr participated in the study.
By-karyotype differences in FSH concentration and age-related changes in FSH were measured.
Mean (+/- SD) FSH was markedly elevated in the 45,X (n = 56: 68.3 +/- 36.0 IU/liter) and Other groups [n = 15 (excluding three subjects with Y-containing karyotypes): 52.7 +/- 50.8 IU/liter] but was minimally elevated in girls with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (n = 14: 10.1 +/- 13.5 IU/liter, P < 0.005 both comparisons). Over the 2-yr period, FSH declined in the 45,X group (-13.4 IU/liter.yr, P < 0.0001). Nonetheless, only three of 159 FSH values fell within normal range for age at any time during the 2-yr study. FSH decline was similar in the Other group (-14.3 IU/liter.yr, P = 0.0032). In contrast, no significant decrease in FSH with age was observed in the 45,X/46,XX group.
In contrast to the original report of FSH concentrations in individuals with TS, this study demonstrates distinct differences in patterns of FSH secretion between young girls with monosomy TS, who have persistent elevation of FSH to age 6 yr, and those with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, whose FSH values suggest retained ovarian function in the majority. These findings have implications for patient management and family counseling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2-week-old infant presented with bilateral rib fractures, hypercalcemia, and subperiosteal bone erosions. Parathyroid hormone levels were elevated and urine calcium low. Her parent's laboratory test results were normal. Gene sequencing revealed a new mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor gene, causing severe neonatal hyperparathyroidism, a variant of hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. This is a rare cause of neonatal hyperparathyroidism and nonabusive fractures.
Pediatric emergency care 12/2006; 22(11):722-4. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caring for children with profound developmental disabilities can be difficult and demanding. For nonambulatory children with severe, combined neurologic and cognitive impairment, all the necessities of life must be provided by caregivers, usually parents, and these tasks become more difficult as the child grows to adolescence and adulthood. Many parents would like to continue caring for their child with special needs at home but find it difficult to do so as the child increases in size. If growth could be permanently arrested while the child was still small, both child and parent would likely benefit because this would facilitate the option of continued care in the home. Treatment of the child with high-dose estrogen, initiated at an early age, could provide this option. High-dose estrogen both inhibits growth and rapidly advances maturation of the epiphyseal growth plates, bringing about permanent attenuation in size after a relatively short period of treatment. We present a case report and discuss the medical and ethical considerations of such an intervention strategy. We suggest that after proper screening and informed consent, growth-attenuation therapy should be a therapeutic option available to these children should their parents request it.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 11/2006; 160(10):1013-7. · 4.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 23-month-old girl who presented with poor growth and delayed attainment of gross-motor milestones. Elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) indicated rhabdomyolysis, ultimately attributed to severe, acquired autoimmune hypothyroidism. Growth data and bone-age suggest the onset of hypothyroidism occurred at or before 12 months of age. Acquired hypothyroidism is rare before age 3 years, and rhabdomyolysis due to hypothyroidism has not previously been reported as a cause of delayed gross-motor development in toddlerhood. Despite the early onset of hypothyroidism, cognitive function appeared to be unaffected. Adequate thyroid hormone replacement quickly normalized the CPK in our patient, and gross motor development rapidly improved. Although rare, rhabdomyolysis secondary to hypothyroidism should be in the differential diagnosis of delayed gross-motor development in infancy and toddlerhood.
European Journal of Pediatrics 06/2006; 165(5):320-2. · 1.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder due to an absent or abnormal X chromosome. The two most typical features are short stature and gonadal dysgenesis. There is a wide range of other phenotypic features, many of which are thought secondary to lymphedema during embryogenesis. Reviewed are common sequelae of lymphatic obstruction, as well as common tooth and skin findings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate differences in phenotype and other clinical features between patients who have Turner syndrome diagnosed incidentally (on the basis of a prenatal karyotype performed for reasons unrelated to suspicion of Turner syndrome, eg, advanced maternal age) or traditionally (on the basis of either a prenatal karyotype performed for abnormal ultrasound findings or a postnatal karyotype performed for clinical findings suggesting Turner syndrome).
Analysis was performed on baseline data from 88 girls, aged 9 months to 4 years, who were randomized into a multicenter growth hormone intervention trial. Baseline information included a detailed medical history (especially of cardiac and renal anomalies), examination for presence of phenotypic features characteristic of Turner syndrome, length or height (depending on age) expressed as a standard deviation score, and weight standard deviation score. Patients were classified to either the "incidental" (N = 16) or the "traditional" (N = 72) diagnosis group as described above.
The incidental group had significantly fewer total phenotypic features of Turner syndrome than the traditional group (3.6 +/- 2.9 vs 6.7 +/- 2.9). When subgrouped by karyotype, the proportion of patients who manifested phenotypic features was greatest in patients with a 45,X nonmosaic karyotype, lowest in the patients with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and intermediate in those with "other" karyotypes. Fewer congenital cardiac defects were observed in the incidental group (31%) compared with the traditional group (64%), but there was no difference between the groups in the prevalence of renal defects. Karyotype distribution differed significantly between the traditional and incidental groups: 74% versus 19% had the nonmosaic 45,X karyotype in the traditional group and 7% versus 56% had the mosaic 45,X/46,XX karyotype.
Patients whose Turner syndrome was diagnosed incidentally had significantly fewer phenotypic features and cardiac defects, as well as a greater proportion of mosaic karyotypes, compared with patients whose Turner syndrome was diagnosed clinically. These results support the theory that significant ascertainment bias exists in our understanding Turner syndrome, with important implications for prenatal counseling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cushing syndrome is uncommon in childhood and rare in infancy. We report the case of a 3-yr-old child who presented with symptoms of Cushing syndrome beginning shortly after birth. Her hypercortisolemia was cyclical, causing relapsing and remitting symptoms, which eventually led to suspicions of possible Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Investigation at the National Institutes of Health excluded exogenous administration of glucocorticoids and indicated ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome. Paradoxical response to dexamethasone stimulation (Liddle's test) suggested a diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). After bilateral adrenalectomy, both glands showed micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia, but histology was not consistent with typical PPNAD. DNA analysis of the coding sequences of the PRKAR1A gene (associated with PPNAD and Carney complex) and the GNAS gene (associated with McCune-Albright syndrome) showed no mutations. We conclude that hypercortisolemia in infancy may be caused by micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia, which can be cyclical and confused with exogenous Cushing syndrome. A paradoxical rise of glucocorticoid excretion during Liddle's test may delineate these patients. Infantile micronodular disease has some features of PPNAD and may represent its early form; however, at least in the case of the patient reported here, micronodular hyperplasia was not caused by coding mutations of the PRKAR1A or GNAS genes or associated with typical histology or any other features of Carney complex or McCune-Albright syndrome and may represent a distinct entity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marshall-Smith syndrome is characterized by accelerated osseous maturation, craniofacial anomalies, failure to thrive, psychomotor delay, hypotonia, pulmonary dysfunction, and limited life expectancy. We describe a 7-year-old girl who, in addition to meeting these criteria for Marshall-Smith syndrome, had multiple fractures and skeletal anomalies. The purpose of this report is to draw attention to Marshall-Smith syndrome as one of the skeletal dysplasias characterized by osseous fragility.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2003; 119A(2):218-22. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that girls with Turner syndrome (TS) experience growth failure early in life and to establish model-based normative growth charts for 0- to 8-year-old American girls with TS. Full-term girls with TS who had 5 or more measurements of height obtained during their first 10 years of life prior to initiation of growth hormone, estrogen and/or androgen therapy were eligible for this study. A nonlinear mixed-effects model comprising the first two components of the infancy-childhood-puberty (ICP) model of growth was fitted to the longitudinal height measurements and compared with those of healthy American girls. Height measurements (n = 1,146) from 112 girls with TS (45,X: 57.1%; 45,X/46,XX: 12.5%; 46,X, iso(X): 4.5%, and other: 25.9%) were analyzed. Mean height SDS fell from -0.68 at birth to -1.60 at 1 year, -1.80 at 2 years and -1.95 at 3 years. When compared to controls (676 girls, 4,537 measurements), girls with TS grew more slowly due to three principal factors: a slow growth rate of the infancy component, a slow growth rate at the onset of the childhood component, and delayed onset of the childhood component. Traditional concepts of growth failure in TS should be revised. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of TS in any girl with unexplained failure to thrive or short stature, even in the first 3 years of life.
Hormone Research 02/2002; 57(5-6):157-64. · 2.48 Impact Factor