O. Tajima

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (258)979.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We constrain anisotropic cosmic birefringence using four-point correlations of even-parity $E$-mode and odd-parity $B$-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background measurements made by the POLARBEAR experiment in its first season of observations. We find that the anisotropic cosmic birefringence signal from any parity violating processes is consistent with zero. The Faraday rotation from anisotropic cosmic birefringence can be compared with the equivalent quantity generated by primordial magnetic fields if they existed. The POLARBEAR non-detection translates into a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limit of 93 nano-Gauss (nG) on the amplitude of an equivalent primordial magnetic field inclusive of systematic uncertainties. This four-point correlation constraint on Faraday rotation is about 15 times tighter than the upper limit of 1380 nG inferred from constraining the contribution of Faraday rotation to two-point correlations of $B$-modes measured by Planck in 2015. Metric perturbations sourced by primordial magnetic fields would also contribute to the $B$-mode power spectrum. Using the POLARBEAR measurements of the $B$-mode power spectrum (two-point correlation), we set a 95% C.L. upper limit of 3.9 nG on primordial magnetic fields assuming a flat prior on the field amplitude. This limit is comparable to what was found in the Planck 2015 two-point correlation analysis with both temperature and polarization. We perform a set of systematic error tests and find no evidence for contamination. This work marks the first time that anisotropic cosmic birefringence or primordial magnetic fields have been constrained from the ground at sub-degree scales.
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    ABSTRACT: We present polarization observations of two Galactic plane fields centered on Galactic coordinates (l,b)=(0 deg,0 deg) and (329 deg, 0 deg) at Q- (43 GHz) and W-band (95 GHz), covering between 301 and 539 square degrees depending on frequency and field. These measurements were made with the QUIET instrument between 2008 October and 2010 December, and include a total of 1263 hours of observations. The resulting maps represent the deepest large-area Galactic polarization observations published to date at the relevant frequencies with instrumental rms noise varying between 1.8 and 2.8 uK deg, 2.3-6 times deeper than corresponding WMAP and Planck maps. The angular resolution is 27.3' and 12.8' FWHM at Q- and W-band, respectively. We find excellent agreement between the QUIET and WMAP maps over the entire fields, and no compelling evidence for significant residual instrumental systematic errors in either experiment, whereas the Planck 44 GHz map deviates from these in a manner consistent with reported systematic uncertainties for this channel. We combine QUIET and WMAP data to compute inverse-variance-weighted average maps, effectively retaining small angular scales from QUIET and large angular scales from WMAP. From these combined maps, we derive constraints on several important astrophysical quantities, including a robust detection of polarized synchrotron spectral index steepening of ~0.2 off the plane, as well as the Faraday rotation measure toward the Galactic center (RM=-4000 +/- 200 rad m^-2), all of which are consistent with previously published results. Both the raw QUIET and the co-added QUIET+WMAP maps are made publicly available together with all necessary ancillary information.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2015; 811(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/89 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present polarization measurements of extragalactic radio sources observed during the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization survey of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), operating at 43 GHz (Q-band) and 95 GHz (W-band). We examine sources selected at 20 GHz from the public, $>$40 mJy catalog of the Australia Telescope (AT20G) survey. There are $\sim$480 such sources within QUIET's four low-foreground survey patches, including the nearby radio galaxies Centaurus A and Pictor A. The median error on our polarized flux density measurements is 30--40 mJy per Stokes parameter. At S/N $> 3$ significance, we detect linear polarization for seven sources in Q-band and six in W-band; only $1.3 \pm 1.1$ detections per frequency band are expected by chance. For sources without a detection of polarized emission, we find that half of the sources have polarization amplitudes below 90 mJy (Q-band) and 106 mJy (W-band), at 95% confidence. Finally, we compare our polarization measurements to intensity and polarization measurements of the same sources from the literature. For the four sources with WMAP and Planck intensity measurements $>1$ Jy, the polarization fraction are above 1% in both QUIET bands. At high significance, we compute polarization fractions as much as 10--20% for some sources, but the effects of source variability may cut that level in half for contemporaneous comparisons. Our results indicate that simple models---ones that scale a fixed polarization fraction with frequency---are inadequate to model the behavior of these sources and their contributions to polarization maps.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2015; 806(1):112. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/112 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A precise measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provides us rich information about the universe. In particular, its asymmetric polarization patterns, B-modes, are smoking gun signature of inflationary universe. Magnitude of the B-modes is order of 10 nK. Its measurement requires a high sensitive millimeter-wave telescope with a large number of superconducting detectors on its focal plane. Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) is appropriate detector for this purpose. MKID camera has been developed in cooperation of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), and Okayama University. Our developments of MKID include: fabrication of high-quality superconducting film; optical components for a camera use; and readout electronics. For performance evaluation of total integrated system of our MKID camera, a calibration system was also developed. The system was incorporated in a 0.1 K dilution refrigerator with modulated polarization source. These developed technologies are applicable to other types of detectors.
    IEICE Transactions on Electronics 03/2015; E98.C(3):207-218. DOI:10.1587/transele.E98.C.207 · 0.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements, and find that the polarization fraction of atmospheric emission is below 1.0 percent. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 809(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/809/1/63 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C. Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.
    European Physical Journal C 11/2014; DOI:10.1140/epjc/s10052-014-3026-9 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    S. Oguri · H. Ishitsuka · J. Choi · M. Kawai · O. Tajima ·
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a cryogenic system on a rotating table that achieves sub-Kelvin conditions. The cryogenic system consists of a helium sorption cooler and a pulse tube cooler in a cryostat mounted on a rotating table. Two rotary-joint connectors for electricity and helium gas circulation enable the coolers to be operated and maintained with ease. We performed cool-down tests under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. We obtained a temperature of 0.23 K with a holding time of more than 24 hours, thus complying with catalog specifications. We monitored the system's performance for four weeks; two weeks with and without rotation. A few-percent difference in conditions was observed between these two states. Most applications can tolerate such a slight difference. The technology developed is useful for various scientific applications requiring sub-Kelvin conditions on rotating platforms.
    Review of Scientific Instruments 05/2014; 85(8). DOI:10.1063/1.4891618 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • S. Oguri · J. Choi · M. Hazumi · M. Kawai · O. Tajima · E. Won · M. Yoshida ·
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    ABSTRACT: GroundBIRD is a ground-based experiment designed to detect large angular scale odd-parity patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization (B -modes). We employ a high-speed rotation scan (20 rpm) instead of the usual left-right azimuthal scan; it allows a significant expansion of the scan range to 60^{circ } without any effect from the detector 1/f noise. We use microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) arrays with a small telescope; our target multipole (ell ) range is 6 le ell le 300 . We plan to start the test observation in Japan in 2014; these will then be moved to the Atacama highland in Chile for scientific observations.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 01/2014; 176(5-6). DOI:10.1007/s10909-014-1138-0 · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • K. Takahashi · S. Mima · S. Oguri · C. Otani · O. Tajima · H. Watanabe · M. Yoshida ·
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a calibration system with a modulated polarization source for superconducting detectors at the 0.1-K stage in a dilution cooler. Our target application for this system is detector calibration for observations of the cosmic microwave background polarization. For this application, the calibration system is required to generate a well-characterized polarization signal in a wide frequency range; e.g., 20-300 GHz. The calibration system is attached at the bottom of the 0.1-K stage. Radio absorbers, which are attached to the inner wall of a cylindrical metal shield, emit unpolarized black-body radiation (4.5 K). The radiation reflects off an aluminum mirror at 120 K, which induces a linearly polarized component because of the finite emissivity of the mirror; the magnitude of the polarization is 60 mK in this configuration. The axis of polarization can be varied by rotation of the mirror. Therefore, the detectors measure the modulated polarization; however, unpolarized radiation into the detector is maintained constant. We succeeded in cooling the system properly. The sample stage for setting the detector achieved a temperature below 0.1 K under the 5 K load condition (some of the radiation from the absorbers and the mirror emission, 0.5 K). High-frequency components of emission from the mirror are shielded by using two thermal filters: polytetrafluoroethylene and nylon 66.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 12/2013; 176(5-6). DOI:10.1007/s10909-013-1054-8 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of radioactivity from liquid scintillator has been studied in preparation of a low background phase of KamLAND. This paper describes the methods and techniques developed to measure and efficiently extract radon decay products from liquid scintillator. We report the radio-isotope reduction factors obtained when applying various extraction methods. During this study, distillation was identified as the most efficient method for removing radon daughters from liquid scintillator.
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    ABSTRACT: LiteBIRD is a next-generation satellite mission to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. On large angular scales the B-mode polarization of the CMB carries the imprint of primordial gravitational waves, and its precise measurement would provide a powerful probe of the epoch of inflation. The goal of LiteBIRD is to achieve a measurement of the characterizing tensor to scalar ratio $r$ to an uncertainty of $\delta r=0.001$. In order to achieve this goal we will employ a kilo-pixel superconducting detector array on a cryogenically cooled sub-Kelvin focal plane with an optical system at a temperature of 4~K. We are currently considering two detector array options; transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID). In this paper we give an overview of LiteBIRD and describe a TES-based polarimeter designed to achieve the target sensitivity of 2~$\mu$K$\cdot$arcmin over the frequency range 50 to 320~GHz.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 11/2013; 176(5-6). DOI:10.1007/s10909-013-0996-1 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    J Choi · H Ishitsuka · S Mima · S Oguri · K Takahashi · O Tajima ·
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    ABSTRACT: In the field of radiowave detection, enlarging the receiver aperture to enhance the amount of light detected is essential for greater scientific achievements. One challenge in using radio transmittable apertures is keeping the detectors cool. This is because transparency to thermal radiation above the radio frequency range increases the thermal load. In shielding from thermal radiation, a general strategy is to install thermal filters in the light path between aperture and detectors. However, there is difficulty in fabricating metal mesh filters of large diameters. It is also difficult to maintain large diameter absorptive-type filters in cold because of their limited thermal conductance. A technology that maintains cold conditions while allowing larger apertures has been long-awaited. We propose radio-transparent multi-layer insulation (RT-MLI) composed from a set of stacked insulating layers. The insulator is transparent to radio frequencies, but not transparent to infrared radiation. The basic idea for cooling is similar to conventional multi-layer insulation. It leads to a reduction in thermal radiation while maintaining a uniform surface temperature. The advantage of this technique over other filter types is that no thermal links are required. As insulator material, we used foamed polystyrene; its low index of refraction makes an anti-reflection coating unnecessary. We measured the basic performance of RT-MLI to confirm that thermal loads are lowered with more layers. We also confirmed that our RT-MLI has high transmittance to radiowaves, but blocks infrared radiation. For example, RT-MLI with 12 layers has a transmittance greater than 95% (lower than 1%) below 200 GHz (above 4 THz). We demonstrated its effects in a system with absorptive-type filters, where aperture diameters were 200 mm. Low temperatures were successfully maintained for the filters. We conclude that this technology significantly enhances the cooling of radiowave receivers, and is particularly suitable for large-aperture systems. This technology is expected to be applicable to various fields, including radio astronomy, geo-environmental assessment, and radar systems.
    The Review of scientific instruments 11/2013; 84(11):114502. DOI:10.1063/1.4827081 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the cosmic microwave background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales(~1°). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters that form the focal planes use a compact design based on high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 μKs1/2) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 μKs1/2 at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range ℓ ~ 25-975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance, and sources of systematic error of the instrument.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 768(1):9. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/768/1/9 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    S Oguri · J Choi · M Kawai · O Tajima ·
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation.
    The Review of scientific instruments 05/2013; 84(5):055116. DOI:10.1063/1.4807750 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The machine commissioning of KEKB started in December 1998 and its operation was terminated at the end of June 2010 to upgrade KEKB to SuperKEKB. In this paper, we summarize the history of KEKB and show the achievements made there.
    Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics 03/2013; 2013(3). DOI:10.1093/ptep/pts102 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present our recent development of superconducting detectors for measurements of cosmic microwave background. We have fabricated antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs). Two different types of STJs have been fabricated: the parallel-connected twin junction and the microstrip. Both types of STJs made of Nb and Al have successfully detected 80GHz millimeter wave radiation with photon-assisted tunneling. We have also developed microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The MKIDs offer us high multiplexing factors with a single readout line using the frequency-domain readout. We have developed abosrption-type and transmission-type MKIDs whose resonators are formed with either coplanar waveguides (CPW) or microstrips. The quality factor of the CPW MKID made of Nb is measured to be about 105. The microstrip MKID is being developed for the multichroic measurements. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the organizing committee for TIPP 11.
    Physics Procedia 12/2012; 37:1406-1412. DOI:10.1016/j.phpro.2012.02.478
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    ABSTRACT: Odd-parity patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, B-modes, could provide important cosmological information. Detection of the primordial B-mode power at a large angular scale would be a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. In particular, detecting a reionization bump (at a multipole of <= 10) should be a clear evidence of it. GroundBIRD is designed to detect the B-mode signal at this large angular scale from the ground. We will use superconducting detector arrays with small telescope that will also be cooled down to 4K. Therefore, the basic design can be extended to a satellite experiment. GroundBIRD employs a high-speed (20 rpm) rotation scan instead of the usual left-right azimuthal scan; this allows us to maintain a high-speed scan without any deceleration, resulting in a significant expansion of the scan range to 60° without any effect of the detector 1/f noise. Our target is measuring the CMB polarization power in a multipole (l) range of 6 <= l <= 300. We plan to start commissioning the instruments in Japan in early 2014; they will then be moved to the Atacama Desert in Chile for scientific observations.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2012; 8452. DOI:10.1117/12.925816 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose an innovative demodulation scheme for coherent detectors used in cosmic microwave background polarization experiments. Removal of non-white noise, e.g., narrow-band noise, in detectors is one of the key requirements for the experiments. A combination of modulation and demodulation is used to extract polarization signals as well as to suppress such noise. Traditional demodulation, which is based on the two-point numerical differentiation, works as a first-order high pass filter for the noise. The proposed demodulation is based on the three-point numerical differentiation. It works as a second-order high pass filter. By using a real detector, we confirmed significant improvements of suppression power for the narrow-band noise. We also found improvement of the noise floor, which is from the stronger suppression to the tail of 1/f noise.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2012; 8452:37-. DOI:10.1117/12.925784 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polarimeters used in cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments must be well calibrated to measure faint CMB polarization patterns with low systematic errors. Polarimeter characteristics generally vary with the incident load temperature (Tload). Therefore, re-producing the observing conditions in the laboratory is an important concern. For polarimeters, we developed a characterization system with cryogenically cooled loads. The loads generate unpolarized radiation (15 K and 30 K), comparable to the typical sky temperature of the best sites on the ground, e.g., the Atacama Desert in Chile (Tload ˜ 15 K). The radiation from the loads is reflected by a metal mirror in the cryostat, yielding partially polarized radiation (600 mK), entering a feed horn on the polarimeter. Rotation of the mirror alters the incident angle of the polarization and causes periodic switching of the load temperature for Y -factor measurements. We demonstrated the validity of the system using a polarimeter developed for an upgrade of QUIET (QUIET-II), which can obtain the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U simultaneously. The system characterized all the necessary properties, e.g., the responses for I, Q, and U, and their crosstalk. In addition, a wide range of polarimeter bias conditions was surveyed. The principle of the characterization system is not limited to a particular frequency or detection scheme. Thus, various types of state-of-the-art detectors can be calibrated by using this system.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2012; 8452:36-. DOI:10.1117/12.925626 · 0.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
979.91 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2015
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2005-2014
    • High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
      • Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Seoul National University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Applied Physics
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2007
    • Institute of Nuclear Physics
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
    • Jožef Stefan Institute
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    • Fu Jen Catholic University
      • Department of Physics
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2005-2007
    • Hefei University of Technology
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 2004-2007
    • National Taiwan University
      • Department of Physics
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Institut für Hochenergiephysik Wien
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2006
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Blacksburg, Virginia, United States
    • Nagoya University
      • Graduate School of Science
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
  • 2005-2006
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Physics
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
      Novo-Nikolaevsk, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • 2004-2005
    • Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
    • Kanagawa University
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2003-2004
    • Tohoku University
      • Research Center for Neutrino Science
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi, Japan