[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three new tetra-ferrocenylethynylpyridinyl copper complexes, L4(CuI)4 (3), L4(CuBr)2 (4), and L4(CuCl)2 (5) have been prepared from the reaction of ferrocenylethynylpyridine (L)(2) with copper halides CuX (with X = I(-), Br(-), Cl(-)).The ligand 2 and the complexes 3-5 have been fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. The structures of 2-4 have been confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. 2 forms a dimer in the crystalline-state through C-H··N hydrogen bonds. 4 and 5 are dimers and 3 a tetramer, in all cases linked through Cu-X··Cu bridging interactions. Cyclic voltammetry in dichloroethane showed chemically reversible multiferrocenyl oxidation signals with evidence for product electro-crystallization. The oxidation products were isolated by electrodeposition onto a Pt disc electrode and investigated by scanning electron microscopy which confirmed the spontaneous formation of crystalline oxidation products with distinctive morphologies. Energy dispersive X-ray elemental analysis shows the presence of hexafluorophosphate (counterion) with the P:Fe ratio of 1:1, 0.5:1, and 1:1 for the electrocrystallized products 3, 4, and 5, respectively, suggesting the formulas (4+)(PF6(-))4, (2+)(PF6(-))2, and (4+)(PF6(-))4 for the electro-crystallized products.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new series of bis(ferrocenylethynyl) complexes, 3-7, and a mono(ferrocenylethynyl) complex, 8, have been synthesized incorporating conjugated heterocyclic spacer groups, with the ethynyl group facilitating an effective long-range intramolecular interaction. The complexes were characterized by NMR, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography. The redox properties of these complexes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry. Although there is a large separation of ∼14 Å between the two redox centers, ΔE1/2 values in this series of complexes ranged from 50 to 110 mV. The appearance of intervalance charge-transfer bands in the UV-vis-near-IR region for the monocationic complexes further confirmed effective intramolecular electronic communication. Computational studies are presented that show the degree of delocalization across the Fc-C≡C-C≡C-Fc (Fc = C5H5FeC5H4) highest occupied molecular orbital.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intrinsic non-radiative decay (internal conversion) from the triplet excited state in phosphorescent dyes can be described by a multi-phonon emission process. Since non-radiative decay of triplet excitons can be a significant process in organic light-emitting diodes, a detailed understanding of this decay mechanism is important if the overall device efficiency is to be controlled. We compare a deuterated Pt(II)-containing phenylene ethynylene with its non-deuterated counterpart in order to investigate which phonon modes control to the non-radiative decay path. We observe that deuteration does not decrease the non-radiative decay rate. A Franck-Condon analysis of the phosphorescence spectra shows that the electronic excitation is coupled strongly to the breathing mode of the phenyl ring and the C≡C carbon stretching modes, while high-energy C-H or C-D stretching modes play an insignificant role. We, therefore, associate the internal conversion process with the carbon-carbon stretching vibrations.
The Journal of chemical physics 03/2012; 136(9):094905. · 3.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of trimethylsilyl-protected di-alkynes incorporating 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) linker groups Me(3)Si-C≡C-R-C≡C-SiMe(3) (R = ethylenedioxythiophene-3,4-diyl 1a, 2,2'-bis-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-5,5'-diyl 2a, 2,2',5',2''-ter-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-5,5''-diyl 3a) and the corresponding terminal di-alkynes, H-C≡C-R-C≡C-H 1b-2b has been synthesized and characterized and the single crystal X-ray structure of 1a has been determined. CuI-catalyzed dehydrohalogenation reaction between trans-[(Ph)(Et(3)P)(2)PtCl] and the terminal di-alkynes 1b-2b in (i)Pr(2)NH/CH(2)Cl(2) (2:1 mole ratio) gives the Pt(II) di-ynes trans-[(Et(3)P)(2)(Ph)Pt-C≡C-R-C≡C-Pt(Ph)(Et(3)P)(2)] 1M-2M while the dehydrohalogenation polycondensation reaction between trans-[((n)Bu(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)] and 1b-2b (1:1 mole ratio) under similar reaction conditions affords the Pt(II) poly-ynes trans-[Pt(P(n)Bu(3))(2)-C≡C-R-C≡C-](n)1P-2P. The di-ynes and poly-ynes have been characterized spectroscopically and, for 1M and 2M, by single-crystal X-ray which confirms the "rigid rod" di-yne backbone. The materials possess excellent thermal stability, are soluble in common organic solvents and readily cast into thin films. Optical absorption spectroscopic measurements reveal that the EDOT spacers create stronger donor-acceptor interactions between the platinum(II) centres and conjugated ligands along the rigid backbone of the organometallic polymers compared to the related non-fused and fused oligothiophene spacers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis and characterization of the thieno[3,2-b]thiophene and dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]thiophene containing platinum(II) poly-ynes and their molecular precursors is described and the electronic structure is established by absorption, luminescence and photoinduced absorption measurements. A comparison of the electronic structure of the fused and the nonfused oligothiophenes, thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]thiophene, 2,2′-bithiophene, and 2,2′:5′,2′′-terthiophene incorporated in platinum(II) poly-ynes is reported. We find the singlet S1 and triplet T1 and Tn excited states to be at higher energy in thin films made from the fused systems than from the nonfused systems. For ligands with the same number of rings, we attribute this to the decreased number of double bonds in the fused system and to the presence of an additional sulfur atom in spacers with the same number of double bonds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of novel platinum-containing carbazole monomers and polymers was synthesized and fully characterized by UV-VIS absorption, luminescence, and photoinduced absorption studies. In these compounds, a carbazole unit is incorporated into the main chain via either a para- or a meta-linkage. We discuss the effects of linkage and polymerization on the energy levels of S1, T1, and Tn. The S1-T1 splitting observed for the meta-linked monomer (0.4 eV) is only half of that in the para-linked monomer (0.8 eV). Upon polymerization, the exchange energy in the para-linked compound reduces, yet still remains larger than in the meta-linked polymer. We attribute the difference in exchange energy to the difference in wave function overlap between electron and hole in these compounds.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 07/2006; 124(24):244701. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance at room temperature in polyfluorence sandwich devices, we have performed a comprehensive magnetoresistance study on a set of organic semiconductor sandwich devices made from different pi-conjugated polymers and small molecules. The measurements were performed at different temperatures, ranging from 10K to 300K, and at magnetic fields, $B < 100mT$. We observed large negative or positive magnetoresistance (up to 10% at 300K and 10mT) depending on material and device operating conditions. We compare the results obtained in devices made from different materials with the goal of providing a comprehensive picture of the experimental data. We discuss our results in the framework of known magnetoresistance mechanisms and find that none of the existing models can explain our results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been found in recent measurements that the singlet-to-triplet exciton ratio in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is larger than expected from spin degeneracy, and that singlet excitons form at a larger rate than triplets. We employed the technique of optically detected magnetic resonance to measure the spin-dependent exciton formation rates in films of a polymer and corresponding monomer, and explore the relation between the formation rates and the actual singlet-to-triplet ratio measured previously in OLEDs. We found that the spin-dependent exciton formation rates can indeed quantitatively explain the observed exciton yields, and that singlet formation rates and yields are significantly enhanced only in polymer OLEDs, but not in OLEDs made from the corresponding monomer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of protected and terminal dialkynes with extended pi-conjugation through a condensed aromatic linker unit in the backbone, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)naphthalene, 1,4-bis(ethynyl)naphthalene, 9,10-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)anthracene, 9,10-bis(ethynyl)anthracene, have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The solid-state structures of and have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Reaction of two equivalents of the complex trans-[Ph(Et(3)P)(2)PtCl] with an equivalent of the terminal dialkynes 1,4-bis(ethynyl)benzene and, in (i)Pr(2)NH-CH(2)Cl(2), in the presence of CuI, at room temperature, afforded the platinum(II) di-ynes trans-[Ph(Et(3)P)(2)Pt-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-R-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-Pt(PEt(3))(2)Ph](R = benzene-1,4-diyl; naphthalene-1,4-diyl and anthracene-9,10-diyl ) while reactions between equimolar quantities of trans-[((n)Bu(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)] and under similar conditions readily afforded the platinum(II) poly-ynes trans-[-((n)Bu(3)P)(2)Pt-C[triple bond]C-R-C[triple bond]C-](n)(R = naphthalene-1,4-diyl and anthracene-9,10-diyl ). The Pt(II) diynes and poly-ynes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods, and the single crystal X-ray structures of and have been determined. These structures confirm the trans-square planar geometry at the platinum centres and the linear nature of the molecules. The di-ynes and poly-ynes are soluble in organic solvents and readily cast into thin films. Optical spectroscopic measurements reveal that the electron-rich naphthalene and anthracene spacers create strong donor-acceptor interactions between the Pt(II) centres and conjugated ligands along the rigid backbone of the organometallic polymers. Thermogravimetry shows that the di-ynes possess a somewhat higher thermal stability than the corresponding poly-ynes. Both the Pt(II) di-ynes and the poly-ynes exhibit increasing thermal stability along the series of spacers from phenylene through naphthalene to anthracene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is concerned with the characterisation of the injection properties of the manganite compound La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and its use as a spin-polarised anode in polymer light-emitting diodes. Charge carrier injection and electroluminescence in a polymer LED with an LSMO anode is achieved. A dependence of the current–voltage characteristics of LEDs with LSMO anodes on the temperature is observed and compared to the behaviour of LEDs with standard ITO anodes. The temperature dependence is shown to be due to improved hole injection at low temperatures, possibly originating from magnetic ordering upon cooling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the polarization of optical transitions associated with the singlet S1 and triplet T1 and Tn excited states in a uniaxially aligned platinum-containing conjugated polymer which contains a 2-methoxy-5-(′-ethyl)-hexyloxy (MEH)-substituted phenyl ring. For the singlet S1 state, which is extended along the polymer chain, we find the corresponding absorption and emission to be polarized parallel to the chain as seen for other conjugated polymers. However, for the triplet excited states, we find that the emission from the highly localized T1 state has components both parallel and perpendicular to the polymer chain, while the absorption from T1 into the delocalized Tn state is polarized entirely parallel to the chain. We discuss this connection between the spatial extent of the excited state and the polarization of the associated optical transitions and consider how the spin-orbit coupling mechanism can influence the polarization of emission from the T1 state.
Physical Review B 03/2003; 67(12). · 3.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 1,4-diethynylbenzene (1) derivatives, H–CC–R–CC–H with R=C6H3NH2
(2), C6H3F (3), C6H2F2-2,5 (4), C6F4
(5), C6H2(OCH3)2-2,5 (6) and C6H2(OnC8H17)2-2,5 (7) has been synthesised and their crystal structures determined by single crystal (2–5) or powder (6, 7) X-ray diffraction. The CCHπCC hydrogen bonds dominating structure 1 are gradually replaced by CC–HF ones with the increase of fluorination (3→5), or completely replaced by CCHN and NHπCC bonds in 2, and CCHO in 6 and 7. The related platinum-based polymers, trans-[–Pt(PnBu3)2–CC–R–CC–]n
(R=as above and C6H4,) have been prepared and characterised by spectroscopic methods and thermogravimetry, which show that the amino- and methoxy-derivatives have lowest thermal stability while the fluorinated ones exhibit increasing thermal stability with increasing fluorination. Optical spectroscopic measurements reveal that substituents on the aromatic spacer group do not create strong donor–acceptor interactions along the rigid backbone of the organometallic polymers.
New Journal of Chemistry 01/2003; · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of trimethylsilyl-protected and terminal mono- and bis-alkynes based on 9,9-dioctylfluorene, 2-(trimethylsilylethynyl)-9,9-dioctylfluorene 1a, 2-ethynyl-9,9-dioctylfluorene 1b, 2,7-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)-9,9-dioctylfluorene 2a, 2,7-bis(ethynyl)-9,9-dioctylfluorene 2b, have been synthesised. Reaction of trans-[(PnBu3)2PtCl2] with 2 equivalents of the terminal ethyne 1b yields the mononuclear platinum(II) diyne 3, reaction of trans-[(Ph)(Et3P)2PtCl] with 0.5 equivalents of the diterminal ethyne 2b gives the dinuclear platinum(II) diyne 4 while 1 ∶ 1 reaction between trans-[(PnBu3)2PtCl2] and 2b gives the platinum(II) poly-yne 5. Treatment of 2,5-dioctyloxy-1,4-diiodobenzene with 1b in 1 ∶ 2 stoichiometry produces the organic di-yne 6 while 1 ∶ 1 reaction between 2,5-dioctyloxy-1,4-diiodobenzene and 2b, 2,7-bis(ethynyl)fluorene or 2,7-bis(ethynyl)fluoren-9-one produces the organic co-poly-ynes 7–9. All the new materials have been characterised by analytical and spectroscopic methods and the single crystal X-ray structures of 2a and 3 have been determined. The diynes and poly-ynes are soluble in organic solvents and are readily cast into thin films. Optical spectroscopic measurements reveal that the attachment of octyl side-chains on the fluorenyl spacer reduces inter-chain interaction in the poly-ynes while a fluorenonyl spacer creates a donor–acceptor interaction along the rigid backbone of the organometallic poly-ynes and organic co-poly-ynes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new series of rigid rod protected and terminal dialkynes with extended π-conjugation through aromatic and hetero-aromatic linker units in the backbone, 2,5-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)-1-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-4-methoxybenzene 1a, 2,5-bis(ethynyl)-1-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-4-methoxybenzene 1b, 5,8-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)quinoline 2a, 5,8-bis(ethynyl)quinoline 2b, 2,3-diphenyl-5,8-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)quinoxaline 3a, 2,3-diphenyl-5,8-bis(ethynyl)quinoxaline 3b, 4,7-bis(trimethysilylethynyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole 4a and 4,7-bis(ethynyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole 4b, has been synthesised. Treatment of the complex trans-[Pt(Ph)(Cl)(Et3P)2] with half an equivalent of the diterminal alkynes 1b–4b in iPr2NH–CH2Cl2, in the presence of CuI, at room temperature, afforded the platinum(II) di-yne complexes trans-[(Et3P)2(Ph)Pt–CC–R–CC–Pt(Ph)(Et3P)2] [R = 1-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-4-methoxybenzene-2,5-diyl 1c, quninoline-5,8-diyl 2c, 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline-5,8-diyl 3c, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl 4c] in good yields. The new acetylide-functionalised ligands and the platinum(II)
σ-acetylide complexes have been characterised by analytical and spectroscopic methods and X-ray single crystal structure determinations for 2c–4c. The absorption spectra of the complexes 2c–4c show substantial donor–acceptor interaction between the platinum(II) centres and the conjugated ligands. The photoluminescence spectra of 1c–3c show characteristic singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) emissions. Both the singlet and triplet emissions as well as the absorption decrease in energy with increasing electronegativity of the spacer groups along the series 1c–4c.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By use of optical steady state and time resolved spectroscopy, we studied the evolution of the triplet excited state in a series of six ethynylenic polymers of the structure [-Pt(PBu3n)2-C�C-R-C�C-]n where the spacer unit R is systematically varied to give optical gaps from 1.7–3.0 eV. The inclusion of platinum in the polymer backbone induces a strong spin-orbit coupling such that triplet state emission (phosphorescence) associated with the conjugated system can be detected. Throughout the series we find the S1-T1 (singlet-triplet) energy splitting to be independent of the spacer R, such that the T1 state is always 0.7±0.1 eV below the S1 state. With decreasing optical gap, the intensity and lifetime of the triplet state emission were seen to reduce in accordance with the energy gap law.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 11/2000; 113(17). · 3.16 Impact Factor