[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WHIM syndrome is a rare immunodeficiency disorder caused by gain-of-function mutations in the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor, which is FDA-approved for stem cell mobilization in cancer and administered for that indication at 0.24 mg/kg, has been shown in short-term (1-2 week) Phase 1 dose escalation studies to correct neutropenia and other cytopenias in WHIM syndrome; however, long-term safety and long-term hematologic and clinical efficacy data are lacking. Here we report results from the first long-term clinical trial of plerixafor in any disease, in which three adults with WHIM syndrome self-injected 0.01-0.02 mg/kg (4-8% of the FDA-approved dose) subcutaneously twice daily for 6 months. Circulating leukocytes were durably increased throughout the trial in all patients, and this was associated with fewer infections and improvement in warts in combination with imiquimod; however immunoglobulin levels and specific vaccine responses were not fully restored. No drug-associated side effects were observed. These results provide preliminary evidence for the safety and clinical efficacy of long-term, low-dose plerixafor in WHIM syndrome, and support its continued study as mechanism-based therapy in this disease. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier for this study is NCT00967785.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported abnormalities in circulating B cells in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and those with HIV infection. Gastrointestinal complications are common to both diseases and likely involve perturbation of immune cells, including plasma cells (PCs). IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin in the human body, with roles in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. IgA is produced primarily by PCs residing in mucosal tissues that are also thought to circulate in the blood.
We sought to characterize and compare PCs in patients with infectious (HIV) and noninfectious (CGD and Crohn disease) diseases that have been associated with intestinal inflammation.
Phenotypic and transcriptional analyses were performed on cells isolated from the blood and colon.
IgA-secreting CCR10-expressing PCs predominated in the guts of healthy subjects, whereas in patients with HIV, CGD, and Crohn disease, there was a significant increase in the proportion of IgG-secreting PCs. Where intestinal inflammation was present, IgG-secreting PCs expressed reduced levels of CCR10 and increased levels of CXCR4. The intensity of CXCR4 expression correlated with the frequency of IgG-expressing PCs and the frequency of CXCR4(+)/IgG(+) PCs was associated with the severity of intestinal inflammatory disease yet distinct from PCs and plasmablasts circulating in the blood.
These findings suggest that regardless of the underlying disease, the presence of CXCR4(+)/IgG(+) PCs in the gut is a strong yet localized indicator of intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, our findings suggest that CXCR4(+)/IgG(+) PCs might play a role in immune cell homeostasis during inflammatory processes of the gut.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WHIM syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant, immunodeficiency disorder so-named because it is characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (defective neutrophil egress from the BM). Gain-of-function mutations that truncate the C-terminus of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by 10-19 amino acids cause WHIM syndrome. We have identified a family with autosomal dominant inheritance of WHIM syndrome that is caused by a missense mutation in CXCR4, E343K (1027G → A). This mutation is also located in the C-terminal domain, a region responsible for negative regulation of the receptor. Accordingly, like CXCR4(R334X), the most common truncation mutation in WHIM syndrome, CXCR4(E343K) mediated approximately 2-fold increased signaling in calcium flux and chemotaxis assays relative to wild-type CXCR4; however, CXCR4(E343K) had a reduced effect on blocking normal receptor down-regulation from the cell surface. Therefore, in addition to truncating mutations in the C-terminal domain of CXCR4, WHIM syndrome may be caused by a single charge-changing amino acid substitution in this domain, E343K, that results in increased receptor signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WHIM syndrome is a rare congenital immunodeficiency disorder characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (neutropenia because of impaired egress from the BM); most patients also have severe panleukopenia. Because WHIM syndrome is caused by mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4 that result in increased agonist-dependent signaling, we hypothesized that the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor (Mozobil [Genyzme Corporation], AMD3100), might be an effective treatment. To test this, we enrolled 3 unrelated adult patients with the most common WHIM mutation, CXCR4(R334X), in a phase 1 dose-escalation study. Plerixafor increased absolute lymphocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts in blood to normal without significant side effects in all 3 patients. Peak responses occurred at 3-12 hours after injection and waned by 24 hours after injection which tracked the drug's pharmacokinetics. All 3 cell types increased in a dose-dependent manner with the rank order of responsiveness absolute lymphocyte > monocyte > neutrophil. These data provide the first pharmacologic evidence that panleukopenia in WHIM syndrome is caused by CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling-dependent leukocyte sequestration, and support continued study of plerixafor as mechanism-based therapy in this disease. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00967785.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WHIM is an acronym for a rare immunodeficiency syndrome (OMIM #193670) caused by autosomal dominant mutations truncating the C-terminus of the chemokine receptor CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). WHIM mutations may potentiate CXCR4 signalling, suggesting that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CXCR4 antagonist AnorMED3100 (AMD3100) (also known as Plerixafor) may be beneficial in WHIM syndrome. We have tested this at the preclinical level by comparing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and K562 cell lines matched for expression of recombinant wild-type CXCR4 (CXCR4(WT)) and the most common WHIM variant of CXCR4 (CXCR4(R334X)), as well as leucocytes from a WHIM patient with the CXCR4(R334X) mutation versus healthy controls. We found that CXCR4(R334X) mediated modestly increased signalling (~2-fold) in all functional assays tested, but strongly resisted ligand-dependent down-regulation. AMD3100 was equipotent and equieffective as an antagonist at CXCR4(R334X) and CXCR4(WT) . Together, our data provide further evidence that CXCR4(R334X) is a gain-of-function mutation, and support clinical evaluation of AMD3100 as mechanism-based treatment in patients with WHIM syndrome.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11/2010; 15(10):2071-81. · 4.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but predisposing features have been elusive.
To prospectively determine the morphotype, immunophenotype, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator genotype in a large cohort with PNTM.
We prospectively enrolled 63 patients with PNTM infection, each of whom had computerized tomography, echocardiogram, pulmonary function, and flow cytometry of peripheral blood. In vitro cytokine production in response to mitogen, LPS, and cytokines was performed. Anthropometric measurements were compared with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) age- and ethnicity-matched female control subjects extracted from the NHANES 2001-2002 dataset.
Patients were 59.9 (+/-9.8 yr [SD]) old, and 5.4 (+/-7.9 yr) from diagnosis to enrollment. Patients were 95% female, 91% white, and 68% lifetime nonsmokers. A total of 46 were infected with Mycobacterium avium complex, M. xenopi, or M. kansasii; 17 were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria. Female patients were significantly taller (164.7 vs. 161.0 cm; P < 0.001) and thinner (body mass index, 21.1 vs. 28.2; P < 0.001) than matched NHANES control subjects, and thinner (body mass index, 21.1 vs. 26.8; P = 0.002) than patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. A total of 51% of patients had scoliosis, 11% pectus excavatum, and 9% mitral valve prolapse, all significantly more than reference populations. Stimulated cytokine production was similar to that of healthy control subjects, including the IFN-gamma/IL-12 pathway. CD4(+), CD8(+), B, and natural killer cell numbers were normal. A total of 36% of patients had mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.
Patients with PNTM infection are taller and leaner than control subjects, with high rates of scoliosis, pectus excavatum, mitral valve prolapse, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations, but without recognized immune defects.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2008; 178(10):1066-74. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare disorder of phagocyte oxidative metabolism. In addition to infectious complications, granulomatous lesions often involve hollow viscera, especially the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation, prevalence, and consequences of GI involvement in patients with CGD.
The medical records of 140 patients with CGD (67% X-linked) followed at the National Institutes of Health were reviewed and abstracted for GI manifestations. All available GI pathology was reviewed.
GI involvement was recorded in 46 (32.8%) of 140 patients with CGD, 89% of whom had X-linked inheritance. The median age at the time of initial GI manifestations was 5 years (range: 0.8-30 years); 70% of the affected patients presented with GI involvement in the first decade of life. Abdominal pain was the most frequent symptom (100%), and hypoalbuminemia was the most frequent sign (70%). Prednisone controlled symptoms and signs in the majority of affected patients, but relapse of symptoms occurred in 71%. GI involvement had no effect on mortality and was unassociated with interferon-gamma use.
GI involvement is a common and recurring problem in CGD, especially in those with X-linked inheritance. Currently, there is no clear evidence for an infectious cause. The frequency of GI involvement is unaffected by the use of interferon-gamma and does not affect mortality. GI involvement should be sought in patients who have CGD with abdominal pain, growth delay, or hypoalbuminemia.