[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins function as scaffold proteins contributing to cell polarity and organizing signal transducers at the neuronal synapse membrane. The MAGUK protein Mpp4 is located in the retinal outer plexiform layer (OPL) at the presynaptic plasma membrane and presynaptic vesicles of photoreceptors. Additionally, it is located at the outer limiting membrane (OLM) where it might be involved in OLM integrity. In Mpp4 knockout mice, loss of Mpp4 function only sporadically causes photoreceptor displacement, without changing the Crumbs (Crb) protein complex at the OLM, adherens junctions or synapse structure. Scanning laser ophthalmology revealed no retinal degeneration. The minor morphological effects suggest that Mpp4 is a candidate gene for mild retinopathies only. At the OPL, Mpp4 is essential for correct localization of Psd95 and Veli3 at the presynaptic photoreceptor membrane. Psd95 labeling is absent of presynaptic membranes in both rods and cones but still present in cone basal contacts and dendritic contacts. Total retinal Psd95 protein levels are significantly reduced which suggests Mpp4 to be involved in Psd95 turnover, whereas Veli3 proteins levels are not changed. These protein changes in the photoreceptor synapse did not result in an altered electroretinograph. These findings suggest that Mpp4 coordinates Psd95/Veli3 assembly and maintenance at synaptic membranes. Mpp4 is a critical recruitment factor to organize scaffolds at the photoreceptor synapse and is likely to be associated with synaptic plasticity and protein complex transport.
Human Molecular Genetics 05/2006; 15(8):1291-302. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene are a frequent cause of various forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The CRB1-membrane-associated palmitoylated protein (MPP)5 protein complex is thought to organize an intracellular protein scaffold in the retina that is involved in maintenance of photoreceptor-Müller glia cell adhesion. This study focused on the binding characteristics and subcellular localization of MPP3, a novel member of the MPP5 protein scaffold at the outer limiting membrane (OLM), and of the DLG1 protein scaffold at the outer plexiform layer of the retina. MPP3 localized at the photoreceptor synapse and at the subapical region adjacent to adherens junctions at the OLM. Localization studies in human retinae revealed that MPP3 colocalized with MPP5 and CRB1 at the subapical region. MPP3 and MPP4 colocalized with DLG1 at the outer plexiform layer. Mouse Dlg1 formed separate complexes with Mpp3 and Mpp4 in vivo. These data implicate a role for MPP3 in photoreceptor polarity and, by association with MPP5, pinpoint MPP3 as a functional candidate gene for inherited retinopathies. The separate Mpp3/Dlg1 and Mpp4/Dlg1 complexes at the outer plexiform layer point towards additional yet unrecognized functions of these membrane associated guanylate kinase proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene are a frequent cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and various forms of retinitis pigmentosa. CRB1 is thought to organize an intracellular protein scaffold in the retina that is involved in photoreceptor polarity. This study was focused on the identification, subcellular localization, and binding characteristics of a novel member of the protein scaffold connected to CRB1.
To dissect the protein scaffold connected to CRB1, the yeast two-hybrid approach was used to screen for interacting proteins. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down analysis and immunoprecipitation were used to verify protein-protein interactions. The subcellular localization of the proteins was visualized by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy on human retinas and immunoelectron microscopy on mouse retinas.
A novel member of the scaffold connected to CRB1, called membrane palmitoylated protein (MPP) subfamily member 4 (MPP4), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein, was identified. MPP4 was found to exist in a complex with CRB1 through direct interaction with the MPP subfamily member MPP5 (PALS1). 3D homology modeling provided evidence for a mechanism that regulates the recruitment of both homo- and heterodimers of MPP4 and -5 proteins to the complex. Localization studies in the retina showed that CRB1, MPP5, and MPP4 colocalize at the outer limiting membrane (OLM).
These data imply that MPP4 and -5 have a role in photoreceptor polarity and, by association with CRB1, pinpoint the cognate genes as functional candidate genes for inherited retinopathies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) function causes either the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis or progressive retinitis pigmentosa, depending on the amount of residual CRB1 activity and the genetic background. Crb1 localizes specifically to the sub-apical region adjacent to the adherens junction complex at the outer limiting membrane in the retina. We show that it is associated here with multiple PDZ protein 1 (Mupp1), protein associated with Lin-7 (Pals1 or Mpp5) and Mpp4. We have produced Crb1(-/-) mice completely lacking any functional Crb1. Although the retinas are initially normal, by 3-9 months the Crb1(-/-) retinas develop localized lesions where the integrity of the outer limiting membrane is lost and giant half rosettes are formed. After delamination of the photoreceptor layer, neuronal cell death occurs in the inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina. On moderate exposure to light for 3 days at 3 months of age, the number of severe focal retinal lesions significantly increases in the Crb1(-/-) retina. Crb2, Crb3 and Crb1 interacting proteins remain localized to the sub-apical region and therefore are not sufficient to maintain cell adhesion during light exposure in Crb1(-/-) retinas. Thus we propose that during light exposure Crb1 is essential to maintain, but not assemble, adherens junctions between photoreceptors and Müller glia cells and prevents retinal disorganization and dystrophy. Hence, light may be an influential factor in the development of the corresponding human diseases.