[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integrase inhibitor (INI) dolutegravir (DTG; S/GSK1349572) has significant activity against HIV-1 isolates with raltegravir (RAL)- and elvitegravir (ELV)-associated resistance mutations. As an initial step in characterizing the different resistance profiles of DTG, RAL, and ELV, we determined the dissociation rates of these INIs with integrase (IN)-DNA complexes containing a broad panel of IN proteins, including IN substitutions corresponding to signature RAL and ELV resistance mutations. DTG dissociates slowly from a wild-type IN-DNA complex at 37°C with an off-rate of 2.7 × 10(-6) s(-1) and a dissociative half-life (t(1/2)) of 71 h, significantly longer than the half-lives for RAL (8.8 h) and ELV (2.7 h). Prolonged binding (t(1/2), at least 5 h) was observed for DTG with IN-DNA complexes containing E92, Y143, Q148, and N155 substitutions. The addition of a second substitution to either Q148 or N155 typically resulted in an increase in the off-rate compared to that with the single substitution. For all of the IN substitutions tested, the off-rate of DTG from IN-DNA complexes was significantly slower (from 5 to 40 times slower) than the off-rate of RAL or ELV. These data are consistent with the potential for DTG to have a higher genetic barrier to resistance, provide evidence that the INI off-rate may be an important component of the mechanism of INI resistance, and suggest that the slow dissociation of DTG may contribute to its distinctive resistance profile.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2011; 55(10):4552-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification and exploration of a novel, potent and selective series of N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothien-2-yl)amide inhibitors of JNK2 and JNK3 kinases is described. Compounds 5a and 11a were identified as potent inhibitors of JNK3 (pIC50 6.7 and 6.6, respectively), with essentially equal potency against JNK2 (pIC50 6.5). Selectivity within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, against JNK1, p38alpha and ERK2, was observed for the series. X-ray crystallography of 5e and 8a in JNK3 revealed a unique binding mode, with the 3-cyano substituent forming an H-bond acceptor interaction with the hinge region of the ATP-binding site.