[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung inflammation is a major consequence of the systemic inflammatory response caused by severe sepsis. Increased migration of γδ T lymphocytes into the lungs has been previously demonstrated during experimental sepsis; however, the involvement of the γδ T cell subtype Vγ4 has not been previously described.
Severe sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP; 9 punctures, 21G needle) in male C57BL/6 mice. γδ and Vγ4 T lymphocyte depletion was performed by 3A10 and UC3-10A6 mAb i.p. administration, respectively. Lung infiltrating T lymphocytes, IL-17 production and mortality rate were evaluated.
Severe sepsis induced by CLP in C57BL/6 mice led to an intense lung inflammatory response, marked by the accumulation of γδ T lymphocytes (comprising the Vγ4 subtype). γδ T lymphocytes present in the lungs of CLP mice were likely to be originated from peripheral lymphoid organs and migrated towards CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5, which were highly produced in response to CLP-induced sepsis. Increased expression of CD25 by Vγ4 T lymphocytes was observed in spleen earlier than that by αβ T cells, suggesting the early activation of Vγ4 T cells. The Vγ4 T lymphocyte subset predominated among the IL-17(+) cell populations present in the lungs of CLP mice (unlike Vγ1 and αβ T lymphocytes) and was strongly biased toward IL-17 rather than toward IFN-γ production. Accordingly, the in vivo administration of anti-Vγ4 mAb abrogated CLP-induced IL-17 production in mouse lungs. Furthermore, anti-Vγ4 mAb treatment accelerated mortality rate in severe septic mice, demonstrating that Vγ4 T lymphocyte play a beneficial role in host defense.
Overall, our findings provide evidence that early-activated Vγ4 T lymphocytes are the main responsible cells for IL-17 production in inflamed lungs during the course of sepsis and delay mortality of septic mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In vitro studies show that Leishmania infection decreases the adhesion of inflammatory phagocytes to connective tissue by a mechanism dependent on the modulation of integrin function. However, we know little about the influence of this reduction in leukocyte adhesion on parasite dissemination from the infection site.
In this work, we used a model of chronic peritonitis induced by thioglycollate to study the effect of L. amazonensis infection on the ability of inflammatory phagocyte populations to migrate from an inflammatory site to the draining lymph node. Uninfected or Leishmania-infected thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells were transferred from C57BL/6 to BALB/c mice or from Ly5.1+ to Ly5.1- mice. The transferred cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity and tracked to the draining lymph node.
Migrating cells corresponded to approximately 1% of the injected leukocytes. The proportion of migrating CD11b+CD11c+ (myeloid dendritic cell) was lower after incubation with Leishmania (1.3 to 2.6 times lower in the experiments using C57BL/6 to BALB/c animals and 2.7 to 3.4 times lower in the experiments using Ly5.1+ to Ly5.1- animals) than after leukocyte incubation with medium alone (P < 0.01). There was no consistent decrease in the migration of CD11b+F4/80+ (macrophage) or SSChi GR-1+ (neutrophil) populations.
Coincubation with Leishmania changes the migratory pattern of dendritic cells in vivo. Such changes in dendritic cell migration may be associated with immunological events that maintain inflammation at the sites of infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of CD25+ regulatory T cells during the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection has been previously analyzed, and the bulk of results have shown a limited role for this T cell subpopulation. In this study, we have used an IgM, nondepleting monoclonal an- tibody (mAb) aiming at blocking interleukin (IL)-2 activity on CD25+ T cells. The administration of this antibody 10 days before infection increased the resistance of outbred Swiss mice to the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. Anti-CD25-treated mice had lower parasitemia and augmented numbers of effector memory T cells. In addition, these animals showed higher numbers of splenic T cells secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α, both cytokines described to be involved in the resistance to T. cruzi infection. The same treat- ment also increased the numbers of splenic T cells that produced homeostatic and regulatory cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-10, and CD4+CD25+ T cells. The administration of nondepleting anti-CD25 mAb at the beginning of the chronic phase, when parasites were cleared from the blood, halted the inflammatory process in the heart, without any signs of infection reactivation. These results indicate that nondepleting anti-CD25 monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat chronic Chagas’ disease.
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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 05/2014; 4(2014):128-137. DOI:10.1556/EuJMI.4.2014.2.6
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most inbred strains of mice, like the BALB/c strain, are susceptible to Leishmania amazonensis infections and resistant to Leishmania braziliensis infections. This parasite-related difference could result from the activity of an L. amazonensis-specific virulence factor. In agreement with this hypothesis, it is shown here that the intravenous injection of BALB/c mice with L. amazonensis amastigote extract (LaE) but not the L. braziliensis extract confers susceptibility to L. braziliensis infection. This effect was associated with high circulating levels of IgG1 anti-L. amazonensis antibodies and with an increase in interleukin-4 (IL-4) production and a decrease in gamma interferon production by draining lymph node cells. Moreover, the effect was absent in IL-4-knockout mice. The biological activity in the LaE was not mediated by amphiphilic molecules and was inhibited by pretreatment of the extract with irreversible serine protease inhibitors. These findings indicate that the LaE contains a virulence-related factor that (i) enhances the Leishmania infection by promoting Th2-type immune responses, (ii) is not one of the immunomodulatory Leishmania molecules described so far, and (iii) is either a serine protease or has an effect that depends on that protease activity. In addition to being Leishmania species specific, the infection-enhancing activity was also shown to depend on the host genetic makeup, as LaE injections did not affect the susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to L. braziliensis infection. The identification of Leishmania molecules with infection-enhancing activity could be important for the development of a vaccine, since the up- or downmodulation of the immune response against a virulence factor could well contribute to controlling the infection.
Infection and immunity 03/2011; 79(3):1236-43. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00309-10 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intra-thoracic antigenic challenge (ovalbumin, 12.5 microg/cavity) led to increased numbers of gammadelta T lymphocytes in pleural cavities, blood and thoracic lymph nodes in sensitized mice within 48 h. Part of these cells expressed CD62L, which increased on gammadelta T cell surfaces obtained from lymph nodes after ovalbumin (OVA) challenge. Selectin blockade by fucoidan pre-treatment (10 mg/kg, i.v.) impaired in vivo increase in CD25(+) and c-fos(+) gammadelta T cell numbers in lymph nodes, indicating a role for selectins on gammadelta T lymphocyte activation and proliferation. In vivo selectin blockade by fucoidan or alpha-CD62L mAb (200 microg/mice, i.p.) also inhibited OVA-induced gammadelta T cell accumulation in pleural cavities. Confirming the direct effect of CD62L on gammadelta T cell transmigration, the migration of i.v. adoptively-transferred CFSE-labeled gammadelta T lymphocytes into pleural cavities of challenged recipient mice was impaired by fucoidan ex vivo treatment. It is noteworthy that eosinophil influx was also impaired in those mice, indicating that reduced eosinophil migration by CD62L in vivo blockade depended on gammadelta T cell migration via CD62L molecules. Accordingly, pleural gammadelta T lymphocytes from fucoidan-treated mice presented reduced OVA-induced IL-5 and CCL11 production. Supporting these data, the depletion of Vgamma4 T lymphocytes, which are pulmonary gammadelta T cells, decreased OVA-induced eosinophil influx into allergic site. Such results demonstrate that CD62L is crucial for the activation of gammadelta T cells in lymph nodes, for their migration into inflamed tissue and for the modulation of eosinophil influx during allergic response.
International immunopharmacology 02/2009; 9(3):303-12. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.004 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of natural killer (NK) T cells in the development of lupus-like disease in mice is still controversial. We treated NZB/W mice with anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and our results revealed that administration of either an irrelevant immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) mAb or an IgG2a anti-NK1.1 mAb increased the production of anti-dsDNA antibodies in young NZB/W mice. However, the continuous administration of an anti-NK1.1 mAb protected aged NZB/W mice from glomerular injury, leading to prolonged survival and stabilization of the proteinuria. Conversely, the administration of the control IgG2a mAb led to an aggravation of the lupus-like disease. Augmented titres of anti-dsDNA in NZB/W mice, upon IgG2a administration, correlated with the production of BAFF/BLyS by dendritic, B and T cells. Treatment with an anti-NK1.1 mAb reduced the levels of interleukin-16, produced by T cells, in spleen cell culture supernatants from aged NZB/W. Adoptive transfer of NK T cells from aged to young NZB/W accelerated the production of anti-dsDNA in recipient NZB/W mice, suggesting that NK T cells from aged NZB/W are endowed with a B-cell helper activity. In vitro studies, using purified NK T cells from aged NZB/W, showed that these cells provided helper B-cell activity for the production of anti-dsDNA. We concluded that NK T cells are involved in the progression of lupus-like disease in mature NZB/W mice and that immunoglobulin of the IgG2a isotype has an enhancing effect on antibody synthesis due to the induction of BAFF/BLyS, and therefore have a deleterious effect in the NZB/W mouse physiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have evaluated the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the formation of central and effector memory T cells in mice lacking mature B cells (mu MT KO). The results show that Trypanosoma cruzi infection in C57Bl/6m mu MT KO mice is intensified in relation to control mice and this exacerbation is related to low levels of inflammatory cytokines produced during the acute infection and the lower numbers of central and effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells generated during the acute phase of the infection. In addition, a marked reduction in the CD8(+) T-cell subpopulation was observed in mu MT KO infected mice. In agreement to this, the degree of tissue parasitism was increased in mu MT mice and the tissue inflammatory response was much less intense in the acute phase of the infection, consistent with a deficit in the generation of effector T cells. Flow cytometry analysis of the skeletal muscle inflammatory infiltrate showed a predominance of CD8(+) CD45Rb low in B-cell-sufficient C57Bl/6 mice, whereas the preponderant cell type in mu MT KO skeletal muscle inflammatory infiltrate was CD4(+) T cells. In addition, CD8(+) T cells found in skeletal muscle from mu MT KO infected mice were less activated than in control B-cell sufficient infected mice. These results suggest that B cells may participate in the generation of effector/memory T cells. In addition and more importantly, B cells were crucial in the maintenance of central and effector memory CD8(+) T cell, as well as the determination of the T cell cytokine functional pattern, and they may therefore account for critical aspects of the resistance to intracellular pathogens, such as T. cruzi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes the characterisation of a monoclonal antibody (mAb), AB6, which recognises specifically a cluster of canine leukocyte surface molecules. The immunogen used for obtaining the AB6 mAb was a lysate of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This novel mAb belongs to the IgG2a isotype, and reacted in Western blot with four different canine leukocyte glycoproteins with apparent molecular weights of 180, 190, 205 and 220 kDa. The AB6 mAb recognised the majority of canine peripheral blood leukocytes as determined by flow cytometry (97%). It also exhibited a broad reactivity pattern against lymphoid and myeloid cells, inhibited the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated canine PBMC and did not recognise human PBMC and murine splenocytes. The biochemical properties, cell and tissue specificity, and in vitro biological activity of the AB6 mAb indicate that it recognises a canine CD45 homologue. The mAb could become a valuable diagnostic and research tool for the evaluation of immune functions in dogs.
The Veterinary Journal 02/2007; 173(1):158-66. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.08.015 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasites that cause lesions in the skin, mucosa, and viscera. We have previously shown that Leishmania infection reduces mononuclear phagocyte adhesion to inflamed connective tissue. In this study, we examined the role of adhesion molecules and chemokines in this process. Infection rate (r = -0.826, P = 0.003) and parasite burden (r = -0.917, P = 0.028) negatively correlated to mouse phagocyte adhesion. The decrease (58.7 to 75.0% inhibition, P = 0.005) in phagocyte adhesion to connective tissue, induced by Leishmania, occurred as early as 2 h after infection and was maintained for at least 24 h. Interestingly, impairment of cell adhesion was sustained by phagocyte infection, since it was not observed following phagocytosis of killed parasites (cell adhesion varied from 15.2% below to 24.0% above control levels, P > 0.05). In addition, Leishmania infection diminished cell adhesion to fibronectin (54.1 to 96.2%, P < 0.01), collagen (15.7 to 83.7%, P < 0.05), and laminin (59.1 to 82.2%, P < 0.05). The CD11b(hi) subpopulation was highly infected (49.6 to 97.3%). Calcium and Mg(2+) replacement by Mn(2+), a treatment that is known to induce integrins to a high state of affinity for their receptors, reverted the inhibition in adhesion caused by Leishmania. This reversion was completely blocked by anti-VLA4 antibodies. Furthermore, expression of CCR4 and CCR5, two chemokine receptors implicated in cell adhesion, was found to be downregulated 16 h after infection (2.8 to 4.1 times and 1.9 to 2.8 times, respectively). Together, these results suggest that mechanisms regulating integrin function are implicated in the change of macrophage adhesion in leishmaniasis.
Infection and Immunity 08/2006; 74(7):3912-21. DOI:10.1128/IAI.02103-05 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many different cell populations or lineages participate in the resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. gammadelta T cells may also take part in a network of interactions that lead to control of T. cruzi infection with minimal tissue damage by controlling alphabeta T cell activation, as was previously suggested. However, the gammadelta T cell population is not homogeneous and its functions might vary, depending on T cell receptor usage or distinct stimulatory conditions. In this study, we show that the in vivo depletion of V gamma 1-bearing gammadelta T cells, prior to the infection of BALB/c mice with the Y strain of T. cruzi, induces an increased susceptibility to the infection with lower amounts of IFN-gamma being produced by conventional CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. In addition, the production of IL-4 by spleen T cells in V gamma 1-depleted mice was increased and the production of IL-10 remained unchanged. Since V gamma 1(+) gammadelta T cell depletion diminished the conversion of naive to memory/activated CD4 T cells and the production of IFN-gamma during the acute infection, these cells appear to function as helper cells for conventional CD4+ Th1 cells. Depletion of V gamma 1(+) cells also reduced the infection-induced inflammatory infiltrate in the heart and skeletal muscle. More importantly, V gamma 1(+) cells were required for up-regulation of CD40L in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during infection. These results show that a subset of gammadelta T cells (V gamma 1(+)), which is an important component of the innate immune response, up-regulates the type 1 arm of the adaptative immune response, during T. cruzi infection.
Microbes and Infection 04/2006; 8(3):880-8. DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.10.012 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show, here, that one single injection or weekly injections of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), starting in 1-day-old newborn mice, induced a powerful immune response with a T helper type 2 (Th2) pattern, as judged by the isotype and cytokine profile, with the production of large amounts of SEB-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), detectable levels of SEB-specific IgE and increased production of interleukin-4 by spleen cells. These protocols also induced an increase in the levels of total IgE in the serum. Memory of SEB was transferred to secondary recipients by using total spleen cells from primed animals. The secondary humoral response in transferred mice was diminished if spleen cells from SEB-treated mice were previously depleted of CD3+ or Vbeta8+ T cells or NK1.1+ cells. In vivo depletion of NK1.1+ cells in adult mice resulted in a marked reduction in the SEB-specific antibody response in both the primary and secondary immune responses. Additionally, purified NK1.1+ T cells were able to perform SEB-specific helper B-cell actions in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that NK1.1+ T cells are required for the full development of humoral immunological memory, whilst making neonatal tolerance to SEB unachievable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral tolerance can be defined as the inability of an adult animal to produce specific antibodies or cellular immune responses upon conventional immunization, after oral antigenic administration. Recently, the oral administration of antigens has gained renewed interest because of the possibility of inducing tolerance in nonimmunized adult animals and, consequently, opening up the theoretical possibility of preventing or treating diseases caused by malfunction of the immune system. This strategy has been proven to be useful in the prevention of allergic and autoimmune diseases in rodents, as well as in the amelioration of certain autoimmune diseases in humans. Although there is experimental and clinical evidence for the usefulness of oral tolerance in medical practice, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are still poorly understood, and the results obtained are not always satisfactory. Herein, we show that the thymus is required for the induction and maintenance of oral tolerance, providing evidence that it is not a pure form of clonal deletion-based peripheral tolerance. Oral tolerance could therefore depend on the formation and release to the periphery of regulatory T cells, such as gammadelta or alphabeta T cells, by the thymus. This finding may have profound implications for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, since most of them are associated with thymic hypofunction. On the other hand, due to so far unknown mechanisms, the intraperitoneal co-administration of normal IgG to mice orally treated with tolerogen leads to a sustained and intense immunological tolerance, both in euthymic and thymectomized mice, including those of the lupus erythematosus-prone NZB x NZW lineage. This approach for inducing and maintaining tolerance in thymus-deficient conditions is discussed and put forth herein as a new evidence-based proposition for the therapy of autoimmune diseases.
Medical Hypotheses 02/2005; 64(5):978-85. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2004.10.015 · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systhematized septal fibrosis of the liver can be induced in rats either by repeated intraperitoneal injections of pig-serum or by Capillaria hepatica infection. The relationship between these two etiological factors, as far as hepatic fibrosis is concerned, is not known, and present investigation attempts to investigate it. C. hepatica-induced septal fibrosis of the liver was considerably inhibited in rats previously rendered tolerant to pig-serum. Pig-serum-tolerant rats developed antibodies against pig-serum when infected with C. hepatica, but this did not happen when the infection occurred in normal rats. On the other hand, anti-C. hepatica antibodies failed to recognize any epitope in pig-serum, by Western blot. However, no evidence of an immunological cross reactivity was found, at least at the humoral level. Alternatively, cell-mediated mechanisms may be involved, and further investigations are warranted.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 12/2004; 99(7):703-7. DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762004000700007 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the regulatory function of NK1.1+ cells during Trypanosoma cruzi infection.
Both thymectomized (Tx C57Bl/6) and euthymic C57Bl/6 mice (C57Bl/6) were infected intraperitoneally with the Tulahuen strain. NK1.1+ cells were depleted in vivo by anti-NK1.1 mAb. Spleen cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD44 and CD69 on T cells. Supernatants from splenocytes were used to measure nitrite concentration (quantified by Griess reagent). Interleukin 2 and IFN-gamma levels were determined by ELISA. The protocols used herein were approved by the Institutional Committee for Ethics. Student's t or Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied, as indicated.
The number of T cells expressing CD69 increased progressively during T. cruzi infection in NK1.1 cell-depleted C57Bl/6 mice. In spite of an increased early T cell activation during infection, the percentage of CD4+ CD44high T cells did not augment in NK1.1 cell-depleted C57Bl/6 mice compared with untreated C57Bl/6 controls. Serum levels of IFN-gamma in anti-NK1.1-treated mice were higher than in non-depleted animals. Con-A-stimulated spleen cell supernatants from NK1.1 cell-depleted animals contained increased levels of IL-2 and nitric oxide (NO) during early infection.
After the first week of infection, NO overproduction and high levels of IFN-gamma in anti-NK1.1-tre-ated C57Bl/6 mice appeared to be related to susceptibility and hyperactivation of peripheral T cells. Finally, this study suggests a novel regulatory function of NK1.1+ cells during T. cruzi infection. Without NK1.1 cells, T lymphocytes are hyperactivated but do not differentiate to effector/memory T cells in infected C57Bl/6 mice.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 09/2004; 10(8):BR259-67. · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production and partial characterization of a monoclonal antibody, the IgG1 IH1, which recognizes an antigen distributed in canine monocytes/macrophages, is reported here. The distribution and apparent molecular weight of the antigen recognized by the IH1 MAb was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes, peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages and tissue sections of spleen, liver and skin, using Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The IH1 MAb-recognized antigen was detected in Western blotting under non-reducing conditions spread out as a large band covering the position corresponding to the migration of molecules with molecular weights from 55 to 73 kDa. The IH1 MAb labeled blood monocytes, tissue macrophages in lymph nodes, and in the mantle zone of the spleen, and Kupffer cells in the liver. It did not react with human cells. In flow cytometric analysis, the IH1 MAb reacted with a subpopulation of monocytes. The MAb described herein may become a valuable tool for diagnosis and research on canine diseases.
Hybridoma and Hybridomics 09/2004; 23(4):250-7. DOI:10.1089/1536859041651303
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells may provide the basis for resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection, because the depletion of NK1.1 cells causes high levels of parasitemia in young C57Bl/6 mice infected with T. cruzi. Indeed, NK1.1 cells have been implicated in the early production of large amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma, an important cytokine in host resistance. The NK1.1 marker is also expressed on special subpopulations of T cells. Most NK1.1+ T cells are of thymic origin, and their constant generation may be prevented by thymectomy. This procedure, by itself, decreased parasitemia and increased resistance in young mice. However, the depletion of NK1.1+ cells by the chronic administration of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (PK-136) did not increase the parasitemia or mortality in thymectomized C57Bl/6 mice infected with T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain). To study the cross-talk between NK1.1+ cells and conventional T cells in this model, we examined the expression of activation/memory markers (CD45RB) on splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from young euthymic or thymectomized mice with or without depletion of NK1.1+ cells and also in aged mice during acute infection. Resistance to infection correlated with the amount of CD4+ T cells that are already activated at the moment of infection, as judged by the number of splenic CD4+ T cells expressing CD45RB(-). In addition, the specific antibody response to T. cruzi antigens was precocious and an accumulation of immunoglobulin (Ig)M with little isotype switch occurred in euthymic mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells. The data presented here suggest that NK1.1+ cells have important regulatory functions in euthymic, but not in thymectomized mice infected with T. cruzi. These regulatory functions include a helper activity in the generation of effector or activated/memory T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the role of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in Chagas' disease, we generated a cell line by repeated in vitro antigenic stimulation of purified splenic CD4+ T lymphocytes from a chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mouse. Cells from this line were confirmed to be CD4+ CD8- and proliferated upon stimulation with soluble heart antigens from different animal species, as well as with T. cruzi antigen, in the presence of syngeneic feeder cells. In vitro antigen stimulation of the cell line produced a Th1 cytokine profile, with high levels of IFNgamma and IL-2 and absence of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. The cell line also terminated the beating of fetal heart clusters in vitro when cocultured with irradiated syngeneic normal spleen cells. In situ injection of the cell line into well established heart transplants also induced the cessation of heart beating. Finally, adoptive transfer of the cell line to heart-immunized or T. cruzi-infected BALB/c nude mice caused intense heart inflammation.