ABSTRACT: Rapidly progressing or missed lesions can reduce the effectiveness of colonoscopy-based colorectal cancer surveillance programs. We investigated whether giving fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin between surveillance colonoscopies resulted in earlier detection of neoplasia.
The study included 1736 patients with a family history or past neoplasia; they received at least 2 colonoscopy examinations and were followed for a total of 8863 years. Patients were excluded from the study if they had genetic syndromes, colorectal surgery, or inflammatory bowel disease. An FIT was offered yearly, in the interval between colonoscopies; if results were positive, the colonoscopy was performed earlier than scheduled.
Among the 1071 asymptomatic subjects (61%) who received at least 1 FIT, the test detected 12 of 14 cancers (86% sensitivity) and 60 of 96 (63%) advanced adenomas. In patients with positive results from the FIT, the diagnosis of cancer was made 25 months (median) earlier and diagnosis of advanced adenoma 24 months earlier. Patients who had repeated negative results from FIT had an almost 2-fold decrease in risk for cancer and advanced adenoma compared with patients who were not tested (5.5% vs 10.1%, respectively, P = .0004). The most advanced stages of neoplasia, observed across the continuum from nonadvanced adenoma to late-stage cancer, were associated with age (increased with age), sex (increased in males), and FIT result. The probability of most advanced neoplastic stage was lowest among those with a negative result from the FIT (odds ratio, 0.68; P < .001).
Interval examinations using the FIT detected neoplasias sooner than scheduled surveillances. Subjects with negative results from the FIT had the lowest risk for the most advanced stage of neoplasia. Interval FIT analyses can be used to detect missed or rapidly developing lesions in surveillance programs.
Gastroenterology 12/2010; 139(6):1918-26. · 11.68 Impact Factor
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2007; 22(1):142-3. · 2.87 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) are an advanced fecal occult blood test (FOBT) technology that reduces barriers to population screening by simplifying the logistics of stool-sampling. The current study was conducted to undertake a paired comparison of a sensitive guaiac FOBT (GFOBT; Hemoccult II Sensa, Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA) with a brush-sampling FIT (InSure; Enterix, North Ryde, NSW, Australia), to determine whether this FIT improves detection of significant neoplasia.
Individuals sampled consecutive stools, at home, with both FIT and GFOBT sampling devices while following dietary restrictions appropriate for GFOBT. Study populations included a screening cohort (n = 2351) and a symptomatic diagnostic group (n = 161). Paired comparison of positivity rates was undertaken in those found to have cancer and/or significant adenoma (high-grade dysplasia, villous change, > or =10 mm, serrated histology or > or =3 polyps), benign pathology, or no pathology.
Combined results for both cohorts showed that the FIT returned a true-positive result significantly more often in cancer (n = 24; 87.5% vs. 54.2%) and in significant adenomas (n = 61; 42.6% vs. 23.0%). Of all UICC Stage I cancers, the FIT was positive in 12 of 13 compared with 4 of 13 with the GFOBT (P = .002). In analyses of just the screening cohort, the FIT remained significantly better at detecting cancers and significant adenomas; the false-positive rate for any neoplasia was marginally higher with the FIT than the GFOBT (3.4% vs. 2.5%; 95% CI of difference, 0-1.8%), whereas positive predictive values were 41.9% and 40.4%, respectively.
This brush-sampling FIT is more sensitive for cancers and significant adenomas than a sensitive GFOBT. As such, it should deliver greater reductions in colorectal cancer mortality and incidence than the GFOBT.
Cancer 11/2006; 107(9):2152-9. · 4.77 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Population-based colorectal cancer screening by fecal occult blood testing reduces cancer-specific mortality. Current guidelines recommend this strategy for average risk individuals. This study investigated the prevalence of higher-than-average risk characteristics, and rate of prior colonoscopy, in participants in fecal occult blood test screening programs.
Randomly selected individuals aged 50-74 years in urban Adelaide were offered free fecal occult blood test screening by mail, without prior knowledge of their medical status. Each invitation included a questionnaire to record the prevalence of higher-than-average risk characteristics related to symptoms, family history or comorbidity, as well as prior colonoscopy. The definition of average risk was taken from updated guidelines published by the US Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer.
Of 2538 responses analyzed, 425 individuals had had a colonoscopy within the last 5 years, 106 fulfilled family history criteria for an initial screening colonoscopy, 209 had past polyps and 26 had had colorectal cancer. Eighty-three reported recent rectal bleeding. By current guidelines, 23% of the screened population did not warrant fecal occult blood test, because either prior colonoscopy rendered it unnecessary or particular patient characteristics made colonoscopy a more appropriate initial investigation.
Fecal occult blood test screening programs capture a sizeable number of higher-than-average risk individuals that may warrant colonoscopic rather than fecal occult blood test screening. Other participants have had a recent colonoscopy and probably warrant a delay in screening. Mass population fecal occult blood test-based screening programs need to more effectively target those at average risk and should divert those of higher or lower risk to more individualized assessment.
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 11/2006; 18(10):1079-83. · 1.76 Impact Factor