[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to describe the epidemiology of nonfatal school bus-related injuries among children and teenagers aged < or = 19 years in the United States.
Nationally representative data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All-Injury Program operated by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission were analyzed. Case subjects included all of the patients in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All-Injury Program database who were treated in a hospital emergency department for a nonfatal school bus-related injury from 2001 to 2003.
There were an estimated 51,100 school bus-related injuries treated in US emergency departments from 2001 to 2003, for a national estimate of 17,000 injuries (rate: 21.0 per 100,000 population) annually. Ninety-seven percent of children were treated and released from the hospital. Children 10 to 14 years of age accounted for the greatest proportion of injuries (43.0%; rate: 34.7) compared with all other age groups. Motor vehicle crashes accounted for 42.3% of all injuries, followed by injuries that occurred as the child was boarding/alighting/approaching the bus (23.8%). Head injuries accounted for more than half (52.1%) of all injuries among children < 10 years of age, whereas lower extremity injuries predominated among children 10 to 19 years of age (25.5%). Strains and sprains accounted for the highest percentage of all injuries, followed by contusions and abrasions (28.3%) and lacerations (14.9%). More than three quarters (77.7%) of lacerations were to the head.
This is the first study to describe nonfatal school bus-related injuries to US children and teenagers treated in US hospital emergency departments using a national sample. This study identified a much greater annual number of school bus-related injuries to children than reported previously.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the epidemiology of escalator-related injuries among children 0 to 19 years of age in the United States, with a focus on the pediatric population that is younger than 5 years.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Reported cases were used to project national estimates and rates of escalator-related injuries in the United States. The analysis included all patients who were 0 to 19 years of age in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and were seen in an emergency department for an escalator-related injury during the 13-year period 1990-2002.
There were an estimated 26000 escalator-related injuries among children who were 0 to 19 years of age in the United States during 1990-2002, yielding an average of 2000 of these injuries annually (rate = 2.6 per 100,000 population per year). The mean age was 6.5 years at the time of injury, and 53.4% of the patients were male. When comparing cases by 5-year age groups, children who were younger than 5 years had the highest estimated number of injuries (12000), as well as the highest annual escalator-related injury rate (4.8 per 100000). The most common mechanism of injury for all age groups was a fall, accounting for 13000 (51.0%) injuries. Entrapment accounted for 29.3% of all injuries and 36.5% of injuries among children who were younger than 5 years. Six percent (723) of injuries to children who were younger than 5 years involved a stroller, with most injuries occurring when a child fell out of the stroller while on the escalator. The most common body part injured for all ages was the leg, accounting for 27.7% of all injuries. Among children who were younger than 5 years, the hand was the most common injury site (40.6%), with hand injuries frequently occurring as a result of entrapment (72.4%). A laceration was the most common type of injury, accounting for 47.4% of escalator-related injuries. Amputations and avulsions were uncommon; however, 71.4% (595 of 833) occurred among children who were younger than 5 years.
There was a disproportionate number of escalator-related injuries among children who were younger than 5 years. Entrapment occurred more frequently among children who were younger than 5 years than in any other age group, which may explain the increased number of hand injuries in this age group. Escalator designs that reduce the gap between the steps and sidewall or shield against access to the gap may decrease entrapment risk. Young children should be supervised properly and should not be transported in a stroller while riding on an escalator. All passengers should use caution and remain alert when riding an escalator to avoid injuries related to falls or entrapment. Additional research is needed to determine the relationship among passenger behavior, escalator design, and escalator-related injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goals were to describe the epidemiologic features of pediatric skating-related injuries sustained from 1993 to 2003 and to compare ice skating-related injuries with roller skating--and in-line skating-related injuries.
An analysis of pediatric skating-related injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission was performed.
An estimated 1 235 467 pediatric skating participants presented to hospital emergency departments with injuries between 1993 and 2003. These children had a mean age of 10.9 years (SD: 3.2 years; range: 1-18 years), and 50.0% were male. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall (83.1%). Ice skaters sustained a greater proportion of head injuries (13.3%), compared with roller skaters (4.4%) and in-line skaters (5.0%). Ice skaters also experienced a greater proportion of concussions (4.3%), compared with roller skaters (0.6%) and in-line skaters (0.8%). The proportion of facial injuries among ice skaters was greater than the proportions among roller skaters and in-line skaters. The majority of roller skating-and in-line skating-related injuries were upper-extremity fractures (53.9% and 59.7%, respectively). Children < or = 6 years of age experienced a greater proportion of head and facial injuries than did older children in each skating activity.
The epidemiologic features of pediatric ice skating-related injuries differ from those of roller skating--and in-line skating-related injuries. Children should wear helmets during all recreational skating activities, especially ice skating, because of the risk of serious head injuries. Wrist guards should be worn to protect against the common upper-extremity fractures sustained during skating.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compares injuries, especially head injuries, among ice-skaters with those among skateboarders, rollerskaters, and in-line skaters, to determine the need for helmet use during recreational ice-skating by children.
A comparative study of a consecutive series of patients.
The emergency department of a large, urban, academic, children's hospital.
Children treated for injuries related to recreational ice-skating, skateboarding, rollerskating, and in-line skating.
During a 31-month period, 419 consecutive children were evaluated in the emergency department for skating-related injuries. Children were predominantly male (53.9%), with a mean age of 10.0 years (SD: 3.0 years; median: 10.0 years; range: 1-18 years). The most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall. Overall, 76.5% of children (215 of 281 children) were reported to be wearing no protective equipment, such as a helmet or padding on the elbows or knees, at the time of injury. Ice-skaters were more likely to have adult supervision than were skateboarders (relative risk [RR]: 5.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13-12.46), rollerskaters (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35), and in-line skaters (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.72-2.51). Ice-skaters were at greater risk of injury to the head (20.0%) than were in-line skaters (4.9%) (RR: 4.09; 95% CI: 1.81-9.23); a weak difference was noted between ice-skaters and rollerskaters (9.9%) (RR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.04-4.57), with no significant difference in head injuries between ice-skaters and skateboarders (15.9%) (RR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.54-2.93). Ice-skaters demonstrated lacerations to the head in 68.8% of abnormal head examinations, compared with 37.0% for rollerskaters (RR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.08-3.20) and 50.0% for in-line skaters (RR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.35-3.16); however, there was no significant difference in lacerations to the head between ice-skaters and skateboarders (53.3%) (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.76-2.19). Injuries to ice-skaters occurred more often in an indoor skating facility (92.9%, 52 of 56 cases), compared with injuries to skateboarders (3.6%, 1 of 28 cases) (RR: 13.96; 95% CI: 2.01-96.76), rollerskaters (63.4%, 59 of 93 cases) (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.23-1.74), and in-line skaters (10.9%, 15 of 137 cases) (RR: 8.48; 95% CI: 5.23-13.75).
The proportion of head injuries among ice-skaters in this study was greater than that observed for participants in other types of skating, for which helmet use is recommended and often required. Children should wear a helmet during recreational ice-skating. Mandatory helmet use by pediatric ice-skaters at indoor rinks should be implemented. Use of other types of protective equipment, such as wrist guards, knee pads, and elbow pads, should be considered for prevention of injuries to the extremities during ice-skating. Caution should be used when allowing young children to participate in recreational ice-skating. Additional research should be conducted in other populations, to corroborate these findings and to evaluate ice-skating safety recommendations for children.