B Wennerblom

The Postgraduate Dental Education Center Örebro, Örebro, Örebro, Sweden

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Publications (52)285.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Measuring heart rate variability (HRV) is a way to assess the autonomic regulation of the heart. Decreased HRV, indicating reduced parasympathetic tone, has previously been found in depression and anxiety disorders. The objective of this study was to assess HRV in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). To this end, time domain variables and frequency domain variables were assessed in 28 women with PMDD and in 11 symptom-free controls during both the symptomatic luteal phase and the non-symptomatic follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Two variables reflecting vagal activity in the time domain, the root mean square of differences of successive normal RR intervals (rMSSD) and standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) were lower in PMDD patients, but this difference was statistically significant in the follicular phase only. The most important vagal measure in the frequency domain, supine high frequency (HF), also appeared lower in PMDD subjects during the follicular phase. It is suggested that PMDD may be associated with reduced vagal tone compared to controls and that this difference is most apparent in the non-symptomatic follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 08/2004; 29(6):733-40. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Routine angio-guided stent deployment results in a relatively high restenosis rate, which is mostly due to stent sub-expansion. Several different intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) criteria for optimal stent deployment have been proposed. A minimal in-stent restenosis and a minimal in-stent lumen area of > or = 9 mm2 have been associated with low rates of restenosis and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6 months. The role of high-pressure stent deployment and/or upsizing the post-dilatation balloon has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of achieving accepted IVUS criteria safely without IVUS guidance with the combination of high-pressure deployment and post-dilatation with a 0.25 mm oversized balloon. Thirty-four stents (26 NIR, 3 AVE GFX, 3 ACS GFX, 1 Bard, 1 Jostent) were implanted in 30 patients until optimal angiographical results were obtained (< 10% residual stenosis visually). Forty percent of the patients had unstable angina pectoris, forty-four percent had complex lesions (B2 and C) and 29% were occlusions. Mean inflation pressure was 12.6 +/- 1.6 atm, mean stent diameter was 3.2+/- 0.4 mm and mean stent length was 15.1+/- 5.4 mm. Post-dilatation was performed with the same stent using a short (compared to the angiographic reference segment), 0.25 mm oversized Scimed Maxxum Energy 3.5 +/- 0.4 mm balloon using high pressure (16.1 +/- 1.7 atm) followed by an off-line IVUS examination of the stents. There was clinical follow-up for 1 year. Results in patients with single-vessel disease were compared with those of non-randomized controls, who were stented with high pressure but without over-dilatation. No stent achieved the nominal diameter, in spite of over-dilatation. Mean minimal stent diameter (MLD) according to IVUS was 2.9 +/- 0.4 mm (92% of the angiographic reference diameter). Mean minimal lumen area (MLA) was 7.7 +/- 2.2 mm2. An in-stent MLA > or = 90% of the distal reference segment (AVID criteria) and an MLA > or = 100% or > or = 90% of the smallest/average reference segment (MUSIC criteria) was found in 67% and 57%, respectively. MLA > or = 9 mm2 was achieved in 38%. All stents had good apposition and obtained a symmetry index > or = 0.7 mm. No acute perforations, dissections or other serious complications occurred during the over-dilatation. At 1 year, five patients had re-angina leading to a new coronary angiography; only 1 patient had a significant in-stent restenosis requiring re-PTCA. Compared to non-overdilated historical controls, the standardized over-dilatation seemed to give a larger MLD (3.0 +/- 0.4 mm vs. 2.7 +/- 0.4 mm; p = 0.03), more patients who fulfilled AVID criteria (70% vs. 32%; p = 0.048) and more stents with MLA > or = 9 mm2 (46% vs. 11%; p = 0.02). A standardized 0.25 mm over-dilatation of stents never achieved nominal stent size, but did improve lumen gain and was associated with low target vessel revascularization without adding complications to the routine stenting procedure.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 05/2002; 14(5):221-6. · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Benny Johansson, Hans Olsson, Bertil Wennerblom
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    ABSTRACT: The resistance of the atherosclerotic lesion counteracts the expansion of the stent, resulting in suboptimal stent expansion. Intravascular ultrasound provides more precise information on stent expansion than coronary angiography but adds cost and time to the percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the need for intravascular ultrasound at routine angiography-guided high pressure stent implantation by comparing stent expansion with predefined intracoronary ultrasound criteria for optimal stent implantation. In 32 patients, 48 stents (35 NIR, 12 AVE, and 1 Cordis) were implanted in A, B, and C stenoses using a high-pressure inflation technique until an optimal result was achieved according to angiography. Stent expansion was then evaluated by intravascular ultrasound as minimal lumen diameter, minimal lumen area, proximal and distal stent area, and a minimal lumen area symmetry index. These variables were then compared with the nominal stent size in vitro. Finally the stents were also evaluated with respect to the MUSIC criteria, ie, strict criteria regarding symmetry, apposition, and vessel geometry according to intravascular ultrasound after stent expansion. Forty-five stents could be completely analyzed. The mean balloon inflation pressure was 12.8 (range, 10-17) atm. The nominal stent size was not achieved in any patient. Minimal lumen diameter attained 77% and minimal lumen area 78% of expected nominal values (p<0.0001), distal stent area 88% (p < 0.001), and proximal stent area 92% (ns). Application of the MUSIC criteria showed that almost all stents (96%) had good stent apposition and symmetry index. Optimal proximal stent entrance was found in 70%. Optimal minimal lumen area in comparison to the reference areas was present in 41%. This lead to fulfilling of all MUSIC criteria in 47% of the stents. If nominal stent size had been achieved, symmetry index and apposition would have been fulfilled in all cases and optimal minimal lumen area increased to 75%. Acceptable proximal entrance however would have decreased to 55% and the fulfillment of all MUSIC criteria would increase only to 52%. In routine angiography-guided stent implantation in stenoses with a wide range of severities using modern stents and high pressure inflation technique to reach a visually optimal result, the nominal stent size was never achieved mainly due to residual intrastent stenosis. If nominal stent size had been achieved, the results would have improved only marginally and would still be suboptimal in almost half of the stents. These results highlight the shortcoming of angiography and the need for intravascular ultrasound in choosing correct stent size.
    Angiology 01/2002; 53(1):69-75. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Observational studies in selected patients have shown remarkably low restenosis rates after ultrasound-guided stent implantation. However, it is unknown whether this implantation strategy improves long-term angiographic and clinical outcome in routine clinical practice. Methods and Results-- A total of 550 patients with a symptomatic coronary lesion or silent ischemia were randomly assigned to either ultrasound-guided or angiography-guided implantation of </=2 tubular stents. The primary end points were angiographic dichotomous restenosis rate, minimal lumen diameter, and percent diameter stenosis after 6 months as determined by quantitative coronary angiography. Secondary end points were the occurrence rates of major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, coronary bypass surgery, and repeat percutaneous intervention) after 6 and 12 months of follow-up. At 6 months, repeat angiography revealed no significant differences between the groups with ultrasound- or angiography-guided stent implantation with respect to dichotomous restenosis rate (24.5% versus 22.8%, P=0.68), minimal lumen diameter (1.95+/-0.72 mm versus 1.91+/-0.68 mm, P=0.52), and percent diameter stenosis (34.8+/-20.6% versus 36.8+/-19.6%, P=0.29), respectively. At 12 months, neither major adverse cardiac events (relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.52; P=0.71) nor repeat percutaneous interventions (relative risk 1.04; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.67; P=0.87) were reduced in the ultrasound-guided group. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the routine use of ultrasound guidance for coronary stenting. Angiography-guided optimization of tubular stents can be performed with comparable angiographic and clinical long-term results.
    Circulation 09/2001; 104(12):1343-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    H Tygesen, C Wettervik, B Wennerblom
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for cardiac death. Animal studies have shown increased HRV and reduced mortality after physical training. We evaluated the change in exercise capacity and HRV in cardiac rehabilitation patients, randomised to routine or home-based intensive training. The design was prospective, stratified randomisation with pre-specified subgroup analysis. Maximal bicycle exercise test and 24-h Holter were performed 1 (baseline), 4 and 12 months after myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary artery by-pass surgery (CABG). Patients were randomised to physical training either two (N) or six (I) times per week for 3 months Sixty-two patients (43 MI and 19 CABG patients) were evaluated. Exercise capacity increased significantly more after 3 months of training in group I (mean (S.E.)); 29.0 (3.4) vs. 7.2 (2.6) watts, P<0.001). One year later the difference in exercise capacity remained (26.5 (3.3) vs. 11.8 (3.8) watts, P<0.001). Global HRV measurements SDNN and SDANN increased significantly more in group I after training (17.1 (5.6) vs. 1.7 (3.7) and 16.2 (4.9) vs. 2.8 (3.1) ms, P<0.05) and 1 year later the differences were still significant. Subgroup analysis showed more pronounced HRV response in CABG than MI patients. Intensive exercise training in cardiac rehabilitation increases exercise capacity and global HRV, which could be of prognostic significance.
    International Journal of Cardiology 08/2001; 79(2-3):175-82. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence of sudden cardiac death peaks during the early morning hours when there is a rapid withdrawal of vagal and an increase of sympathetic tone. The rate of autonomic change could be of prognostic importance. A total of 65 patients with angina pectoris, free from other diseases and drug free, were Holter monitored for 24 h. A total of 30 patients were also monitored on isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) and on metoprolol respectively. A total of 33 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) were analysed hourly, with special reference to the rapid changes of autonomic tone during the night and early morning hours. Circadian variation was assessed in two ways: (1) Mean HRV day (8 a.m.-8 p.m.) and night (0-5 a.m.) were compared. (2) For the morning/night hours (0-10 a.m.), individual hourly values for max. and min. HRV, the difference max.-min. (gradient), the rate of change per hour between max. and min. (velocity) and the largest difference between two consecutive hours (max. velocity) were recorded and the mean value for the group calculated. During the night/morning hours, healthy controls demonstrated faster HF max. velocity (P=0.002) and higher HF gradient (P=0.011) than angina patients. Metoprolol and IS-5-MN increased the HF gradient (P=0.008 and P=0.003, respectively), and metoprolol tended to increase the max. velocity (P=0.02). Metoprolol substantially decreased the LF/HF gradient (P=0.001), velocity (P=0.008) and max. velocity (P=0.0001). Rapid vagal withdrawal seemed to be a sign of a healthy autonomic nervous system in the control group but was significantly slower in angina patients. IS-5-MN and metoprolol tended to normalise vagal withdrawal and metoprolol slowed down the rapid increase in sympathetic predominance in the morning in patients.
    International Journal of Cardiology 07/2001; 79(1):61-9. · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • The American Journal of Cardiology 07/2001; 87(11):1308-11. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) gives additional information important for the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedure, but is time-consuming and may cause complications. To evaluate, during a period of intensive use of IVUS, the impact of IVUS on the final decision on balloon/stent diameter, consumption of devices, time-consumption and IVUS-related complications. During a 6-month period, IVUS was contemplated in all PTCA procedures and the reason for not using IVUS was specified. We used CVIS during the first, and Endosonics during the last 3 months, and both periods started with 1 week of hands-on practice. All procedures were to be planned according to an initial quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), and the finally achieved result, material used and complications were registered. The proportion of IVUS/PTCA was 37% during, 8% 6 months before and 12% 6 months after the study period. Three hundred and twenty-three patients were included in the study (57% of all patients), 199 of them were subjected to IVUS. The indications for PTCA during the study period were stable angina (58%), unstable angina (32%) and acute myocardial infarction (10%). The main reasons for not doing IVUS were use of 6F guiding catheter (13%), urgent procedure (12%) and occluded vessel (11%). Initial QCA detected 253 stenoses in 199 patients and 64 additional stenoses were treated, most of them probably detected by IVUS. QCA systematically underestimated vessel size, particularly in small vessels. There was a non-significant trend to more accurate estimations towards the end of the study in small vessels. Dissection, probably due to IVUS, occurred in two cases (1%). There were no significant differences in the number of devices used in IVUS compared to non-IVUS patients. The procedural time was 24 min longer in IVUS than in non-IVUS cases and more stenoses were treated per procedure in the IVUS group. Coronary angiography often underestimated balloon/stent size but in an unpredictable way, with a substantial proportion of significant stenoses being undetected. IVUS had few serious complications, did not increase device consumption but prolonged procedural time.
    Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal 04/2001; 35(2):75-9. · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 05/2000; 101(14):E162. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether uncomplicated chronic coronary artery disease causes changes in heart rate variability and if so, whether the heart rate variability pattern is different from that described in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Heart rate variability was studied in 65 patients with angina who had no previous myocardial infarcts, no other diseases, and were on no drug that could influence the sinus node. Results were compared with 33 age matched healthy subjects. The diagnosis of coronary artery disease in angina patients was established by coronary angiography in 58, by thallium scintigraphy in six, and by exercise test only in one. Patients and controls were Holter monitored 24 hours outside hospital, and heart rate variability was calculated in the frequency domain as global power (GP: 0.01-1.00 Hz), low frequency peak (LF: 0. 04-0.15 Hz), high frequency peak (HF: 0.15-0.40 Hz), LF/HF in ms(2), and in the time domain as SDNN (SD of normal RR intervals), SDANN (SD of all five minute mean normal RR intervals), SD (mean of all five minute SDs of mean RR intervals), rMSSD (root mean square of differences of successive normal RR intervals) (all in ms), and pNN50 (proportion of adjacent normal RR intervals differing more than 50 ms from the preceding RR interval) as per cent. The mean age in patients and controls was 60.4 (range 32-81) and 59.1 (32-77) years, respectively (NS), the male/female ratio, 57/65 and 24/33 (NS), and the mean time of Holter monitoring, 23.0 (18-24) and 22.8 (18-24) hours (NS). Mortality in angina patients was 0% (0/65) at one year, 0% (0/56) at two years, and 3% (1/33) at three years. Compared with healthy subjects angina patients showed a reduction in GP (p = 0.007), HF (p = 0.02), LF (p = 0.02), SD (p = 0.02), rMSSD (p = 0.01), and pNN50 (p = 0.01). No significant difference was found in RR, LF/HF, SDNN, or SDANN. Uncomplicated coronary artery disease without previous acute myocardial infarction was associated with reduced high and low frequency heart rate variability, including vagal tone. SDANN and SDNN, expressing ultra low and very low frequencies which are known to reflect prognosis after acute myocardial infarction, were less affected. This is in agreement with the good prognosis in uncomplicated angina in this study.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 04/2000; 83(3):290-4. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) indicates poor prognosis. HRV in patients with uncomplicated coronary artery disease is reduced, and an association with poor prognosis has been suggested. The mechanism of the HRV reduction is not known, but ischemia is a possibility. To evaluate, in angina patients with no prior AMI, no other disease and drug-free, if complete revascularization and thus important reduction of ischemia by means of PTCA influences HRV. Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings were performed at baseline prior to PTCA in 48 patients with angina and in 41 age-matched healthy control subjects. The recording was repeated 1 and 6 months after complete revascularization. In addition, HRV was registered during controlled respiration in the supine and standing positions and during cold pressure test at baseline in all angina patients and controls and in 17 consecutive angina patients 6 months after PTCA. Compared to controls, angina patients had a significantly reduced mean RR interval (p = 0.02), SD (p = 0.003), rMSSD (p = 0.03), pNN50 (p = 0.03), total power (p = 0.003), low- (p = 0.004) and high-frequency peak (p = 0.04), but normal SDNN, SDANN and LF/HF. One and 6 months after PTCA, 42/46 and 32/40 follow-up patients, respectively, were free of angina. Six months after PTCA, there was a significant recovery of vagal modulation seen in the frequency domain during controlled respiration, but only nonsignificant trends in HRV parameters analyzed over 24 h. Patients with uncomplicated angina had reduced HRV, mainly affecting vagal activity, but normal low frequency variability associated with mortality. Complete revascularization caused a partial normalization of vagal modulation indicating that ischemia may be one of but not the only mechanism of the HRV reduction in uncomplicated chronic coronary artery disease.
    Cardiology 02/2000; 94(3):146-51. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) indicates poor prognosis. HRV in patients with uncomplicated coronary artery disease is reduced, and an association with poor prognosis has been suggested. The mechanism of the HRV reduction is not known, but ischemia is a possibility. Aim: To evaluate, in angina patients with no prior AMI, no other disease and drug-free, if complete revascularization and thus important reduction of ischemia by means of PTCA influences HRV. Patients and Methods: Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings were performed at baseline prior to PTCA in 48 patients with angina and in 41 age-matched healthy control subjects. The recording was repeated 1 and 6 months after complete revascularization. In addition, HRV was registered during controlled respiration in the supine and standing positions and during cold pressure test at baseline in all angina patients and controls and in 17 consecutive angina patients 6 months after PTCA. Results: Compared to controls, angina patients had a significantly reduced mean RR interval (p = 0.02), SD (p = 0.003), rMSSD (p = 0.03), pNN50 (p = 0.03), total power (p = 0.003), low- (p = 0.004) and high-frequency peak (p = 0.04), but normal SDNN, SDANN and LF/HF. One and 6 months after PTCA, 42/46 and 32/40 follow-up patients, respectively, were free of angina. Six months after PTCA, there was a significant recovery of vagal modulation seen in the frequency domain during controlled respiration, but only nonsignificant trends in HRV parameters analyzed over 24 h. Conclusion: Patients with uncomplicated angina had reduced HRV, mainly affecting vagal activity, but normal low frequency variability associated with mortality. Complete revascularization caused a partial normalization of vagal modulation indicating that ischemia may be one of but not the only mechanism of the HRV reduction in uncomplicated chronic coronary artery disease.
    Cardiology 01/2000; 94(3):146-151. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated short and long-term effects on QT dispersion and autonomic balance after endoscopic transthoracic sympathicotomy (ETS). Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects autonomic balance of the heart. QT dispersion is a marker of cardiac electrical instability in patients with ischemic heart disease. Holter recordings for 24 h and a twelve-lead ECG were made prior to, 1 month, 1 year and 2 years after ETS. HRV was analysed in time domain and spectral analysis was performed during controlled respiration in supine position and during head up tilt. Dispersion of QT time and QTc were calculated. Of 88 patients, 62 (60) were eligible for HRV (QT-dispersion) analysis after 1 month, 39 (38) patients after 1 year and 23 (24) patients after 2 years. The HRV analysis showed a significant change of indices reflecting sympatho-vagal balance indicating significantly reduced sympathetic (LF) and increased vagal (HF, rMSSD) tone. These changes still persisted after 2 years. Global HRV increased over time with significant elevation of SDANN after 2 years. QT dispersion was significantly reduced 1 month after surgery and the dispersion was further diminished 2 years later. CONCLUSION: ETS changed HRV and QT dispersion which could imply reduced risk for malignant arrhythmias and death after ETS.
    International Journal of Cardiology 09/1999; 70(3):283-92. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-Blockers reduce mortality in patients with congestive heart failure and a proposed mechanism has been changes of autonomic tone. Heart rate variability is a non-invasive tool to estimate cardiac autonomic tone. The aim was to study changes of heart rate variability in patients with congestive heart failure on placebo, on the beta1-selective antagonist metoprolol or 24 h after metoprolol withdrawal. Forty-five patients with congestive heart failure were studied with Holter recordings. Heart rate variability measurements were performed before, after 6-12 months of treatment with 150 mg metoprolol/placebo, or 24 h after discontinued metoprolol. After treatment, patients on beta-blockade had a significantly longer mean RR interval and changes of heart rate variability, suggesting elevated vagal tone. Patients monitored in the rebound phase of beta-blocker withdrawal had a significant vagal reduction to the level of the placebo group. There was also a nonsignificant trend towards increased sympathetic tone (LF/HF over 24 h), compared with the beta-blockade group. Heart rate variability indicates an elevated vagal tone during treatment with metoprolol but beta-blockade withdrawal shifts the autonomic balance towards lower vagal and higher sympathetic tone within 24 h. These results could imply a potential risk when abruptly discontinuing beta-blockade medication in these patients.
    International Journal of Cardiology 03/1999; 68(2):171-7. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: β-Blockers reduce sympathetic tone, increase vagal tone and improve prognosis in ischaemic heart disease. Nitroglycerin, being a vasodilator, may theoretically have an opposite effect and worsen the prognosis. The purpose of the present study was to analyse heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects autonomic tone, in angina patients on isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) and/or metoprolol. Methods and Results: Thirty-two patients (32–81 years old), with recently developed angina (median duration: 3 months), showing no other disease and on no drugs, were Holter-monitored 24–48 h at baseline and after 4–5 days on IS-5-MN (mean daily dose: 33 mg), on metoprolol (mean daily dose: 184 mg) and on the combined treatment. Recordings were analysed on the Marquette Series 8000 Holter scanner. Both IS-5-MN and metoprolol significantly reduced myocardial ischaemia (ST integral) and ventricular tachycardias. Metoprolol induced significant changes in the following parameters (baseline versus metoprolol): high-frequency peak 9 ± 4 versus 11 ± 4 ms (p < 0.001), low-to-high frequency ratio 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 1.9 ± 0.6 (p < 0.0001), root mean square of RR interval difference 23 ± 7 versus 31 ± 9 ms (p < 0.0001), RR intervals differing more than 50 ms from the preceding one 4.8 ± 3.9 versus 10.0 ± 7.0&percnt; (p < 0.0001), mean of all 5-min standard deviations 50 ± 12 versus 56 ± 11 ms (p < 0.001) and mean RR interval 819 ± 90 versus 1,019 ± 120 ms (p < 0.00001). The combined treatment caused approximately the same HRV changes as metoprolol alone. IS-5-MN had no significant effect on any HRV parameter, neither alone nor in combination with metoprolol. Conclusion: A clinically effective dose of metoprolol had potentially positive effects on HRV with increase in vagal and decrease in sympathetic tone while IS-5-MN had no effect on HRV, neither positive nor negative, neither alone nor in combination with metoprolol.
    Cardiology 01/1998; 89(2):87-93. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-blockers reduce sympathetic tone, increase vagal tone and improve prognosis in ischaemic heart disease. Nitroglycerin, being a vasodilator, may theoretically have an opposite effect and worsen the prognosis. The purpose of the present study was to analyse heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects autonomic tone, in angina patients on isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) and/or metoprolol. Thirty-two patients (32-81 years old), with recently developed angina (median duration: 3 months), showing no other disease and on no drugs, were Holter-monitored 24-48 h at baseline and after 4-5 days on IS-5-MN (mean daily dose: 33 mg), on metoprolol (mean daily dose: 184 mg) and on the combined treatment. Recordings were analysed on the Marquette Series 8000 Holter scanner. Both IS-5-MN and metoprolol significantly reduced myocardial ischaemia (ST integral) and ventricular tachycardias. Metoprolol induced significant changes in the following parameters (baseline versus metoprolol): high-frequency peak 9 +/- 4 versus 11 +/- 4 ms (p < 0.001), low-to-high frequency ratio 2.5 +/- 0.6 versus 1.9 +/- 0.6 (p < 0.0001), root mean square of RR interval difference 23 +/- 7 versus 31 +/- 9 ms (p < 0.0001), RR intervals differing more than 50 ms from the preceding one 4.8 +/- 3.9 versus 10.0 +/- 7.0% (p < 0.0001), mean of all 5-min standard deviations 50 +/- 12 versus 56 +/- 11 ms (p < 0.001) and mean RR interval 819 +/- 90 versus 1,019 +/- 120 ms (p < 0.00001). The combined treatment caused approximately the same HRV changes as metoprolol alone. IS-5-MN had no significant effect on any HRV parameter, neither alone nor in combination with metoprolol. A clinically effective dose of metoprolol had potentially positive effects on HRV with increase in vagal and decrease in sympathetic tone while IS-5-MN had no effect on HRV, neither positive nor negative, neither alone nor in combination with metoprolol.
    Cardiology 01/1998; 89(2):87-93. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to reduce mortality and the need for hospital care for patients suffering from acute asthma, an emergency programme was set up. An ambulance crew, trained in coronary-pulmonary resuscitation was instructed in dealing with acute asthma and delegated to give 24 h treatment with bronchodilators (inhaled salbutamol and ipratropium bromide). If there was no, or only slight, improvement with this therapy, nurses (daytime) were delegated to give injections with corticosteroids (terbutaline and theophylline). Over a period of 2 years, 240 patients, 115 women and 125 men, were treated on 367 occasions. In 127 patients (53%), two or more treatments were given. The number of times treatment was given, as well as the proportion of females to males, increased the younger the patients were. Out of all the cases, more than 70% improved after treatment. On arrival, 21 patients (6%) were unconscious. After therapy, 15/21 patients (71%) survived. This may correspond to a similar reduction in mortality (population about 350,000 inhabitants), as it is unlikely that unconscious patients can survive without intensive care.
    Resuscitation 12/1997; 35(3):243-7. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac sympathetic blockade by thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) dilates stenotic coronary arteries and has been used to control pain in patients with unstable angina. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential anti-ischemic effects of cardiac sympathetic blockade by TEA in severe, refractory, unstable angina. Forty patients with unstable angina refractory to standard anti-anginal therapy were randomized to receive either continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine (TEA, Th1 to Th5) or to standard anti-anginal therapy including beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, aspirin, heparin, and nitroglycerin infusion (control group). The primary end points were number of anginal attacks and severity of myocardial ischemia assessed by 48-hour ambulatory Holter monitoring. The incidence of myocardial ischemia was lower in the TEA group (22% versus 61%; P<.05). The number of ischemic episodes per patient was 1.0+/-0.6 in the TEA group and 3.6+/-0.9 in the control group (P<.05). The episode duration per patient was 4.1+/-2.5 minutes and 19.7+/-6.2 minutes in the TEA and the control groups, respectively (P<.05). The mean area-under-the-ST-time-curve was 6.8+/-4.3 and 32.2+/-14.3 (mm-min) in the TEA and the control groups, respectively (P<.05). Fifteen anginal attacks were recorded in the control group and one attack in the TEA group (0.83+/-0.21 versus 0.06+/-0.06/patient, respectively, P<.01). The anti-ischemic and anti-anginal effects of continuous TEA are superior to those of conventional therapy in the treatment of refractory unstable angina.
    Circulation 10/1997; 96(7):2178-82. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects autonomous activity that influences the heart. It has been shown that HRV is depressed during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and that it recovers with time. Beta-blockers reduce mortality after AMI and changes in sympathico-vagal activity have been suggested to be of importance. Under certain animal experimental conditions, metoprolol has been reported to increase vagal tone more than atenolol, which could have clinical implications. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of atenolol and metoprolol treatments on HRV during 6 weeks after AMI and to follow the post MI changes in HRV in patients on betablockers. In an open, randomised cross-over study, 28 patients were randomised to 3+3 weeks' treatment with atenolol or metoprolol starting 2-5 days after AMI. Twenty-four hour Holter recordings were made before randomisation and after 3 and 6 weeks. HRV was analysed as HR, SDRR, SDANN, SD, rMSSD and pNN50 in the time domain and as coefficient of component variance (CCV) of HF and LF, and as LF/HF ratio in the frequency domain. The average daily dose in our study population was 106 mg of metoprolol and 54 mg of atenolol. There were trends toward lower heart rates daytime, lower LF/HF ratio daytime and higher rMSSD on atenolol compared to metoprolol. In the total group of 28 patients we found during the first 3 weeks, a significant increase of SDNN, SDANN (p<0.0001) and LF/HF ratio daytime and CCV-HF night-time (p<0.01). All differences and trends were unchanged between 3 and 6 weeks. There was no evidence of more increased vagal tone with metoprolol compared to atenolol as has been suggested from animal models. In patients also on chronic treatment with beta blockers, an increase of HRV was seen during the first weeks post MI.
    International Journal of Cardiology 07/1997; 60(2):157-64. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic transthoracic sympathicotomy (ETS) is a recently developed technique to divide sympathetic nerves. ETS has been shown to improve symptoms and reduce ischemia in patients with severe angina pectoris. Low heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with ischemic heart disease carries an adverse prognosis. HRV reflects autonomic response of the heart and a shift in the sympathovagal balance towards parasympathetic dominance could be a marker of improved prognosis. HRV might also be used as an indicator of surgical success in sympathetic heart denervation. Heart rate was recorded in 57 patients before and after ETS. Registration was recorded during controlled respiration in the supine position and at tilt test over 10 minutes and spectral analysis was performed. Twenty-four hour Holter recordings were analyzed in the time domain. During the controlled setting, the high-frequency (HF) component (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) increased significantly whereas the low-frequency (LF) component (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) did not change significantly. The LF/HF ratio at tilt test was reduced from 1.3 to 0.8 (p <0.01). The time-domain analysis showed a significant increase of the mean RR interval (923 to 1,006 ms, p <0.001) and indexes reflecting parasympathetic tone also increased significantly (the root-mean square of difference measured from 24.3 to 29.5 ms, p <0.001 and the proportion of adjacent RR intervals >50% measured from 5.5% to 8.2%, p <0.01), whereas measurements reflecting global HRV did not change. In addition to relief of symptoms and reduced ischemia in severe angina pectoris, ETS caused a shift of sympathovagal balance toward parasympathetic tone. This might explain the anti-ischemic effect and have prognostic implications.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 07/1997; 79(11):1447-52. · 3.21 Impact Factor