[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mild hypothermia impairs resistance to infection and, reportedly, impairs phagocytosis and oxidative killing of unopsonized bacteria. We evaluated various functions at 33 degrees-41 degrees C in neutrophils taken from volunteers. Adhesion on endothelial cells was determined using light microscopy. Adhesion molecule expression and receptors, phagocytosis, and release of reactive oxidants were assessed using flow cytometric assays. Adhesion protein CD11b expression on resting neutrophils was temperature-independent. However, up-regulation of CD11b with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was increased by hypothermia and decreased with hyperthermia. Neutrophil adhesion to either resting or activated endothelial cells was not temperature-dependent. Bacterial uptake was inversely related to temperature, more so with Escherichia coli than Staphylococcus aureus. Temperature dependence of phagocytosis occurred only wi thopsonized bacteria. Hypothermia slightly increased N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-phenylalanine receptors on neutrophils: hyperthermia decreased expression, especially with TNF-alpha. N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced H2O2 production was inversely related to temperature, especially in the presence of TNF-alpha. Conversely, phorbol-13-myristate-12-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, induced an extreme and homogenous release of reactive oxidants that increased with temperature. In contrast to nonreceptor-dependent phagocytosis and oxidative killing, several crucial receptor-dependent neutrophil activities show temperature-dependent regulation, with hypothermia increasing function. The temperature dependence of neutrophil function is thus more complicated than previously appreciated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent data indicate that ceramide (Cer) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) regulate immune cell functions. Since these bioactive lipids are generated in blood plasma by inflammatory lipases, we hypothesized that they may be involved in the process of acute systemic sepsis. In order to provide support for this hypothesis, we analyzed the plasma levels of Cer and LPC by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry in 102 sepsis patients starting with the day at which the sepsis criteria were fulfilled for the first time, as well as on day 4 and day 11. The values were compared with 56 healthy controls and correlated with sepsis-related mortality within 30 days of study entry. Most Cer species were increased in sepsis patients, while all LPC species were markedly decreased. In addition, we determined the molar ratios with their precursor molecules sphingomyelin (SPM) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), which reflect the enzymatic reactions responsible for their formation. Species-specific as well as total Cer-SPM ratios were increased, whereas LPC-PC ratios were decreased in sepsis patients. The increased Cer-SPM ratios as well as the decreased LPC-PC ratios showed a strong predictive power for sepsis-related mortality. Together with existing data from in vitro experiments and animal models, the results provide the first ex vivo indication for the role of Cer and lysophospholipids in systemic inflammation in humans.
The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2003; 44(4):754-61. · 4.39 Impact Factor