[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echographically measured thicknesses of perirenal and subcutaneous fat, as well as serum metabolic and anthropometric parameters, were evaluated in 74 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 22 of whom were HAART-naive at baseline, who were followed-up for 27 months to detect predictive factors of lipodystrophy. Perirenal fat diameter (PRFD) at baseline differed in HAART-naive and HAART-experienced patients (P<.001), and it was the best predictor of lipodystrophy changes after 12 months of follow-up in the HAART-naive patients (hazard ratio, 7.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-45.49; P=.032). In addition, HAART-experienced patients in whom lipodystrophy improved had thinner baseline perirenal fat than those in whom lipodystrophy did not improve (P=.04). A PRFD of >2.6 mm at baseline or >4.9 mm during receipt of HAART suggested lipodystrophy predisposition. PRFD correlated significantly with other metabolic and anthropometric parameters. Echographically measured PRFD is associated with lipodystrophy and could be used as an early predictor of this syndrome in treatment-naive patients starting HAART.