[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed that receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-alpha inhibited insulin-increased prolactin gene transcription. Others suggested that RPTPalpha was a key intermediary between integrins and activation of Src. We present evidence that inhibition of insulin-increased prolactin gene transcription was secondary to RPTPalpha activation of Src, reflecting its role as mediator of integrin responses. Src kinase activity was increased in GH4 cells transiently or stably expressing RPTPalpha and cells plated on the integrin-alpha5beta1 ligand fibronectin. C-terminal Src kinase inactivated Src and blocked RPTPalpha inhibition of insulin-increased prolactin gene transcription. Expression of dominant-negative Src also prevented the RPTPalpha-mediated inhibition of insulin-increased prolactin gene expression. Low levels of a constitutively active Src mutant (SrcY/F) stimulated whereas higher expression levels of Src Y/F inhibited prolactin gene expression. Src-increased prolactin gene transcription was inhibited by expression of a blocking Rho-mutant (RhoN19), suggesting that Src acted through or required active Rho. Experiments with an activated Rho-mutant (RhoL63) demonstrated a biphasic activation/repression of prolactin gene transcription that was similar to the effect of Src. The effects of both Src and Rho were phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent. Expression of SrcY/F or RhoL63 altered the actin cytoskeleton and morphology of GH4 cells. Taken together, these data suggest a physiological pathway from the cell matrix to increased prolactin gene transcription mediated by RPTPalpha/Src/Rho/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and cytoskeletal change that is additive with effects of insulin. Over activation of this pathway, however, caused extreme alteration of the cytoskeleton that blocked activation of the prolactin gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is one of the characteristics of diabetes and is thought to be responsible for many of the pathophysiological changes caused by the disease. We previously identified an insulin response element in the promoter of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) that was activated by an unidentified member of the forkhead/winged helix (Fox) family of transcription factors. This element mediated a 5-7-fold increase in PAI-1 transcription because of insulin. Here we report that oxidative stress also caused a 3-fold increase in PAI-1 transcription and that the effect was additive with that of insulin. Antioxidants prevent this response. Mutational analysis of the PAI-1 promoter revealed that oxidative stress acted at an AP-1 site at -60/52 of the promoter. Gel mobility shift analysis demonstrated that binding to an AP-1 oligonucleotide was increased 4-fold by oxidative stress. Jun levels were increased by oxidants as assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Western blotting demonstrated that a rapid and prolonged nuclear accumulation of phospho-c-Jun followed oxidant stimulation. The nuclear c-Jun phosphorylation was not observed in cells treated with reduced glutathione. Finally, JNK/SAPK activity was found to increase in response to oxidants, and inhibition of JNK/SAP blocked TBHQ-increased PAI-1-luciferase expression. Thus, oxidative stress stimulated AP-1 and activated the PAI-1 promoter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an important regulator of fibrinolysis by its inhibition of both tissue-type and urokinase plasminogen activators. PAI-1 levels are elevated in type II diabetes and this elevation correlates with macro- and microvascular complications of diabetes. Insulin increases PAI-1 production in several experimental systems, but the mechanism of insulin-activated PAI-1 transcription remains to be determined. Deletion analysis of the PAI-1 promoter revealed that the insulin response element is between -117 and -7. Mutation of the AT-rich site at -52/-45 abolished the insulin responsiveness of the PAI-1 promoter. This sequence is similar to the inhibitory sequence found in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylkinase/insulin-like growth factor-I-binding protein I promoters. Gel-mobility shift assays demonstrated that the forkhead bound to the PAI-1 promoter insulin response element. Expression of the DNA-binding domain of FKHR acted as a dominant negative to block insulin-increased PAI-1-CAT expression. A LexA-FKHR construct was also insulin responsive. These data suggested that a member of the Forkhead/winged helix family of transcription factors mediated the effect of insulin on PAI-1 transcription. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase reduced the effect of insulin on PAI-1 gene expression, a result consistent with activation through FKHR. However, it was likely that a different member of the FKHR family (not FKHR) mediated this effect since FKHR was present in both insulin-responsive and non-responsive cell lines.