G. Bihain

Spanish National Research Council, Hispalis, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (25)79.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We aim at identifying the least massive population of the solar metallicity, young (120 Myr), nearby (133.5 pc) Pleiades star cluster with the ultimate goal of understanding the physical properties of intermediate-age, free-floating, low-mass brown dwarfs and giant planetary-mass objects, and deriving the cluster substellar mass function across the deuterium-burning mass limit at ~0.012 Msol. We performed a deep photometric and astrometric J- and H-band survey covering an area of ~0.8 deg^2. The images with completeness and limiting magnitudes of J,H ~ 20.2 and ~ 21.5 mag were acquired ~9 yr apart (proper motion precision of +/-6 mas/yr). J- and H-band data were complemented with Z, K, and mid-infrared magnitudes up to 4.6 micron coming from UKIDSS, WISE, and follow-up observations of our own. Pleiades member candidates were selected to have proper motions compatible with that of the cluster, and colors following the known Pleiades sequence in the interval J = 15.5-8.8 mag, and Z_UKIDSS - J > 2.3 mag or Z nondetections for J > 18.8 mag. We found a neat sequence of astrometric and photometric Pleiades substellar member candidates in the intervals J = 15.5-21.2 mag and ~0.072-0.008 Msol. The faintest objects show very red near- and mid-infrared colors exceeding those of field high-gravity dwarfs by >0.5 mag. The Pleiades photometric sequence does not show any color turn-over because of the presence of photospheric methane absorption down to J = 20.3 mag, which is about 1 mag fainter than predicted by the color-computed models. Pleiades brown dwarfs have a proper motion dispersion of 6.4-7.5 mas/yr and are dynamically relaxed at the age of the cluster. The Pleiades mass function extends down to the deuterium burning-mass threshold, with a slope fairly similar to that of other young star clusters and stellar associations.
    07/2014;
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    Ralf-Dieter Scholz, Gabriel Bihain, Jesper Storm
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Our aim is to detect and classify previously overlooked brown dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. Methods: We performed a proper motion search among bright sources observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) that are also seen in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Our candidates appear according to their red $J$$-$$K_s$ colours as nearby late-L dwarf candidates. Low-resolution near-infrared (NIR) classification spectroscopy in the $HK$ band allowed us to get spectroscopic distance and tangential velocity estimates. Results: We have discovered a new L9.5 dwarf, WISEA J064750.85-154616.4, at a spectroscopic distance of about 14 pc and with a tangential velocity of about 11 km/s, typical of the Galactic thin disc population. We have confirmed another recently found L/T transition object at about 10 pc, WISEA J140533.13+835030.7, which we classified as L8 (NIR).
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although many new brown dwarf (BD) neighbours have recently been discovered thanks to new sky surveys in the mid- and near-infrared (MIR, NIR), their numbers are still more than five times lower than those of stars in the same volume. Our aim is to detect and classify new BDs to eventually complete their census in the immediate Solar neighbourhood. We combined multi-epoch data from sky surveys at different wavelengths to detect BD neighbours of the Sun by their high proper motion (HPM). We concentrated at relatively bright MIR (w2<13.5) BD candidates from WISE expected to be so close to the Sun that they may also be seen in older NIR (2MASS, DENIS) or even red optical (SDSS i- and z-band, SSS I-band) surveys. With low-resolution NIR spectroscopy we classified the new BDs and estimated their distances and velocities. We have discovered the HPM (pm~470mas/yr) T7.5 dwarf, WISE J0521+1025, which is at d=5.0+-1.3pc from the Sun the nearest known T dwarf in the northern sky, and two early-T dwarfs, WISE J0457-0207 (T2) and WISE J2030+0749 (T1.5), with proper motions of ~120 and ~670mas/yr and distances of 12.5+-3.1pc and 10.5+-2.6pc, respectively. The last one was independently discovered and also classified as a T1.5 dwarf by Mace and coworkers. All three show thin disk kinematics. They may have been overlooked in the past owing to overlapping images and because of problems with matching objects between different surveys and measuring their proper motions.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: We contribute to improving the census of cool brown dwarfs (late-T and Y dwarfs) in the immediate solar neighbourhood. METHODS: By combining near-infrared (NIR) data of UKIDSS with mid-infrared WISE and other available NIR (2MASS) and red optical (SDSS $z$-band) multi-epoch data we detect high proper motion (HPM) objects with colours typical of late spectral types ($>$T5). We use NIR low-resolution spectroscopy for the classification of new candidates. RESULTS: We determined new proper motions for 14 known T5.5-Y0 dwarfs, many of them being significantly ($>$2-10 times) more accurate than previous ones. We detected three new candidates, ULAS J0954+0623, ULAS J1152+0359, and ULAS J1204-0150, by their HPMs and colours. Using previously published and new UKIDSS positions of the known nearby T8 dwarf WISE J0254+0223 we improved its trigonometric parallax to 165$\pm$20 mas. For the three new objects we obtained NIR spectroscopic follow-up with LBT/LUCIFER classifying them as T5.5 and T6 dwarfs. With their estimated spectroscopic distances of about 25-30 pc, their proper motions of about 430-650 mas/yr lead to tangential velocities of about 50-80 km/s typical of the Galactic thin disk population.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most young, ultracool substellar objects with spectral types later than M9 show very red mid-infrared colors up to 24~micron, significantly redder than expected for their optical and near-infrared spectral classifications. These objects have estimated ages and masses in the intervals 20-300 Myr and 12-35 times the mass of Jupiter, respectively. According to optical data, their atmospheres have low gravity and are rather cool with characteristic effective temperatures between 1300 and 2400 K, rather close to the temperatures of close-in giant planets around solar-type stars. We focus on the particular case of G196-3B, an L3-type substellar companion orbiting a young low-mass star. We discuss various physical scenarios to account for its reddish nature and conclude that a low-gravity atmosphere with enshrouded upper atmospheric layers and/or a warm dusty disk/envelope provides the most likely explanations.
    11/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We aim to: i) confirm the presence of methane absorption in S Ori 73 (a T-type member candidate of the sig Orionis cluster, 3 Myr, 352 pc) through methane imaging; ii) study S Ori 70 and 73 cluster membership via photometric colors and accurate proper motion analysis; iii) perform a new search to identify additional T-type sig Orionis member candidates with likely masses below 7 Mjup. We obtained HAWK-I (VLT) J, H, and CH4off photometry of an area of 119.15 sq. arcmin in sig Orionis down to Jcomp = 21.7 and Hcomp = 21 mag. Near-infrared data were complemented with optical photometry using images acquired with OSIRIS (GTC) and VISTA as part of the VISTA Orion survey. We derived proper motions by comparison of the new HAWK-I and VISTA images with published near-infrared data taken 3.4 - 7.9 yr ago. S Ori 73 has a red H-CH4off color indicating methane absorption in the H-band and a spectral type of T4 +/- 1. S Ori 70 displays a redder methane color than S Ori 73 in agreement with its latter spectral classification. Our proper motion measurements are larger than the motion of sig Orionis, rendering S Ori 70 and 73 cluster membership uncertain. We identified one new photometric candidate with J = 21.69 +/- 0.12 mag and methane color consistent with spectral type greater than T8. S Ori 73 has colors similar to those of T3-T5 field dwarfs, which in addition to its high proper motion suggests that it is probably a field dwarf located at 170-200 pc. The origin of S Ori 70 remains unclear: it can be a field, foreground mid- to late-T free-floating dwarf with peculiar colors, or an orphan planet ejected through strong dynamical interactions from sig Orionis or from a nearby star-forming region in Orion.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2011; 276. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: WISE provides an infrared all-sky survey which aims at completing our knowledge on the possibly dramatically increasing number of brown dwarfs with lower temperatures. We search for the nearest representatives of the coolest brown dwarfs, which will be very interesting for detailed follow-up observations, once they haven been discovered. Methods: We have used the preliminary data release from WISE, selected bright candidates with colours typical of late-T dwarfs, tried to match them with faint 2MASS and SDSS objects, to determine their proper motions, and to follow-up them spectroscopically. Results: We have identified two new ultracool brown dwarfs, WISE J0254+0223 and WISE J1741+2553, with large proper motions of about 2.5 and 1.5 arcsec/yr, respectively. With their w1-w2~3.0 and J-w2~4.0 colour indices we expect both to have a spectral type of ~T8-T10 and absolute magnitude of M_{w2}~14. We confirm WISE J1741+2553 as a T9-T10 dwarf from near-infrared spectroscopy with LBT/LUCIFER1. From their bright WISE w2 magnitudes of 12.7 and 12.3, we estimate distances of 5.5$^{+2.3}_{-1.6}$ pc and 4.6$^{+1.2}_{-1.0}$ pc and tangential velocities of ~65 km/s and ~34 km/s indicating Galactic thick and thin disk membership, respectively.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2011; 532. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fundamental properties of brown dwarfs evolve with age. Models describing the evolution of luminosities and effective temperatures, among other physical parameters, can be empirically constrained using brown dwarfs of various masses in star clusters of well determined age and metallicity. We aim to carry out a spectroscopic and photometric characterization of low-mass brown dwarfs of the ~120 Myr old Pleiades open cluster. We obtained low-resolution near-infrared spectra of the J=17.4-18.8 mag candidate L-type brown dwarfs PLIZ 28 and 35, BRB 17, 21, 23, and 29, which are Pleiades members by photometry and proper motion. We also obtained spectra of the well-known J=15.4-16.1 mag late M-type cluster members PPl 1, Teide 1, and Calar 3. We find that the former six objects have early- to mid-L spectral types and confirm previously reported M-types for the other three objects. The spectra of the L0-type BRB 17 and PLIZ 28 present a triangular H-band continuum shape, indicating that this peculiar spectral feature persists until at least the age of the Pleiades. We add to our sample 36 reported M5-L0-type cluster members, collecting their I_c - and UKIDSS ZYJHK-band photometry. We confirm a possible interleaving of the Pleiades and field L-type sequences in the JHK absolute magnitude versus spectral type diagrams, and quantify marginally redder Pleiades J-K colours, by 0.12+-0.20 mag, possibly related to both reddening and youth. Using field dwarf bolometric correction - and effective temperature - spectral type relations, we obtain the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of the Pleiades sample. Theoretical models reproduce well the spectral sequence at M5.5-9, but appear to overestimate the luminosity or underestimate the effective temperature at L0-5. For the Pleiades early- to mid L-type brown dwarfs, we estimate theoretical masses to be in the range 0.025-0.035 M_Sol. Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables; accepted for publication in A&A; v3: minor corrections
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report unusual near- and mid-infrared photometric properties of G 196-3 B, the young substellar companion at 16 arcsec from the active M2.5-type star G 196-3 A, using data taken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments onboard Spitzer. G 196-3 B shows markedly redder colors at all wavelengths from 1.6 up to 24 micron than expected for its spectral type, which is determined at L3 from optical and near-infrared spectra. We discuss various physical scenarios to account for its reddish nature, and conclude that a low-gravity atmosphere with enshrouded upper atmospheric layers and/or a warm dusty disk/envelope provides the most likely explanations, the two of them consistent with an age in the interval 20-300 Myr. We also present new and accurate separate proper motion measurements for G 196-3 A and B confirming that both objects are gravitationally linked and share the same motion within a few mas/yr. After integration of the combined spectrophotometric spectral energy distributions, we obtain that the difference in the bolometric magnitudes of G 196-3 A and B is 6.15 +/- 0.10 mag. Kinematic consideration of the Galactic space motions of the system for distances in the interval 15-30 pc suggests that the pair is a likely member of the Local Association, and that it lay near the past positions of young star clusters like alpha Persei less than 85 Myr ago, where the binary might have originated. At these young ages, the mass of G 196-3 B would be in the range 12-25 Mjup, close to the frontier between planets and brown dwarfs. Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2010; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Free-floating substellar candidates with estimated theoretical masses of as low as 5 Jupiter masses have been found in the 3 Myr old sigma Orionis open cluster. As the overlap with the planetary mass domain increases, the question of how these objects form becomes important. The determination of their number density and whether a mass cut-off limit exists is crucial to understanding their formation. Aims: We propose to search for objects of yet lower masses in the cluster and determine the shape of the mass function at low mass. Methods: Using new- and (re-analysed) published {IZJHK}_s[3.6]{-}[8.0]-band data of an area of 840 arcmin2, we performed a search for LT-type cluster member candidates in the magnitude range J=19.5-21.5 mag, based on their expected magnitudes and colours. Results: Besides recovering the T type object S Ori 70 and two other known objects, we find three new cluster member candidates, S Ori 72-74, with J≈21 mag and within 12 arcmin of the cluster centre. They have theoretical masses of 4{-2}+3 M_Jup and are among the least massive free-floating objects detected by direct imaging outside the Solar System. The photometry in archival Spitzer [3.6]-[5.8]-band images infers that S Ori 72 is an L/T transition candidate and S Ori 73 a T-type candidate, following the expected cluster sequence in the mid-infrared. Finally, the L-type candidate S Ori 74 with lower quality photometry is located at 11.8 arcsec ( 4250 AU) of a stellar member of sigma Orionis and could be a companion. After contaminant correction in the area complete to J=21.1 mag, we estimate that there remain between zero and two cluster members in the mass interval 6-4 M_Jup. Conclusions: We present S Ori 73, a new candidate T type and candidate sigma Orionis member of a few Jupiter masses. Our result suggests a possible turnover in the substellar mass spectrum below 6 Jupiter masses, which could be investigated further by wider and deeper photometric surveys.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2009; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on our on-going proper motion survey of very low-mass (>=5 MJup), ultracool (Teff>=350 K) companions of nearby, field T-type brown dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood. Our project is intended to provide seeing-limited images of the targets to find companion candidates at wide separations (>=15 AU) and within an area of 3'×3' around the primaries, thus complementing previous searches that explored the inner-most regions. Data are collected in the J-band with 2-4-m class telescopes; the completeness magnitude of our survey goes from ~19.5 to ~21 mag (depending on seeing and transparency conditions). So far we have studied 11 late-L and T-type brown dwarfs located at d<=16 pc of the Sun. Only one faint, proper motion companion candidate is found; its definitive confirmation highly requires third epoch data.
    Stempels, Eric: Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun, AIP, Springer, 576-579 (2009). 02/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims.The nature of S Ori 70 (S Ori J053810.1-023626), a faint mid-T type object found towards the direction of the young $\sigma$ Orionis cluster, is still under debate. We intend to find out whether it is a field brown dwarf or a 3-Myr old planetary-mass member of the cluster.Methods.We report on near-infrared ${\it JHK}_{\rm s}$ and mid-infrared [3.6] and [4.5] IRAC/Spitzer photometry recently obtained for S Ori 70. The new near-infrared images (taken 3.82 yr after the discovery data) allowed us to derive the first proper motion measurement for this object. Results.The colors $(H-K_{\rm s})$, $(J-K_{\rm s})$ and $K_{\rm s}$ - [3.6] appear discrepant when compared to T4–T7 dwarfs in the field. This behavior could be ascribed either to a low-gravity atmosphere or to an atmosphere with a metallicity that is significantly different than solar. The small proper motion of S Ori 70 (11.0 $\pm$ 5.9 mas yr$^{-1}$) indicates that this object is farther away than expected if it were a single field T dwarf lying in the foreground of the $\sigma$ Orionis cluster. Our measurement is consistent with the proper motion of the cluster within 1.5$\sigma$ the astrometric uncertainty. Conclusions.Taking into account both S Ori 70's proper motion and the new near- and mid-infrared colors, a low-gravity atmosphere remains as the most likely explanation for our observations. This supports S Ori 70's membership in $\sigma$ Orionis, with an estimated mass in the interval 2–7 $M_{\rm Jup}$, in agreement with our previous derivation.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2008; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims.We searched for infrared flux excesses of planetary-mass candidates in the sigma Orionis cluster (~3 Myr, ~350 pc). Methods: Using IJHKs data from the literature and the [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] IRAC images of the sigma Orionis cluster from the Spitzer Space Telescope public archives, we constructed colour-colour diagrams and spectral energy distributions from 0.8 to 8.0 mum of cluster candidates fainter than J = 18.0 mag, i.e. the planetary-mass borderline for sigma Orionis. Results: Infrared flux excesses are detected longward of 5 mum in seven objects (S Ori 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, S Ori J053956.8-025315 and S Ori J053858.6-025228) with masses estimated in the range 7-14 M_Jup. Emission at shorter wavelengths (4.5 mum) in excess of the photosphere is probably observed in S Ori 56 and S Ori J053858.6-025228. The faintest and least massive object, S Ori 60, exhibits flux excess only at 8 mum. We ascribe these infrared excesses to the presence of circumsubstellar warm discs, providing additional confirmation for the objects' membership of sigma Orionis. The observed incidence of inner discs around planetary-mass objects is >=50%, which is consistent with the measured inner disc frequency among cluster brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, suggesting that these objects share a common origin. However, there is a trend for the inner disc rate to increase with decreasing mass (from 10 Mo through the substellar domain), which may be due to a mass-dependent timescale for the dissipation of the interior discs.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2007; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present multiwavelength (X-ray/optical/near-infrared/millimetre) observations of GRB 051022 between 2.5 hours and ~1.15 yr after the event. It is the most intense gamma-ray burst (~ 10^-4 erg cm^-2) detected by HETE-2, with the exception of the nearby GRB 030329. Optical and near infrared observations did not detect the afterglow despite a strong afterglow at X-ray wavelengths. Millimetre observations at Plateau de Bure (PdB) detected a source and a flare, confirming the association of this event with a moderately bright (R = 21.5) galaxy. Spectroscopic observations of this galaxy show strong [O II], Hbeta and [O III] emission lines at a redshift of 0.809. The spectral energy distribution of the galaxy implies Av (rest frame) = 1.0 and a starburst occuring ~ 25 Myr ago, during which the star-forming-rate reached >= 25 Msun/yr. In conjunction with the spatial extent (~ 1'') it suggests a very luminous (Mv = - 21.8) blue compact galaxy, for which we also find with Z Zsun. The X-ray spectrum shows evidence of considerable absorption by neutral gas with NH, X-ray = 3.47(+0.48/-0.47) x 10^22 cm^-2 (rest frame). Absorption by dust in the host galaxy at z = 0.809 certainly cannot account for the non-detection of the optical afterglow, unless the dust-to-gas ratio is quite different than that seen in our Galaxy (i.e. large dust grains). It is likely that the afterglow of the dark GRB 051022 was extinguished along the line of sight by an obscured, dense star forming region in a molecular cloud within the parent host galaxy. This galaxy is different from most GRB hosts being brighter than L* by a factor of 3. We have also derived a SFR ~ 50 Msun/yr and predict that this host galaxy will be detected at sub-mm wavelengths. Comment: 7 Pages, 7 figures. Accepted in Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2007; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims.We investigate the mass function in the substellar domain down to a few Jupiter masses in the young sigma Orionis open cluster (3±2 Ma, d = 360^+70_-60 pc). Methods: We have performed a deep IJ-band search, covering an area of 790 arcmin2 close to the cluster centre. This survey was complemented with an infrared follow-up in the HK_s- and Spitzer 3.6-8.0 mum-bands. Using colour-magnitude diagrams, we have selected 49 candidate cluster members in the magnitude interval 16.1 mag < I < 23.0 mag. Results: Accounting for flux excesses at 8.0 mum and previously known spectral features of youth, we identify 30 objects as bona fide cluster members. Four are first identified from our optical-near infrared data. Eleven have most probable masses below the deuterium burning limit which we therefore classify as candidate planetary-mass objects. The slope of the substellar mass spectrum (Delta N / Delta {M} ≈ a { M}-alpha) in the mass interval 0.11 M_o < {M} < 0.006 M_o is alpha = +0.6 ± 0.2. Any mass limit to formation via opacity-limited fragmentation must lie below 0.006 M_o. The frequency of sigma Orionis brown dwarfs with circumsubstellar discs is 47±9 %. Conclusions: The continuity in the mass function and in the frequency of discs suggests that very low-mass stars and substellar objects, even below the deuterium-burning mass limit, share the same formation mechanism. Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2007; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged). We have conducted deep photometric searches for substellar members of the Praesepe (0.5-1 Gyr) and sigma Orionis (3 Myr) star clusters using the Sloan i' and z' filters, the 3.5-m and the 5-m Hale telescopes on the Calar Alto and Palomar Observatories, respectively. The total area surveyed was 1177 arcmin^2 (Praesepe) and 1122 arcmin^2 (sigma Orionis) down to 5-sigma detection limits of i'= 24.5 and z'= 24 mag, corresponding to masses of 50-55 M_Jup (Praesepe) and 6 M_Jup (sigma Orionis). Besides recovering previously known cluster members reported in the literature, we have identified new photometric candidates in both clusters whose masses expand the full range covered by our study. In sigma Orionis, follow-up NIR photometry has allowed us to confirm the likely cluster membership of three newly discovered planetary-mass objects. The substellar mass function of sigma Orionis, which is complete from the star-brown dwarf borderline down to 7 M_Jup, keeps rising smoothly with a slope of alpha = 0.6^{+0.5}_{-0.1}. Very interestingly, one of the faintest Praesepe candidates for which we have also obtained follow-up JHK photometry nicely fits the expected optical and infrared photometric sequence of the cluster. From its colors, we have estimated its spectral type in the L4-L6 range. If confirmed as a true Praesepe member, it would become the first L-type brown dwarf (50-60 M_Jup) identified in an intermediate-age star cluster. Our derivation of the Praesepe mass function depends strongly on the cluster age. For the youngest possible ages (500-700 Myr), our results suggest that there is a deficit of Praesepe brown dwarfs in the central regions of the cluster, while the similarity between the Praesepe and sigma Orionis mass functions increases qualitatively for models older than 800 Myr. Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A. Figures 1, 7, and 9-12 are available in jpeg format
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2006; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a search for low-mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades open cluster. The identification of Pleiades members fainter and cooler than those currently known allows us to constrain evolutionary models for L dwarfs and to extend the study of the cluster mass function to lower masses. We conducted a 1.8 deg^2 near-infrared J-band survey at the 3.5m Calar Alto Telescope, with completeness J~19.0. The detected sources were correlated with those of previously available optical I-band images (completeness I~22). Using a J versus I-J colour-magnitude diagram, we identified 18 faint red L-type candidates, with magnitudes 17.4<J<19.7 and colours I-J>3.2. If Pleiades members, their masses would span ~0.040-0.020 M_Sol. We performed follow-up HKs-band imaging to further confirm their cluster membership by photometry and proper motion. Out of 11 IJ candidates with proper motion measurements, we find six cluster members, two non-members and three whose membership is uncertain and depends on the intrinsic velocity dispersion of Pleiades brown dwarfs. This dispersion (>4 mas yr^-1) is at least four times that of cluster stars with masses >1 M_Sol. Five of the seven other IJ candidates are discarded because their J-Ks colours are bluer than those of confirmed members. The J versus I-J sequence of the L-type candidates at J>18 is not as red as theoretical models predict; it rather follows the field L-dwarf sequence translated to the cluster distance. This sequence overlapping, also observed in the J versus J-H and J-K diagrams, suggests that Pleiades and field L dwarfs may have similar spectral energy distributions and luminosities, and thus possibly similar radii. Also, we find alpha=0.5+-0.2 for a power-law approximation dN/dM propor. M^-alpha of the survey mass spectrum in the mass range 0.5-0.026 M_Sol. Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2006; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present multiwavelength observations of the latest two GRB detected by Hete-2 in 2005. For GRB 051022, no optical/nIR afterglow has been detected, in spite of the strong gamma-ray emission and the reported X-ray afterglow discovered by Swift. A mm afterglow was discovered at PdB confirming the association of this event with a luminous (MV = - 21.5) galaxy within the X-ray error box. Spectroscopy of this galaxy shows strong a strong [O II] emission line at z = 0.807, besides weaker [O III] emission. The X-ray spectrum showed evidence of considerable absorption by neutral gas with NH,X-ray = 4.5 × 1022 cm2 (at rest frame). ISM absorption by dust in the host galaxy at z = 0.807 cannot certainly account for the non-detection of the optical afterglow, unless the dust-to-gas ratio is quite different than that seen in our Galaxy. It is possible then that GRB 051022 was produced in an obscured, stellar forming region in its parent host galaxy. For GRB 051028, the data can be interpreted by collimated emission (a jet model with p = 2.4) moving in an homogeneous ISM and with a cooling frequency vc still above the X-rays at 0.5 days after the burst onset. GRB 051028 can be classified as a ``gray'' or ``potentially dark'' GRB. The Swift/XRT data are consistent with the interpretation that the reason for the optical dimness is not extra absorption in the host galaxy, but rather the GRB taking place at high-redshift.
    05/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Superjupiters are much brigther when they are young and still contracting, and the contrast with the harboring stars is significantly more favorable for their detection. Within the JOVIAN (Jupiter-like Objects in the Visible and the Infrared: Astrophysical Nature) project, a search has been performed for superjupiters around nearby young stars using 4 m class telescopes. Here we summarize the results and present prospects for a future search around young and also relatively older nearby stars with the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the mid-infrared camera CanariCam.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2005; 1.
  • GRB Coordinates Network. 01/2005;