Jack E. Staub

Agricultural Research Service, Kerrville, Texas, United States

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Publications (133)224.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Genetic transformation using foreign genes and the subsequent development of transgenic plants has been employed to develop enhanced elite germplasm. Although some skepticism exits regarding pollen tube-mediated gene transfer (PTT), reports demonstrating improved transformation efficiency with PTT systems are increasing and encouraging and the adoption of increasingly refined pollen-mediated methodologies may lead to species-dependent improvements in breeding. Here, we highlight PTT technology as an alternative to genetic transformation.
    Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 12/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A study was designed to determine the genetics of dwarfism associated with a diminutive (short internodes) melon mutant line PNU-D1 (C. melo ssp. cantalupensis). PNU-D1 was crossed with inbred wild-type melon line PNU-WT1 (C. melo ssp. agrestis) and resultant F1 progeny were then self-pollinated to produce an F2 population that segregated as dwarf and vining plant types. Primary stem length of F2 progeny assessed under greenhouse conditions indicated that a single recessive gene, designated mdw1, controlled dwarfism in this population. To identify the chromosomal location associated with mdw1, an SSR-based genetic linkage map was constructed using 94 F2 progeny. Using 76 SSR markers positioned on 15 linkage groups spanning 462.84 cM, the location of mdw1 was localized to Chromosome 7. Using the putative dwarfing-associated genes, fine genetic mapping of the mdw1 genomic region was facilitated with 1,194 F2 progeny that defined the genetic distance between mdw1 and cytokine oxidase gene (CKX), a compact growth habit (cp) gene in cucumber, to be 1.7 cM. The candidate gene ERECTA (serin/theronin kinase) and UBI (ubiqitin) were also mapped to genomic regions flanking mdw1 at distances of 0.6 and 1.2 cM, respectively.
    International Plant and Animal Genome Conference XXII 2014; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Chilling temperatures (<10 °C) may cause damages in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) during winter and early spring seasons. Inheritance of chilling injury in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inheritance of chilling injury in Korean market-type cucumber, reciprocal crosses between chilling tolerant (CT1) and susceptible (CT4) lines produced F1 (CT1 × CT4) and F1 (CT4 × CT1) progenies. Reciprocal F2 (CT1 × CT4) and F2 (CT4 × CT1) populations were subsequently derived. Seedlings in the first true leaf stage were subjected to 4 °C for 8 h (08:00 to 16:00) and damage level was assessed visually using 1 (no damage) to 5 (severe damage) rating scale. Means of damage rating for reciprocal F1 (CT1 × CT4) and F1 (CT4 × CT1) progenies were 1.1 and 1.1, respectively. This indicates that tolerance for chilling stress at 4 °C in this germplasm is dominant. However, means of damage for F2 (CT1 × CT4) progenies and F2 (CT4 × CT1) progenies were 3.2 and 1.2, respectively. These data indicate that genetic control of chilling injury in these progenies is paternal. Based on the data, we hypothesize that line CT1 possesses a dominant nuclear factor that conditions chilling tolerance in both reciprocal F1s and a paternal factor(s) that lead chilling tolerance only in F2 (CT4 × CT1). These putative nuclear and paternal genetic factors are designated as Ch-1 and Ch-p, respectively.
    Scientia Horticulturae 03/2014; 167:145–148. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Vanessa S. Gordon, Jack E. Staub
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (maternal) and nuclear (paternal) factors, no chilling tolerant U.S. processing varieties are commercially available. Furthermore, even though three single nucleotide polymorphic sites have been identified as plastid components associated with chilling tolerance in cucumber, it is not known how these factors interact with nuclear factors controlling economically important traits. Therefore, an experiment was designed to evaluate the rate of recovery of the chilling susceptible (cytoplasm) genotype during introgression backcrossing (IB), where it was used as a recurrent parent after the initial mating to a line possessing chilling tolerant cytoplasm (donor parent). Phenotypic yield and quality trait data were collected on processing type backcross progeny (BC1–5 and BC2S3) derived from an initial ‘Chipper’ (tolerant) × line M 29 (susceptible) mating, and rate of progression to the recurrent parent was determined by simple sequence repeat marker and morphological trait analyses. Substantial degrees of the recurrent parent phenotype and nuclear genome were recovered by the BC2 generation (P = 0.001), with nearly complete recovery of recurrent parental traits and its nuclear genome occurring by the BC3. General combining ability (GCA) of derived BC2S3 lines was significant for yield, yield/plant, length (L), diameter (D), and L:D ratios. The BC2S3 line GCA and rate of progression towards the recurrent parent for economically important traits suggests that elite chilling tolerant cucumber germplasm can be developed rapidly through IB and marker genotyping.
    Euphytica 01/2014; 195(2). · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin (2n = 2x–4x) is native to heavily-grazed, cold, semi-arid, Asian rangelands. However, its potential for low-maintenance turf applications in the semi-arid western United States and its relatedness to other agriculturally important Festuca species have not been investigated. Therefore, a project was designed to identify F. valesiaca accessions that possess horticultural potential when grown under semi-arid growing conditions and to characterize their relatedness to other Festuca species. In 2008, 12 F. valesiaca accessions originating from Kyrgyzstan and eight US. Festuca and one Lolium cultivar were transplanted as replicated, spaced plants to a field nursery at Blue Creek, Utah. Relative vigor, height, width, total biomass (aboveground dry matter yield), seed weight, and seed number were evaluated between 2009 and 2011. Plant height, width, and total biomass of the F. valesiaca accessions examined were approximately equal to the commercial control, ‘Cascade’ (F. rubra L. subsp. commutata Gaudin; 6x; chewings fescue). Plant vigor and seed weight of F. valesiaca accessions PI 659923, PI 659932, W6 30575, and W6 30588 under semi-arid conditions (~300 mm annual precipitation) were significantly (P F. valesiaca accessions were distinct from a majority of the other Festuca accessions examined. These F. valesiaca accessions produced abundant amounts of small seed, and this seed yield was significantly correlated with total aboveground biomass (dry weight; r 2 = 0.84, P r 2 = 0.58, P r 2 = 0.83, P F. valesiaca relatedness to other economically important Festuca species. The AFLP-based, neighbor-joining analysis differentiated F. valesiaca accessions from US Festuca cultivars examined, except for ‘Durar’ (F. ovina L.; 6x; sheep fescue), to which they had strong genetic affinities. Given their morphological attributes, F. valesiaca PI 659923, W6 30575, PI 659932, and W6 30588 should be considered for use in low-maintenance, semi-arid turf improvement programs in the western US.
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 01/2014; 61(1). · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cucurbits are a group of diverse horticultural species grown worldwide. Their fruit are consumed fresh, cooked, or processed, and seeds can be eaten or used for their high quality cooking oil and protein meal. India and Southeast Asia, including China, comprise the primary and secondary centers of diversity, respectively, of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). India and central and southwest Asia comprise the primary center of diversity for melon (Cucumis melo L.), with China as a secondary center. Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is important throughout Asia, although its primary center of diversity is west and central Africa. European forms of melon, cucumber and watermelon were introduced to the New World multiple times. Asian varieties of these and other cucurbits [e.g., bitter (Momordica charantia L.) and luffa (Luffa cylindrical L.) gourds] have been introduced to the U.S from the late 1800s to the present. Sustainability and improvement of U.S. melon, cucumber, and watermelon varieties have been achieved through introgression of genes from their respective Asian germplasm pools for disease and pest resistance, increased genetic diversity, productivity, and quality. Resistance to Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) Braun & Shishkoff was first found in two Indian melons. Three types of resistance to melon aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) were found in melons from India and Korea. Cucumis hystrix from China was crossed with cucumber to create the amphidiploid (Cucumis hytivusChen and Kirkbride) through which novel genetic variation was introgressed to cucumber. Gynoecious sex expression in cucumber was derived from Japan. Asian watermelon accessions may be the source for canary yellow flesh, which adds unique nutritional and flavor content to our diet. Technological advancement and genetic improvement pioneered in Asia advanced cucurbit production worldwide. Research on the feasibility of seedless watermelon was initiated in Japan in the late 1920s. Today, seedless types account for a major share of the watermelon market. Grafting, which originated in Asia in 1920s, using disease- and pest-resistant, or cold tolerant rootstocks is essential for sustainable cucurbit production in many parts of the world, and holds great potential as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. For example, interspecific hybrids of Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir., two New World species, are the most widely used rootstock for cucurbits in Japan and South Korea, and Indian bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.) introductions of Indian origin are valuable sources of germplasm for breeding multiple disease resistant rootstocks.
    2012 ASHS Annual Conference; 08/2012
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    Thomas Horejsi, Jack E. Staub, Claude Thomas
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    ABSTRACT: Marker assisted selection (MAS) may improve the efficiency of breeding downy mildew resistant cucumber cultivars. A study was conducted to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the downy mildew resistance gene (dm) which would be suitable for MAS. A total of 145 F3 families from two populations (55 from the WI 1983G × Straight 8 population and 90 from the Zudm1 × Straight 8 population) were evaluated over five locations in North America and Europe. Resistant and susceptible F3 families were identified and mean family resistance ratings were used to type individual F2 plants. No evidence for race differences in the pathogen (Psuedoperonospora cubensis (Berk. & Curt.) Rostow) between North America and Europe was found. Phenotypic correlations between locations ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Of the 135 polymorphic RAPD markers identified from 960 primers, five were linked to dm - G14800, X151100, AS5800, BC5191100, and BC5261000. In the WI 1983G × Straight 8 population, G14800 was linked to dm at 16.5 cm, AS5800 at 32.8 cm, BC5191100 at 9.9 cm, and BC5261000 at 19.2 cm. In the Zudm1 ×Straight 8 population, G14800 was linked at 20.9 cm, X151100at 14.8 cm, AS5800 at 24.8 cm, and BC526_1000 at 32.9 cm. MarkersG14800 and BC5191100 were linked in repulsion to the dm allele, and X151100, AS5800, and BC5261000 were linked in coupling phase. These genetic markers may be exploited to develop an efficient MAS strategy for breeding resistant cucumber cultivars.
    Euphytica 04/2012; 115(2):105-113. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2 × = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2 × = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon through chromosome fusion, but the details of this process are largely unknown. In this study, comparative genetic mapping between cucumber and melon was conducted to examine syntenic relationships of their chromosomes. Using two melon mapping populations, 154 and 127 cucumber SSR markers were added onto previously reported F(2)- and RIL-based genetic maps, respectively. A consensus melon linkage map was developed through map integration, which contained 401 co-dominant markers in 12 linkage groups including 199 markers derived from the cucumber genome. Syntenic relationships between melon and cucumber chromosomes were inferred based on associations between markers on the consensus melon map and cucumber draft genome scaffolds. It was determined that cucumber Chromosome 7 was syntenic to melon Chromosome I. Cucumber Chromosomes 2 and 6 each contained genomic regions that were syntenic with melon chromosomes III+V+XI and III+VIII+XI, respectively. Likewise, cucumber Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 5 each was syntenic with genomic regions of two melon chromosomes previously designated as II+XII, IV+VI, VII+VIII, and IX+X, respectively. However, the marker orders in several syntenic blocks on these consensus linkage maps were not co-linear suggesting that more complicated structural changes beyond simple chromosome fusion events have occurred during the evolution of cucumber. Comparative mapping conducted herein supported the hypothesis that cucumber chromosomes may be the result of chromosome fusion from a 24-chromosome progenitor species. Except for a possible inversion, cucumber Chromosome 7 has largely remained intact in the past nine million years since its divergence from melon. Meanwhile, many structural changes may have occurred during the evolution of the remaining six cucumber chromosomes. Further characterization of the genomic nature of Cucumis species closely related to cucumber and melon might provide a better understanding of the evolutionary history leading to modern cucumber.
    BMC Genomics 08/2011; 12:396. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm. Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection).
    BMC Plant Biology 07/2011; 11:111. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic precursor of vitamin A, β-carotene, is essential for human health. The gene(s) controlling β-carotene quantity (QβC) has been introgressed from Xishuangbanna gourd (XIS, possessing β-carotene; Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n=2x=14) into cultivated cucumber (no β-carotene; Cucumis sativus L.). To determine the inheritance of QβC in cucumber fruit endocarp, F1 progeny and a set of 124 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cultivated cucumber line CC3 and XIS line SWCC8 were evaluated for QβC during 2009 and 2010 in Nanjing, China. Segregation analysis revealed that endocarp QβC of greenhouse-grown fruit was controlled by a single recessive gene. Further, marker analysis indicated the gene controlling QβC was linked to seven SSR markers on linkage group 3, where their order was SSR20710–SSR19511–SSR15419–SSR07706–ore–SSR23231–SSR11633–SSR20270. These markers and the putative candidate gene were mapped to cucumber chromosome 3DS. An evaluation of 30 genetically diverse cucumber lines indicated that marker SSR07706 has utility in further genetic analyses of the QβC orange endocarp gene, designated ore. Moreover, the markers defined herein may have utility for marker-assisted selection directed towards the development of cucumber germplasm with high fruit β-carotene content. KeywordsXishuangbanna gourd–Carotenoid–Vitamin A nutrition–Marker-assisted selection
    Molecular Breeding 06/2011; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With 2 figuresAbstractDevelopment of PCR-based markers for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection is prerequisite for various genetic analyses. The use of restriction enzymes (REs) following PCR amplification is a common and relatively low cost method for SNP detection. Simple and cost-effective methodologies for SNP marker development that would enhance the use of SNP-based technologies are desirable. As an alternative analytical method for selection of REs for recognition of SNP motifs for marker development that does not require computer-based selection of REs is herein described. Given that only 12 REs are required for the detection of any SNP motif, the method described in this study is relatively inexpensive and technically simple.
    Plant Breeding 03/2011; 130(3):401 - 403. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces of the Madrid provenance, Spain, have received national distinction for their high fruit quality and sensorial attributes. More specifically, a unique array of Group Inodorus landraces have been continuously cultivated and conserved by farmers in the municipality of Villaconejos since the 19th century. Their genetic relationships to other Group Inodorus and Flexuous melon market classes is not known, and, thus, a study was designed to determine their genetic relationships using 52 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and then make genetic comparisons between these accessions and a previously published ‘‘Standard Reference Germplasm Array’’ (RA) containing Group Inodorus (14 Spanish and one USA), Flexuosus (1 Spanish), and Cantalupensis ( 2 USA) melon accessions. This subset consisted of 15 Spanish Group Inodorus landraces that circumscribed the genetic variation of major Spanish melon market classes (Groups Inodorus and Flexuosus), and USA commercial varieties (Groups Cantalupensis and Inodorus). Based on genetic distances, Villaconejos (Madrid) genotypes differed substantially from RA subset accessions, thus defining their genetic uniqueness. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the accessions examined into four distinct groups revealing that Villaconejos black epidermis melons (landraces ‘Largo’, ‘Largo Negro Escrito’ and ‘Puchero’) were distinctly different from all other accessions examined, as cluster analysis separated Rochet market type Villaconejos’ accessions (landraces ‘Mochuelo’, ‘Mochuelo Tradicional’ and ‘Melo´n de Villaconejos’) from RA of the same market type. Genetic assessment of principal Spanish market classes revealed comparatively low intra-market heterogeneity in Piel de Sapo type accessions and high heterogeneity in Black and Yellow market type accessions. While a relatively high level of genetic introgression was detected between Yellow and Green market types, black epidermis market types were genetically unique. Given the uniqueness and high genetic diversity resident in Villaconejos landraces, this germplasm pool should be considered as a genetic source for broadening the comparatively narrow genetic base of Group Cantalupensis and Inodorus melon market types, especially standard commercial Spanish Group Inodorus market types (e.g., Piel de Sapo, Rochet, and Canari).
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 03/2011; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate genetic relationships in Benincaseae (19 accessions), Cucurbiteae (1), Joliffieae (2), Melothrieae (2), and Sicyeae (3) tribes of the family Cucurbitaceae, consensus chloroplast simple sequence repeats (ccSSR) primer pairs obtained from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) chloroplast DNA were used. Variation in the length and putative sequence substitution events of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were analyzed. Sequencing of four fragments (ccSSR-1, -7, -8, and -19) revealed that convergence in fragment length occurs in more distant species comparisons. In ccSSR-1 and -8, the same fragment lengths occurred as the result of different insertion and deletion events. Nevertheless, the examination of a large number of ccSSR fragments suggested that this apparent homoplasy could be overshadowed by evolutionary relationships among taxa. This hypothesis is supported by the relative degree of positive congruence of taxon groupings after cluster and principal components analyses performed on both base pair length and sequence substitution data. Moreover, these analyses support previous biochemical and morphological data indicating that distinct lineages exist within the Benincaseae. Likewise, data support the hypotheses that the genus Benincasa is descended from an ancient African ancestor and that the progenitor of the New World Sicyeae tribe shares a common ancestor with the genus Luffa of the Old World Benincaseae.Key words: Benincaseae, chloroplast, consensus, homoplasy, microsatellite, simple sequence repeats.
    Canadian Journal of Botany 02/2011; 81(8):814-832. · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • Isabelle Y. Delannay, Jack E. Staub
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    ABSTRACT: The popular fresh-market European Long cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is grown commercially worldwide under controlled, greenhouse environments. However, it has a narrow genetic base, where private and public improvement programs can trace their origins to comparatively few accessions. Therefore, a project was designed to identify diverse genotypes for use in the formation and analysis of inbred backcross (BC2S3) lines (IBL) to broaden the genetic base of this market class. Initially, 42 cucumber accessions were evaluated with a previously defined standard marker array to identify parents for use in backcrossing. The IBL were developed by crossing the elite commercial line NZ1 (Nunhems Vegetable Seeds, Haelen, The Netherlands) and PI 432858 (China), and then backcrossing the most genetically diverse BC1 and BC2 progeny to the elite parent as defined by marker analyses (19 polymorphic, mapped SSR, and SCAR marker loci), followed by three generations of single seed descent resulting in 116 IBL (BC2S3). The IBL were evaluated under greenhouse conditions for days to anthesis, sex expression, lateral branch number, yield, and exterior fruit quality in Madison, Wisconsin, USA (soil media), and in Haelen and Bergschenhoek, The Netherlands (soilless, hydroponic media). The IBL were genotyped using an expanded marker array (37 polymorphic SSR, SCAR, SNP, EST, BAC end, and gene-associated loci), and genetic relationships were examined by multivariate analyses using phenotypic and genotypic data. The 116 developed IBL possessed considerable morphological and genotypic diversity, where genetic distance (GD) among lines ranged between 0.00 and 0.77. These IBL possessed many commercially acceptable attributes, and, thus, genetic diversity in this market type could be substantially increased by the use of these genetically broad-based IBL during plant improvement. KeywordsGenetic diversity–Genetic distance–Morphological traits–Multivariate analysis
    Euphytica 01/2011; 178(2):229-245. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a major cucurbit vegetable species whose genetic base has been drastically reduced during its domestication. The crop’s narrow genetic base (3–12% DNA polymorphism) has resulted from the use of limited genetic material and intense selection during plant improvement. Recently, however, interspecific hybridization has been successful in Cucumis via mating of C.hystrix Chakr. and C.sativus, which resulted in the amphidiploid C.hytivus. We report herein a marker-assisted strategy for increasing genetic diversity in cucumber through introgression backcrossing employing C.hytivus. The comparatively late-flowering but high-yielding, indeterminate, monoecious line WI 7012A (P1; donor parent) derived from a C.hytivus×C.sativus-derived line (long-fruited Chinese C.sativus cv. Beijingjietou) was initially crossed to the determinate, gynoecious C.sativus line WI 7023A (P2; recurrent parent1), and then advanced backcross generation progeny (BC2) were crossed with the gynoecious indeterminate line WI 9-6A (P3; recurrent parent2). More specifically, a single F1 individual (P1×P2) was backcrossed to P2, and then BC progeny were crossed to P2 and P3, where marker-assisted selection (MAS) for genetic diversity (8 mapped and 16 unmapped markers; designated Sel) or no selection (designated NSel) was applied to produce BC3P2 (Sel) and BC3P3 (Sel), and BC2P2 (NSel) and BC2P2S1 (NSel) progeny. Relative vegetative growth, number of lateral branches (LB), days to flowering (DF), yield (fruit number), and fruit quality [as measured by length:diameter (L:D) and endocarp:total diameter (E:T) ratios] were assessed in parents and cross-progeny. DF varied from~20 (BC3P2Sel) to~25days (BC2P3Sel) among the populations examined, where progeny derived from P2 possessed the shortest DF. Differences in cumulative yield among the populations over six harvests were detected, varying from~8 fruits per plant in BC3P2 (Sel) to~39 fruits per plant in BC2P3 (Sel). Although the vigorous vegetative growth of line P1 was observed in its backcross progeny, highly heterozygous and polymorphic backcross progeny derived from P3 were comparatively more vigorous and bore many high-quality fruit. Response to selection was detected for LB, DF, L:D, and E:T, but the effectiveness of MAS depended upon the parental lines used. Data indicate that the genetic diversity of commercial cucumber can be increased by introgression of the C.hystrix genome through backcrossing. KeywordsGenetic diversity– C.hytivus –Molecular markers–Morphological traits
    Euphytica 01/2011; 178(2):261-272. · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • Isabelle Y. Delannay, Jack E. Staub
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    ABSTRACT: Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in backcross introgression. Inbred backcross lines (IBL) were developed by crossing Beit Alpha line ‘04HD5’ (De Ruiter Seeds, The Netherlands; recurrent parent) and PI 285606 (Poland; donor parent), and then selecting the most genetically diverse BC1 and BC2 progeny based on molecular marker profiles, followed by three generations of single-seed descent to produce 117 IBL. Molecular genotyping of IBL was then performed, and IBL were evaluated for days to anthesis, sex expression, pistillate flowers per node, lateral branch number, fruits per plant, fruit length, and fruit weight in the US, The Netherlands, Israel, and Turkey. Multivariate analyses and genetic distance comparisons indicate that IBL possessed considerable inter-line morphological and genotypic diversity. These diverse IBL will be useful in genetic studies and to evaluate Beit Alpha cross-progeny derived from IBL×elite germplasm created to broadened genetic base of this market type. KeywordsGenetic diversity-Genetic distance-Morphological traits-Multivariate analysis-Inbred backcross lines-Cucumber
    Euphytica 09/2010; 175(1):65-78. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    H. E. Cuevas, J.E. Staub, P. W. Simon
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    ABSTRACT: Melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit production in U.S. can be improved through the introgression of early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of fruit color [i.e., quantity of β-carotene (QβC); orange mesocarp]. However, the genetics of FM and QβC have not been clearly defined in U.S. Western Shipping market class melons (USWS). Thus, a cross was made between the monoecious, early FM Chinese line ‘Q 3-2-2' (non-carotene accumulating, white mesocarp) and the andromonecious, comparatively late FM USWS line ‘Top Mark' (carotene accumulating; orange mesocarp) to determine the inheritance of FM and QβC in melon. Parents and derived cross-progenies (F₁, F₂, F₃, BC₁P₁, and BC₁P₂) were evaluated for FM and QβC at Hancock, Wisconsin over 2 years. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability (h N ² ) for QβC and FM as defined by F₁, F₂, and BC (by individuals) were 0.55 and 0.62, respectively, while estimates based on F₃ families were 0.68 and 0.57, respectively for these traits. Mesocarp color segregation (F₂ and BC₁P₂) fit a two gene recessive epistatic model, which in turn, interacts with other minor genes. Although the inheritance of QβC and FM is complex, introgression (e.g., by backcrossing) of early FM genes resident in Chinese germplasm into USWS market types is possible. Such introgression may lead to increased yield potential in USWS market types while retaining relatively high β-carotene fruit content (i.e., orange mesocarp), if stringent, multiple location and early generation family selection (F₃₋₄) is practiced for FM with concomitant selection for QβC.
    Euphytica 05/2010; · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic relatedness and phenotype are important factors that govern the expression of heterosis in hybrid progeny of many cross-pollinating plant species. Since this relationship is important but not well understood in melon (Cucumis melo L.), one monoecious and two andromonoecious melon lines of diverse Chinese [Peoples Republic of China (PRC)] origin were crossed to the andromonoecious U.S. Western Shipping market type ‘Top Mark' (TM) and the andromonoecious, highly branched line H-16 to determine parental combining ability and heterosis for five yield component traits in three test environments [open-field (USA), and energy-saving (PRC) and plastic greenhouses (PRC)]. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)- and simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic distances (GD) among and between parents (5) and their hybrids (6) were calculated and compared to phenotypic trait values. These germplasms were evaluated for lateral branch number (LBN), days to 50% flower (DF), fruit number and weight per plant, and fruit length:diameter (L:D) ratio in each of three test environments. General combining ability was significant for all characters, except for L:D in all locations, and LBN and DF in the plastic greenhouse environment. Both descriptors of difference (genetic marker and phenotype) were discriminatory, and provided similar assessments of relationships among parents and hybrids. Although dramatic performance differences were detected between parents and among F₁ hybrid progeny, a strong relationship between GD and heterotic effects was not consistently detected.
    Euphytica 05/2010; · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of β-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into US pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of β-carotene content has not been clearly defined in this US market type. Thus, three previous populations derived from a US pickling cucumber (‘Addis') × XIS mating were evaluated for β-carotene content, from which the high β-carotene inbred line (S₄), ‘EOM 402-10', was developed. A cross was then made between the US pickling cucumber inbred line ‘Gy7' [gynoecious, no β-carotene, white flesh; P₁] and ‘EOM 402-10' [monoecious, possessing β-carotene, orange flesh; P₂] to determine the inheritance of β-carotene in fruit mesocarp and endocarp tissue. Parents and derived cross-progenies (F₁, F₂, BC₁P₁, and BC₁P₂) were evaluated for β-carotene content in a greenhouse in Madison, Wisconsin. While F₁ and BC₁P₁ progeny produced mature fruits possessing white, light-green, and green (0.01-0.02 μg g⁻¹ β-carotene) mesocarp, the F₂ and BC₁P₂ progeny mesocarp segregated in various hues of white, green, yellow (0.01-0.34 μg g⁻¹ β-carotene), and orange (1.90-2.72 μg g⁻¹ β-carotene). Mesocarp and endocarp F₂ segregation adequately fit a 15:1 [low-β-carotene (0.01-0.34 μg g⁻¹): high-β-carotene (1.90-2.72 μg g⁻¹)] and 3:1 (low-β-carotene: high-β-carotene) ratio, respectively. Likewise, segregation of carotene concentration in mesocarp and endocarp tissues in BC₁P₂ progeny adequately fit a 3:1 (low-β-carotene: high-β-carotene) and 1:1 (low-β-carotene: high-β-carotene) ratio, respectively. Progeny segregations indicate that two recessive genes control the β-carotene content in the mesocarp, while one recessive gene controls β-carotene content in the endocarp. Single marker analysis of F₂ progeny using the carotenoid biosynthesis gene Phytoene synthase determined that there was no association between this gene and the observed β-carotene variation in either fruit mesocarp or endocarp.
    Euphytica 01/2010; 171(3). · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two cucumber recombinant inbred lines (RILs) differing in plant habit were crossed and progeny self-pollinated to produce F₃ individuals upon which phenotypic selection was practiced to identify a base population which in turn underwent either two cycles of MAS or random mating without selection (RAN). MAS and RAN were practiced to produce F₄ and F₅ progeny sets. RIL, crossing parents, and F₃-F₅ progeny sets were then evaluated under replicated field conditions for fruit yield and quality (L:D and E:T) to evaluate gain from selection (ΔG). The broad-sense heritability (h ² B) over cycles (C) of selection ranged 0.22-0.45, 0.09-0.20, and 0.11-0.15 for yield, L:D, and E:T, respectively. Although one cycle of PHE selection followed by MAS was effective in conserving the performance of the traits examined during inbreeding, progeny performance during RAN fluctuated (F₄-F₅ generation; C₂). Lack of ΔG during advanced generations (F₄-F₅) of MAS was likely due to allelic fixation and/or optimized epistatic complementation.
    Euphytica 01/2010; · 1.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
224.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Agricultural Research Service
      Kerrville, Texas, United States
  • 1982–2012
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • • Department of Horticulture
      • • Agricultural Research Service
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Utah State University
      Logan, Ohio, United States
    • Indian Agricultural Research Institute
      • Division of Vegetable Science
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2006
    • Dongguk University
      • Department of Life Science
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Shandong Agricultural University
      China
  • 1997
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Horticulture
      East Lansing, MI, United States
  • 1989
    • North Carolina State University
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 1982–1984
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Plant Science
      University Park, Maryland, United States