[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal nutrition for patients in the intensive care unit has been proposed to be the provision of energy as determined by indirect calorimetry and the provision of protein of at least 1.2 g/kg.
Prospective observational cohort study in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit in an academic hospital. In total, 886 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients were included. Nutrition was guided by indirect calorimetry and protein provision of at least 1.2 g/kg. Cumulative intakes were calculated for the period of mechanical ventilation. Cox regression was used to analyze the effect of protein + energy target achieved or energy target achieved versus neither target achieved on 28-day mortality, with adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, diagnosis, and hyperglycemic index.
Patients' mean age was 63 ± 16 years; body mass index, 26 ± 6; and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, 23 ± 8. For neither target, energy target, and protein + energy target, energy intake was 75% ± 15%, 96% ± 5%, and 99% ± 5% of target, and protein intake was 72% ± 20%, 89% ± 10%, and 112% ± 12% of target, respectively. Hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for energy target and protein + energy target were 0.83 (0.67-1.01) and 0.47 (0.31-0.73) for 28-day mortality.
Optimal nutritional therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients, defined as protein and energy targets reached, is associated with a decrease in 28-day mortality by 50%, whereas only reaching energy targets is not associated with a reduction in mortality.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 12/2011; 36(1):60-8. DOI:10.1177/0148607111415109 · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal nutrition for intensive care patients has been proposed to be the provision of energy as determined by indirect calorimetry, and protein provision of at least 1.2 g/kg pre-admission weight per day. The evidence supporting these nutritional goals is based on surrogate outcomes and is not yet substantiated by patient oriented, clinically meaningful endpoints. In the present study we evaluated the effects of achieving optimal nutrition in ICU patients during their period of mechanical ventilation on mortality.
This was a prospective observational cohort study in a mixed medical-surgical, 28-bed ICU in an academic hospital. 243 sequential mixed medical-surgical patients were enrolled on day 3-5 after admission if they had an expected stay of at least another 5-7 days. They underwent indirect calorimetry as part of routine care. Nutrition was guided by the result of indirect calorimetry and we aimed to provide at least 1.2 g of protein/kg/day. Cumulative balances were calculated for the period of mechanical ventilation. Outcome parameters were ICU, 28-day and hospital mortality.
In women, when corrected for weight, height, Apache II score, diagnosis category, and hyperglycaemic index, patients who reached their nutritional goals compared to those who did not, showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.199 for ICU mortality (CI 0.048-0.831; P = 0.027), a HR of 0.079 for 28 day mortality (CI 0.013-0.467; P = 0.005) and a HR of 0.328 for hospital mortality (CI 0.113-0.952; P = 0.04). Achievement of energy goals whilst not reaching protein goals, did not affect ICU mortality; the HR for 28 day mortality was 0.120 (CI 0.027-0.528; P = 0.005) and 0.318 for hospital mortality (CI 0.107-0.945; P = 0.039). No difference in outcome related to optimal feeding was found for men.
Optimal nutritional therapy improves ICU, 28-day and hospital survival in female ICU patients. Female patients reaching both energy and protein goals have better outcomes than those reaching only the energy goal. In the present study men did not benefit from optimal nutrition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2008, the Netherlands Psychiatric Association authorized a guideline "consultation psychiatry."
To set a standard for psychiatric consultations in nonpsychiatric settings. The main objective of the guideline is to answer three questions: Is psychiatric consultation effective and, if so, which forms are most effective? How should a psychiatric consultations be performed? What increases adherence to recommendations given by the consulting psychiatrist?
Systematic literature review.
Both in general practice and in hospital settings psychiatric consultation is effective. In primary care, the effectiveness of psychiatric consultation is almost exclusively studied in the setting of "collaborative care." Procedural guidance is given on how to perform a psychiatric consultation. In this guidance, psychiatric consultation is explicitly looked upon as a complex activity that requires a broad frame of reference and adequate medical and pharmacological expertise and experience and one that should be performed by doctors. Investing in a good relation with the general practitioner, and the use of a "consultation letter" increased efficacy in general practice. In the hospital setting, investing in liaison activities and an active psychiatric follow-up of consultations increased adherence to advice.
Psychiatric consultations are effective and constitute a useful contribution to the patients' treatment. With setting a standard consultations will become more transparent and checkable. It is hoped that this will increase the quality of consultation psychiatry.
Journal of psychosomatic research 07/2009; 66(6):531-5. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.03.001 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of sepsis, the combination of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and documented infection, is as high as up to 95 cases per 100,000 people per year. The understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis has much increased over the last 20 years. However, sepsis combined with shock is still associated with a high mortality rate varying from 35 to 55%. Causative treatment, source control and antibiotics started as soon as possible, are the cornerstone of therapy in combination with symptomatic treatment in the ICU. The pharmacological interventions, including fluid resuscitation, vasoactive drugs and adjunctive drugs such as steroids, activated protein C are discussed. The possible beneficial role of strict glucose control is also addressed. Since many drug intervention studies were negative, lessons should be learned from earlier experiences for future trials. Source control and level of intensive care should be eliminated as confounders.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 09/2008; 22(4):355-61. DOI:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2008.00606.x · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the management of critical care units, leadership and conflict management are vital areas for the successful performance of the unit. In this article a practical approach to define competencies for leadership and principles and practices of conflict management are offered. This article is, by lack of relevant intensive care unit (ICU) literature, not evidence based, but it is the result of personal experience and a study of literature on leadership as well on conflicts and negotiations in non-medical areas. From this, information was selected that was recognisable to the authors and, thus, also seems to be useful knowledge for medical doctors in the ICU environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of risk factors for diminished cortisol response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in the critically ill could facilitate recognition of relative adrenal insufficiency in these patients. Therefore, we studied predictors of a low cortisol response to ACTH.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a general intensive care unit of a university hospital over a three year period. The study included 405 critically ill patients, who underwent a 250 microg ACTH stimulation test because of prolonged hypotension or need for vasopressor/inotropic therapy. Plasma cortisol was measured before and 30 and 60 min after ACTH injection. A low adrenal response was defined as an increase in cortisol of less than 250 nmol/l or a peak cortisol level below 500 nmol/l. Various clinical variables were collected at admission and on the test day.
A low ACTH response occurred in 63% of patients. Predictors, in multivariate analysis, included sepsis at admission, low platelets, low pH and bicarbonate, low albumin levels, high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and absence of prior cardiac surgery, and these predictors were independent of baseline cortisol and intubation with etomidate. Baseline cortisol/albumin ratios, as an index of free cortisol, were directly related and increases in cortisol/albumin were inversely related to disease severity indicators such as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (Spearman r = -0.21; P < 0.0001).
In critically ill patients, low pH/bicarbonate and platelet count, greater severity of disease and organ failure are predictors of a low adrenocortical response to ACTH, independent of baseline cortisol values and cortisol binding capacity in blood. These findings may help to delineate relative adrenal insufficiency and suggest that adrenocortical suppression occurs as a result of metabolic acidosis and coagulation disturbances.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 57-year-old immunocompromized female developed a necrotizing fasciitis with sepsis a few days after abdominal complaints and diarrhoea. Surgery was performed because of progressive worsening of the patient's situation and during surgery the decision was made to perform an amputation. After surgery the patient was brought to the intensive care department for a few days. She recovered from her sepsis within a few days. Cultures showed Salmonella enteritidis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fasting before surgery is still common care in a lot of western hospitals. Overnight fasting can induce postoperative insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been shown to be related to infectious morbidity. It was shown that postoperative insulin resistance can be attenuated by preoperative intake of a clear carbohydrate-rich beverage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative intake of carbohydrate-rich beverages could postoperatively influence the immune system.
In this randomized, controlled study, we investigated the effect of surgery on the postoperative immune response in 10 preoperatively fasted patients (control) and 2 groups of 10 patients receiving 2 different carbohydrate-rich beverages preoperatively, by measuring human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on monocytes on the day before and on the day after surgery. Furthermore, we studied perioperative fluid homeostasis and preoperative well-being of the patients.
HLA-DR expression decreased significantly after surgery in the control group. Patients receiving any of the 2 carbohydrate-rich beverages did not show this postoperative decrease. Fluid homeostasis was not affected in any of the groups, and well-being tended to be better in patients receiving carbohydrate-rich beverages compared with controls.
This study suggests that preoperative intake of a carbohydrate-rich beverage can prevent surgery-induced immunodepression and thus might reduce the risk of infectious complications.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 01/2006; 30(1):21-6. DOI:10.1177/014860710603000121 · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor survival of patients with a haematological malignancy admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) prompts for proper admission triage and prediction of ICU treatment failure and long-term mortality. We therefore tried to find predictors of the latter outcomes.
A retrospective analysis of charts and a prospective follow-up study were done, of haemato-oncological patients, admitted to our ICU in a 7-year period with a follow-up until 2 yr thereafter. Clinical parameters during the first four consecutive days were taken to calculate the simplified acute physiology (SAPS II) and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, of proven predictive value in general ICU populations.
From a total of 58 patients (n = 47 with acute myelogenous leukaemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma), admitted into ICU mostly because of respiratory insufficiency, sepsis, shock or combinations, 36 patients had died during their stay in the ICU. Of ICU survivors (n = 22), 20 patients died during follow-up so that the 1-year survival rate was only 12%. The SAPS II and particularly the SOFA scores were of high predictive value for ICU and long-term mortality.
Patients with life-threatening complications of haematological malignancy admitted to ICU ran a high risk for death in the ICU and on the long-term, and the risk can be well predicted by SOFA. The latter may help us to decide on intensive care in individual cases, in order to avoid potentially futile care for patients with a SOFA score of 15 or higher.
European Journal Of Haematology 07/2005; 74(6):511-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2005.00418.x · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenicity of late respiratory infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the critically ill is unclear.
In four critically ill patients with persistent pulmonary infiltrates of unknown origin and isolation of HSV-1 from tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, at 7 (1-11) days after start of mechanical ventilatory support, a pulmonary leak index (PLI) for 67Gallium (67Ga)-transferrin (upper limit of normal 14.1 x 10(-3)/min) was measured.
The PLI ranged between 7.5 and 14.0 x 10(-3)/min in the study patients. Two patients received a course of acyclovir and all survived.
The normal capillary permeability observed in the lungs argues against pathogenicity of HSV-1 in the critically ill, and favors that isolation of the virus reflects reactivation in the course of serious illness and immunodepresssion, rather than primary or superimposed infection in the lungs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical significance and pulmonary pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients are unclear.
To determine the clinical features and course of respiratory HSV-1 infections/colonisations in the critically ill, in order to evaluate the contribution to outcome.
A retrospective cohort study in the intensive care unit of an university hospital, involving 22 patients with a HSV-1 isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, divided into survivors (n = 13) and non-survivors (n = 9). All patients except for one survivor had been intubated and were mechanically ventilated.
Non-survivors had acquired HSV-1 sooner on mechanical ventilation than survivors. Prior chronic heart disease was more prevalent in non-survivors than in survivors and, at the time of HSV-1 isolation, the mean creatinine level was higher (P < 0.05) in the former. Survivors had a somewhat greater fall in body temperature after a 10-day course of antiviral therapy than non-survivors, but the lung radiographic abnormalities prior to and after the course did not differ. There were no major differences in cardiorespiratory variables between outcome groups and causes of death and were judged not to relate, in general, to HSV-1.
Critically ill patients in whom HSV-1 from BAL is isolated, have about 40% chance of dying, mainly because of severe underlying disease and comorbidity, which may predispose to endogenous reactivation of the virus. There is no clinical evidence for direct cardiorespiratory pathogenicity and beneficial effects of antiviral therapy. HSV-1 isolated from lung secretions may thus be a marker rather than a mediator of severe illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis is a well-known complication in immunocompromised patients. There are only a few reports of invasive aspergillosis in non-immunocompromised patients. We describe a 72-year-old female patient with clinical signs of spondylodiskitis occurring 4 months after what had appeared to be successful treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis. The patient used inhalation corticosteroids on a daily basis because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Spondylodiskitis of the intervertebral disc Th11 and Th12 with involvement of both adjacent vertebral bodies was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of septate hyphae, indicative of Aspergillus species. Subsequently, evidence of Aspergillus spondylodiskitis was obtained by amplification of Aspergillus-DNA with a specific polymerase chain reaction method. Aspergillus spondylodiskitis after pulmonary aspergillosis is only very rarely encountered. Patients with COPD, managed with short-term courses of systemic corticosteroids or with high-dose corticosteroid inhalation therapies, are considered non-immunocompromised but might be at risk of developing invasive aspergillosis.
European Journal of Internal Medicine 04/2002; 13(2):139-142. DOI:10.1016/S0953-6205(01)00206-0 · 2.89 Impact Factor