[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human serum albumin (HSA) contains three alpha-helical domains (I-III). The unfolding process of these domains was monitored using covalently bound fluorescence probes; domain I was monitored by N-(1-pyrene)maleimide (PM) conjugated with cys-34, domain II was monitored by the lone tryptophan residue and domain III was followed by p-nitrophenyl anthranilate (NPA) conjugated with Tyrosine-411 (Tyr-411). Using domain-specific probes, we found that guanidium hydrochloride-induced unfolding of HSA occurred sequentially. The unfolding of domain II preceded that of domain I and the unfolding of domain III followed that of domain I. In addition, the domains I and III refolded within the dead time of the fluorescence recovery experiment while the refolding of domain II occurred slowly. The results suggest that individual domain of a multi-domain protein can fold and unfold sequentially.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 01/2006; 37(4):200-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2005.10.009 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assembly of FtsZ plays a major role in bacterial cell division, and it is thought that the assembly dynamics of FtsZ is a finely regulated process. Here, we show that ruthenium red is able to modulate FtsZ assembly in vitro. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of ruthenium red on microtubule polymerization, we found that a substoichiometric concentration of ruthenium red strongly increased the light-scattering signal of FtsZ assembly. Further, sedimentable polymer mass was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the presence of 2 and 10 microm ruthenium red, respectively. In addition, ruthenium red strongly reduced the GTPase activity and prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that 4-10 microm of ruthenium red produced thick bundles of FtsZ polymers. The significant increase in the light-scattering signal and pelletable polymer mass in the presence of ruthenium red seemed to be due to the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments into larger polymers rather than the actual increase in the level of polymeric FtsZ. Furthermore, ruthenium red was found to copolymerize with FtsZ, and the copolymerization of substoichiometric amounts of ruthenium red with FtsZ polymers promoted cooperative assembly of FtsZ that produced large bundles. Calcium inhibited the binding of ruthenium red to FtsZ. However, a concentration of calcium 1000-fold higher than that of ruthenium red was required to produce similar effects on FtsZ assembly. Ruthenium red strongly modulated FtsZ polymerization, suggesting the presence of an important regulatory site on FtsZ and suggesting that a natural ligand, which mimics the action of ruthenium red, may regulate the assembly of FtsZ in bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The changes in the far-UV CD signal, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and bilirubin absorbance showed that the guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding of a multidomain protein, human serum albumin (HSA), followed a two-state process. However, using environment sensitive Nile red fluorescence, the unfolding and folding pathways of HSA were found to follow a three-state process and an intermediate was detected in the range 0.25-1.5 m GdnHCl. The intermediate state displayed 45% higher fluorescence intensity than that of the native state. The increase in the Nile red fluorescence was found to be due to an increase in the quantum yield of the HSA-bound Nile red. Low concentrations of GdnHCl neither altered the binding affinity of Nile red to HSA nor induced the aggregation of HSA. In addition, the secondary structure of HSA was not perturbed during the first unfolding transition (<1.5 m GdnHCl); however, the secondary structure was completely lost during the second transition. The data together showed that the half maximal loss of the tertiary structure occurred at a lower GdnHCl concentration than the loss of the secondary structure. Further kinetic studies of the refolding process of HSA using multiple spectroscopic techniques showed that the folding occurred in two phases, a burst phase followed by a slow phase. An intermediate with native-like secondary structure but only a partial tertiary structure was found to form in the burst phase of refolding. Then, the intermediate slowly folded into the native state. An analysis of the refolding data suggested that the folding of HSA could be best explained by the framework model.
European Journal of Biochemistry 05/2004; 271(9):1789-97. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04096.x · 3.58 Impact Factor