[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaerobic bacteria are increasingly regarded as important in cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic treatment on aerobic and anaerobic microbial community diversity and abundance during exacerbations in patients with CF.
Sputum was collected at the start and completion of antibiotic treatment of exacerbations and when clinically stable. Bacteria were quantified and identified following culture, and community composition was also examined using culture-independent methods.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Burkholderia cepacia complex were detected by culture in 24/26 samples at the start of treatment, 22/26 samples at completion of treatment and 11/13 stable samples. Anaerobic bacteria were detected in all start of treatment and stable samples and in 23/26 completion of treatment samples. Molecular analysis showed greater bacterial diversity within sputum samples than was detected by culture; there was reasonably good agreement between the methods for the presence or absence of aerobic bacteria such as P aeruginosa (κ=0.74) and B cepacia complex (κ=0.92), but agreement was poorer for anaerobes. Both methods showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied between patients but remained relatively stable in most individuals despite treatment. Bacterial abundance decreased transiently following treatment, with this effect more evident for aerobes (median decrease in total viable count 2.3×10(7) cfu/g, p=0.005) than for anaerobes (median decrease in total viable count 3×10(6) cfu/g, p=0.046).
Antibiotic treatment targeted against aerobes had a minimal effect on abundance of anaerobes and community composition, with both culture and molecular detection methods required for comprehensive characterisation of the microbial community in the CF lung. Further studies are required to determine the clinical significance of and optimal treatment for these newly identified bacteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is polymicrobial and it is possible that anaerobic bacteria, not detected by routine aerobic culture methods, reside within infected anaerobic airway mucus.
To determine whether anaerobic bacteria are present in the sputum of patients with CF.
Sputum samples were collected from clinically stable adults with CF and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from children with CF. Induced sputum samples were collected from healthy volunteers who did not have CF. All samples were processed using anaerobic bacteriologic techniques and bacteria within the samples were quantified and identified.
Anaerobic species primarily within the genera Prevotella, Veillonella, Propionibacterium, and Actinomyces were isolated in high numbers from 42 of 66 (64%) sputum samples from adult patients with CF. Colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly increased the likelihood that anaerobic bacteria would be present in the sputum. Similar anaerobic species were identified in BALF from pediatric patients with CF. Although anaerobes were detected in induced sputum samples from 16 of 20 volunteers, they were present in much lower numbers and were generally different species compared with those detected in CF sputum. Species-dependent differences in the susceptibility of the anaerobes to antibiotics with known activity against anaerobes were apparent with all isolates susceptible to meropenem.
A range of anaerobic species are present in large numbers in the lungs of patients with CF. If these anaerobic bacteria are contributing significantly to infection and inflammation in the CF lung, informed alterations to antibiotic treatment to target anaerobes, in addition to the primary infecting pathogens, may improve management.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2008; 177(9):995-1001. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of antibiotic therapy may be predicted based on the achievement of pharmacodynamic indices (PDIs), which are determined by the susceptibility of the infecting bacteria and the concentrations of antibiotics achieved at the site of infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether PDIs associated with clinical effectiveness for ceftazidime and tobramycin were achieved at the site of infection in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients following intravenous administration during treatment of an acute exacerbation.
Serum and sputum samples were collected from 14 CF patients and the concentration of both antibiotics in the samples determined. The susceptibility of bacteria cultured from sputum samples to both antibiotics alone and in combination was also determined.
A total of 22 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and 4 Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates were cultured from sputum samples with 55% and 4% of isolates susceptible to ceftazidime and tobramycin, respectively. Target PDIs for ceftazidime and tobramycin, an AUC/MIC ratio of 100 and a C(max)/MIC ratio of 10, respectively, were not achieved in serum or sputum simultaneously or even individually for any patient. Although the combination of ceftazidime and tobramycin was synergistic against 20 of the 26 isolates cultured, the concentrations of both antibiotics required for synergy were achieved simultaneously in only 38% of serum and 14% of sputum samples.
Key PDIs associated with clinical effectiveness for ceftazidime and tobramycin were not achieved at the site of infection in the lungs of CF patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pH at the site of infection is one of a number of factors that may significantly influence the in vivo activity of an antibiotic prescribed for treatment of infection and it may be of particular importance in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary infection, as acidification of the airways in CF patients has been reported. As Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent causative pathogen of CF pulmonary infection, this study determines the effect that growth at a reduced pH, as may be experienced by P. aeruginosa during infection of the CF lung, has on the susceptibility of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates, grown planktonically and as biofilms, to tobramycin and ceftazidime. Time-kill assays revealed a clear loss of tobramycin bactericidal activity when the isolates were grown under acidic conditions. MIC and MBC determinations also showed decreased tobramycin activity under acidic conditions, but this effect was not observed for all isolates tested. In contrast, growth of the isolates at a reduced pH had no adverse effect on the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of ceftazidime. When the isolates were grown as biofilms, the pH at which the biofilms were formed did not affect the bactericidal activity of either tobramycin or ceftazidime, with neither antibiotic capable of eradicating biofilms formed by the isolates at each pH. This was in spite of the fact that the concentrations of both antibiotics used were much higher than the concentrations required to kill the isolates growing planktonically. These results show that growth in an acidic environment may reduce the susceptibility of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates to tobramycin.
British journal of biomedical science 02/2007; 64(3):101-4. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates causing pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients grow within an acidic environment in the lung. As exposure to acid pH has been shown to increase intracellular inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) formation in some bacteria, we investigated the inter-relationship between acidic pH and polyP accumulation in Bcc isolates.
The formation of polyP by one Burkholderia cenocepacia clinical isolate was initially examined at a range of pH values by measuring total intracellular polyP accumulation and phosphate uptake. The pattern of polyP accumulation corresponded with the pattern of phosphate uptake with the maximum for both occurring at pH 5.5. Phosphate uptake and formation of polyP by this isolate was further determined over 48 h at pH 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5; formation of polyP was maximal at pH 5.5 at all time points studied. Sixteen of 17 additional clinical and environmental Bcc isolates examined also exhibited maximum phosphate uptake at pH 5.5.
Both clinical and environmental Bcc isolates, of five genomovars, show enhanced formation of polyP in an acidic environment. Given both the speculated role of polyP in pathogenesis, cell signalling and biofilm formation and the acidic nature of the CF lung, this may be of considerable clinical importance.
Growth of Bcc in an acidic environment, such as that found in the lungs of CF patients may be influenced in part by polyP accumulation.
Letters in Applied Microbiology 07/2006; 42(6):617-23. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A colorimetric assay based on the reduction of a tetrazolium salt [2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT)] for rapidly determining the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to bactericidal antibiotics is described. There was excellent agreement between the tobramycin and ofloxacin MICs determined after 5 h using the XTT assay and after 18 h using conventional methods. The data suggests that an XTT-based assay could provide a useful method for rapidly determining the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to bactericidal antibiotics.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2004; 48(5):1879-81. · 4.57 Impact Factor