[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic bone fractures are commonly fixed with implanted devices to restore the anatomical position of bone fragments and aid in the healing process. Bacterial infection in this situation is a challenge for clinicians due to the need for aggressive antibiotic therapy, debridement of infected tissues, and the need to maintain fracture stability. The aim of this study was to monitor immune responses that occur during healing and during Staphylococcus aureus infection, in a clinically relevant murine model of fracture fixation.
Skeletally mature C57bl/6 mice received a transverse osteotomy of the femur, which was treated with commercially available titanium fracture fixation plates and screws. In the absence of infection, healing of the fracture was complete within 35 days and was characterized by elevated Interleukin (IL)-4 and Interferon-gamma secretion from bone-derived cells and expression of these same genes. In contrast, mice inoculated with S. aureus could not heal the fracture within the observation period and were found to develop typical signs of implant-associated bone infection, including biofilm formation on the implant and osteolysis of surrounding bone. The immune response to infection was characterized by a TH17-led bone response, and a pro-inflammatory cytokine-led (Tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α, IL-1β) soft tissue response, both of which are ineffectual in clearing implant related bone and soft tissue infections respectively.
In this murine model, we characterize the kinetics of pro-inflammatory responses to infection, secondary to bone trauma and surgery. A divergent local immune polarization is evident in the infected versus non-infected animals, although the immune response is ultimately unable to clear the S. aureus infection.
Bone 10/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.10.014 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The local mechanical environment at a fracture is known to influence biological factors such as callus formation, immune cell recruitment and susceptibility to infection. Infection models incorporating a fracture are therefore required to evaluate prevention and treatment of infection after osteosynthesis. The aim of this study was to create humane, standardised and repeatable preclinical models of implant-related bone infection after osteosynthesis in the rabbit humerus. Custom-designed interlocked intramedullary nails and commercially available locking plates were subjected to biomechanical evaluation in cadaveric rabbit humeri; a 10-week in vivo healing study; a dose response study with Staphylococcus aureus over 4 weeks; and finally, a long-term infection of 10 weeks in the plate model.Outcome measures included biomechanical testing, radiography, histology, haematology and quantitative bacteriology. Both implants offered similar biomechanical stability in cadaveric bones, and when applied in the in
European cells & materials 09/2015; 30:148-162. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implant-associated bone infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens pose significant clinical challenges to treating physicians. Prophylactic strategies that act against resistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are urgently required. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a biodegradable Polymer-Lipid Encapsulation MatriX (PLEX) loaded with the antibiotic doxycycline as a local prophylactic strategy against implant-associated osteomyelitis. Activity was tested against both a doxycycline-susceptible (doxyS) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as well as a doxycycline-resistant (doxyR) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection associated with orthopedic implants often results in bone loss and requires surgical removal of the implant. The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological changes of bone adjacent to a bacteria-colonized implant, with the aim of identifying temporal patterns that are characteristic of infection. In an in vivo study with rats, bone changes were assessed using in vivo microCT at 7 time points during a one-month postoperative period. The rats received either a sterile or Staphylococcus aureus-colonized polyetheretherketone screw in the tibia. Bone-implant contact, bone fraction, and bone changes (quiescent, resorbed, and new bone) were calculated from consecutive scans and validated against histomorphometry. The screw pullout strength was estimated from FE models and the results were validated against mechanical testing. In the sterile group, bone-implant contact, bone fraction, and mechanical fixation increased steadily until day 14 and then plateaued. In the infected group, they decreased rapidly. Bone formation was reduced while resorption was increased, with maximum effects observed within 6 days. In summary, the model presented is capable of evaluating the patterns of bone changes due to implant-related infections. The combined use of longitudinal in vivo microCT imaging and image-based finite element analysis provides characteristic signs of infection within 6 days.
BioMed Research International 04/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/587857 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection is a common problem in trauma- and orthopaedic surgery. Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials are used locally to clear infections as an adjunct to systemic antibiotics. Gentamicin-sulphate (GEN-SULPH) is commonly used in antibiotic-loaded biomaterials, although it displays high water solubility resulting in quick diffusion from the carrier.
Preparation of a lipophilic derivative of gentamicin to reduce solubility and obtain a slower release. Subsequently, entrapment of this lipophilic gentamicin within poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) matrices.
Hydrophobic ion-pairing was used to prepare lipophilic gentamicin (GEN-AOT). The susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 12973 and Staphylococcus epidermidis 103.1 for GEN-AOT was tested and the viability of fibroblasts upon exposure to GEN-AOT was assessed. GEN-AOT was then loaded into PTMC films.
GEN-AOT was successfully prepared as confirmed by FTIR-spectroscopy. GEN-AOT was bactericidal for S. epidermidis and S. aureus at 0.5 μM and 8.5 μM, respectively. At 1.1 μM GEN-AOT no reduction in fibroblast viability was observed. At 11 μM the reduction was ~50%. PTMC discs loaded with GEN-AOT were prepared by compression molding.
Lipophilic GEN-AOT was at least as potent as GEN-SULPH. For S. epidermidis it was even more potent than GEN-SULPH. More than 50% fibroblast cell viability was maintained at bactericidal concentration for both bacterial strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections related to implanted medical devices have become a significant health care issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of medical devices are in use, often in an aging population, and these devices are implanted against a background of increasing antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations. Progressively more antibiotic resistant infections, requiring ever more refined treatment options, are therefore predicted to emerge with greater frequency in the coming decades. Improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these device-associated infections will remain priority targets both for clinicians and the translational research community charged with addressing these challenges. Preclinical strategies, predictive of ultimate clinical efficacy, should serve as a control point for effective translation of new technologies to clinical applications. The development of new anti-infective medical devices requires a validated preclinical testing protocol; however, reliable validation of experimental and preclinical antimicrobial methodologies currently suffers from a variety of technical limitations. These include the lack of agreement or standardisation of experimental protocols, a general lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo preclinicalresults and lack of validation between in vivo preclinical implant infection models and clinical (human) results. Device-associated infections pose additional challenges to practicing clinicians concerning diagnosis and treatment, both of which are complicated by the biofilms formed on the medical device. The critical challenges facing both preclinical research and clinical laboratories in improving both diagnosis and treatment of medical device-associated infections are the focus of this review.
European cells & materials 09/2014; 28:112-28. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most common pathogens causing musculoskeletal infections remains Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this multicentre study was to perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of clinical S. aureus isolates recovered from musculoskeletal infections and to investigate differences between isolates cultured from Orthopaedic Implant Related Infections (OIRI) and those from Non-Implant Related Infections (NIRI). OIRI were further differentiated in two groups: Fracture Fixation-Device Infections (FFI) and Prosthetic Joint Infections (PJI).
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 04/2014; 304(5-6). DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.03.003 · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an “aseptically failed” prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as “aseptic” failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most common pathogen causing musculoskeletal infections remains Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this multicentre study was to perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of clinical S. aureus isolates recovered from musculoskeletal infections and to investigate differences between isolates cultured from Orthopaedic Implant Related Infections (OIRI) and those from Non-Implant Related Infections (NIRI). OIRI were further differentiated in two groups: Fracture Fixation-device Infections (FFI) and Prosthetic Joint Infections (PJI).
Three-hundred and five S. aureus strains were collected from 4 different Swiss and 2 French hospitals (FFI, n = 112; PJI, n = 105; NIRI, n = 88). NIRI cases were composed of 27 Osteomyelitis (OM), 23 Diabetic Foot Infections (DFI), 27 Soft Tissue Infections (STI) and 11 postoperative Spinal Infections (SI). All isolates were tested for their ability to form biofilm, to produce staphyloxanthin and their haemolytic activity. They were typed by agr (accessory gene regulator) group, spa type and screened by PCR for the presence of genes of the most relevant virulence factors such as MSCRAMMs, Panton Valentine Leukotoxin (PVL), enterotoxins, exotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin.
Overall, methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was more prevalent than methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this collection. The OIRI group trended towards a higher incidence of MRSA, gentamicin resistance and haemolysis activity than the NIRI group. Within the OIRI group, PJI isolates were more frequently strong biofilm formers than isolates from the FFI group. A statistically significant difference was observed between OIRI and NIRI isolates for the sdrE gene, the cna gene, the clfA gene and the bbp gene. Certain spa types (t230 and t041) with a specific genetic virulence pattern were only found in isolates cultured from OIRI.
In conclusion, our study highlights significant trends regarding the virulence requirements displayed by S. aureus isolates associated with implant related infections in comparison to non-implant related infections. However, future studies including whole genome sequencing will be required to further examine genomic differences among the different infection cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite extensive use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in biomedical applications, information about bacterial adhesion to this biomaterial is limited. This study investigated Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to injection moulded and machined PEEK OPTIMA(®) using a custom-built adhesion chamber with medical grade titanium and Thermanox for comparison. Additionally, bacterial adhesion to a novel oxygen plasma modified PEEK was also investigated in both a pre-operative model in physiological saline, and additionally in a post-operative model in human blood plasma. In the pre-operative model, the rougher machined PEEK had a significantly greater number of adherent bacteria compared to injection moulded PEEK. Bacterial adhesion to titanium and Thermanox was similar. Oxygen plasma surface modification of PEEK did not lead to a significant change in bacterial adhesion in the pre-operative contamination model, despite observed changes in surface characteristics. In the post-operative contamination model, S. aureus adhesion was increased from 5×10(5)CFUcm(-2) to approximately 1.3×10(7)CFUcm(-2) on the modified surfaces due to differential protein adhesion during the conditioning period. However, S. epidermidis adhesion to modified PEEK was less than to unmodified PEEK in the post-operative model. These results illustrate the importance of testing bacterial adhesion of several strains in both a pre-operative and post-operative, clinically relevant bacterial contamination model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regardless of function, location, or biomaterial used, infection is one of the most serious complications arising from the use of implanted medical devices. Every surgical procedure has an inherent risk for bacterial contamination with surgical site contaminants originating from the patient's own skin, the surgical theater, or even the outside environment. The reason some patients become infected and others do not is unfortunately less than clear. In the majority of cases, host defenses and prophylactic antibiotic administration effectively clear any contaminating bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to a biomaterial is often considered to be the event that initiates biomaterial-associated infection. Given that the number of biomaterial-associated infections is expected to rise in response to an increase in implant demand, reducing bacterial adhesion is of critical clinical importance. Small changes in topography or surface chemistry can result in large differences in bacterial adhesion in vitro and in vivo. Changes in the topography of PEEK due to manufacturing methods alter bacterial adhesion by common clinical pathogens. Additionally, altering the surface chemistry of PEEK for increased osseointegration by oxygen plasma treatment leads to no change in bacterial adhesion in the absence of a protein conditioning film. However, the presence of a protein conditioning film led to large differences in bacterial adhesion. The role of the immune response, tissue integration, individual patient variation, and the broad variation of bacteria potentially present all play important roles in the outcome of a bacterium encountering a biomaterial in the human body.
PEEK Biomaterials Handbook, 1st edited by Steven M Kurtz, 12/2012: chapter 8: pages 93-109; Elsevier.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specific bacteria imaging is highly desirable in clinical diagnostics. Probes enabling rapid and specific diagnostics of bacteria are limited. Current clinical infection diagnostics is time consuming and invasive, relays on microbiological cultures. We investigated the potential of Lysostaphin as a specific probe to label staphylococci in a new labeling protocol. We used azido (N(3)) - modified Lysostaphin-N(3) and DIBO-dye in a two-step bacteria-labeling protocol. N(3) and DIBO (di-benzocyclooctyne) are the counterparts of the "click" chemistry. In the first step, Lysostaphin-N(3) binds specifically to Staphylococcus aureus. In the second step, N(3) clicks to DIBO thus achieving the selective for S. aureus labeling. Such a two-step approach effectively distinguishes S. aureus from Escherichia coli; non-toxic and proved to work in vivo. The two-step labeling protocol is a promising approach for diagnostic imaging of staphylococci in clinical settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tremendous advances in quality, reliability, performance and versatility of surgical instrumentation and devices have been achieved over the past 50 years using biomaterials. The global orthopedic implant industry is expected to grow to $41.8 billion by 2016, driven primarily by advancements in implant designs, including materials that provide improved biocompatibility, durability, and expanded clinical applications. Biomaterials have evolved through three clinical "generations": 1) "bio-inert materials"; 2) materials with intrinsic bioactivity and degradability; and 3) biomaterials that stimulate specific biological host responses. In all cases, surface modifications, including coatings, represent a key strategy for improvements in tissue-contacting properties. Surfaces continue to be a focus for many device improvements and for tissue interfacing, especially for many orthopedic structural implants comprising metal and metal alloys. Progress in implant materials processing, coating technologies, and coating combinations with therapeutic agents provide new properties and functionalities to improve device-tissue integration and reduce foreign body reactions and infections. Performance criteria for these surface modifications success in clinical practice are daunting, and translation of several technologies from in vitro proof-of-concept to in vivo applications has proven challenging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 1162–1167
The use of implanted devices in modern orthopaedic surgery has greatly improved the quality of life for an increasing number of patients, by facilitating the rapid and effective healing of bone after traumatic fractures, and restoring mobility after joint replacement. However, the presence of an implanted device results in an increased susceptibility to infection for the patient, owing to the creation of an immunologically compromised zone adjacent to the implant. Within this zone, the ability of the host to clear contaminating bacteria may be compromised, and this can lead to biofilm formation on the surface of the biomaterial. Currently, there are only limited data on the mechanisms behind this increased risk of infection and the role of material choice. The impacts of implant material on bacterial adhesion, immune response and infection susceptibility have been investigated individually in numerous preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies. These data provide an indication that material choice does have an impact on infection susceptibility; however, the clinical implications remain to be clearly determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical modeling of human disease with animals has not been standardized for many common pathologic processes. Assorted animal models are being used to investigate the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of disease processes. Certainly it is difficult to interpret the current literature because there are diverse and often irrelevant models being implemented. Some models are used for reasons of size or ease rather than the true modeling of a physiological process. Application to granting agencies and design of animal studies is difficult without standardization of the ideal preclinical model for disease states. The current article addresses the preclinical animal modeling of osteoporosis, infection, bone defects, and cartilage injury. This article is a discussion of the current literature, commonly used models, and suggests preferred preclinical models for future research design.