[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two different humanized immunoglobulin G1(kappa) antibodies and an Fab' fragment were produced by Aspergillus niger. The antibodies were secreted into the culture supernatant. Both light and heavy chains were initially synthesized as fusion proteins with native glucoamylase. After antibody assembly, cleavage by A. niger KexB protease allowed the release of free antibody. Purification by hydrophobic charge induction chromatography proved effective at removing any antibody to which glucoamylase remained attached. Glycosylation at N297 in the Fc region of the heavy chain was observed, but this site was unoccupied on approximately 50% of the heavy chains. The glycan was of the high-mannose type, with some galactose present, and the size ranged from Hex(6)GlcNAc(2) to Hex(15)GlcNAc(2). An aglycosyl mutant form of antibody was also produced. No significant difference between the glycosylated antibody produced by Aspergillus and that produced by mammalian cell cultures was observed in tests for affinity, avidity, pharmacokinetics, or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), or PNIPAAm, is considered a "smart" polymer because it sharply precipitates when heated above a critical temperature, about 32 degrees C in water, and redissolves when cooled. Conjugates made of PNIPAAm and IgG antibodies also exhibit the same critical temperature behavior. Interestingly, antigens that are complexed with these conjugates can also be phase-separated along with the conjugates. In this work, we conjugated PNIPAAm for the first time to the immunoglobulin Fv fragment, the smallest fragment of an antibody that still retains the antigenic affinity of the whole antibody. For our studies, we used an Fv fragment that strongly binds hen egg white lysozyme (HEL). The purified Fv fragment-polymer conjugate precipitated at the same temperature as did the pure polymer. After addition of the conjugate to a mixture containing HEL and after thermal separation of the conjugate at 37 degrees C, the amount of HEL in solution was reduced by as much as 80%. We were able to demonstrate the reversibility of the separation through three cycles of precipitation and dissolution. It was also possible to recover free HEL by thermal separation of the conjugate in the presence of an eluant, 50 mM diethylamine. The conjugate can then be recycled for second use. In conclusion, immunoseparations can be performed using smart polymer conjugates made with just the variable domains of an antibody. Unlike whole antibodies, fragments of antibodies can be produced in Escherichia coli, allowing easier genetic engineering of the antibody and tailoring of the conjugate.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 08/2002; 79(3):271-6. DOI:10.1002/bit.10315 · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many medical and biotechnological processes rely on controlling and manipulating the molecular-recognition capabilities of proteins. This can be achieved using small molecules capable of competing for protein binding or by changing environmental parameters that affect protein structure and hence binding. An alternative is provided by stimuli-responsive polymers that change reversibly from a water-soluble expanded coil to a water-insoluble collapsed globule upon small changes in temperature, pH or light intensity: when attached to proteins in the vicinity of their binding sites, they reversibly block and release small ligands. Here we show how this approach can be extended to achieve size-selective binding of large, macromolecular ligands. We use the thermally responsive polymer poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (PDEAAm), and attach it to the protein streptavidin approximately 20 A from the binding site for biotinylated proteins. Below the lower critical solution temperature of PDEAAm, the polymer is in its extended state and acts as a 'shield' to block the binding of large biotinylated proteins; above this temperature, it collapses and exposes the binding site, thereby allowing binding. We find that the degree of shielding depends on both the size of the biotinylated protein and the size of PDEAAm, suggesting that 'smart' polymer shields could be tailored to achieve a wide range of size-dependent ligand discrimination for use in affinity separations, biosensors and diagnostics technologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past 18 years we have been deeply involved with the synthesis and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems, especially polymer-biomolecule conjugates. This article summarizes our work with one of these conjugate systems, specifically polymer-protein conjugates. We include conjugates prepared by random polymer conjugation to lysine amino groups, and also those prepared by site-specific conjugation of the polymer to specific amino acid sites that are genetically engineered into the known amino acid sequence of the protein. We describe the preparation and properties of thermally sensitive random conjugates to enzymes and several affinity recognition proteins. We have also prepared site-specific conjugates to streptavidin with temperature-sensitive polymers, pH-sensitive polymers, and light-sensitive polymers. The preparation of these conjugates and their many fascinating applications are reviewed in this article.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 01/2001; 52(4):577-86.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A versatile strategy has been developed for selectively and sequentially isolating targets in a liquid-phase affinity separation environment. The strategy uses a recently developed approach for joining together molecules in linkages that are defined by the complementary pairing of oligonucleotides conjugated to the different molecules [Niemeyer, C. M., Sano, T., Smith, C. L., and Cantor, C. R. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 5530-9]. In the work presented here, streptavidin was noncovalently coupled with the temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [poly(NIPAAM)] through the sequence-specific hybridization of oligonucleotides conjugated to the protein and polymer. A 20-mer oligonucleotide was covalently linked through a heterobifunctional linker to a genetically engineered streptavidin variant that contained a unique cysteine residue at the solvent-accessible site Glu 116. The complementary DNA sequence was conjugated to the end of a linear ester-activated poly(NIPAAM). The two conjugates were allowed to self-assemble in solution via hybridization of their complementary DNA sequences. The streptavidin-poly(NIPAAM) complex could be used to affinity-precipitate radiolabeled biotin or biotinylated alkaline phosphatase above 32 degrees C through the thermally induced phase separation activity of the poly(NIPAAM). The streptavidin-oligo species could then be reversibly separated from the precipitated polymer-oligo conjugate and recycled by lowering the salt concentration, which results in denaturation of the short double-stranded DNA connection. The use of oligonucleotides to couple polymer to streptavidin allows for selective precipitation of different polymers and streptavidin complexes based on the sequence-specific hybridization of their oligonucleotide appendages.